摘要： Neogene strata rich in fossil mammals are well exposed in central Nei Mongol, China. Over a dozen mammalian faunas in chronological succession from Early Miocene to Early Pliocene were discerned in this region, and they built a fundamental part of the Neogene land mammal biochronological system in northern China. Tuchengzi was first recognized for producing abundant mammalian fossils during the Sino-Soviet Paleontological Expedition (SSPE) initiated in 1959. However, all unearthed fossils from the SSPE were either large- or middle-sized mammals, and small mammal fossils in the Tuchengzi Fauna were deficient for a long time. The composition and biochronological position of the Tuchengzi Fauna in the Neogene mammalian biochronological system in northern China was not particularly clear. The new fossils here reported are represented by 6 taxa of small mammals. Based on the co-occurrence of Lophocricetus grabaui, Sinocricetus zdanskyi, Prosiphneus licenti, Hansdebruijnia pusilla, and Moschus grandaevus, the age of the Tuchengzi Fauna is constrained to late Late Miocene or Baodean Chinese Land Mammal Age, slighter younger than the Baogeda Ula Fauna and older than the Ertemte Fauna. Judging from the fossil composition, the Tuchengzi Fauna possibly inhabited a forest-steppe mixed habitat during the late Late Miocene.
摘要： New fossils pertaining to the oldest known Asian plesiadapiform, the Gashatan carpolestid Subengius mengi, clarify aspects of the dental anatomy of this taxon. The dentition of S. mengi is substantially more primitive than previously recognized in retaining a lower dental formula of 184.108.40.206, a low-crowned p4 with three main cusps that are less fully connate than their counterparts in species of Elphidotarsius, P3 with a narrower and structurally simpler lingual margin, and in lacking widely splayed paraconid and metaconid on m1. The unique structure of P3 in S. mengi and a reassessment of P3 anatomy in Elphidotarsius sp., cf. E. florencae, suggest that certain cusp homologies on P3 in Carpolestidae have been misinterpreted in the past. Following a detailed character analysis, the phylogenetic relationships of carpolestids and their close relatives are reconstructed. The Bumbanian taxon Chronolestes simul is recovered as the most basal member of Carpolestidae. S. mengi and a second Bumbanian taxon, Carpocristes oriens, also appear to be relatively basal members of the carpolestid radiation, although none of these Asian carpolestid taxa seems to be specially related to each other. Dispersal of carpolestids between Asia and North America appears to have been restricted to earlier parts of the Paleocene, although carpolestids survived on both continents until sometime near the Paleocene–Eocene boundary.