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  • Effect of coir geotextile and geocell on ephemeral gully erosion in the Mollisol region of Northeast China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2024-04-15 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: The unique geomorphological features and farming methods in the Mollisol region of Northeast China increase water catchment flow and aggravate the erosion of ephemeral gully (EG). Vegetation suffers from rain erosion and damage during the growth stage, which brings serious problems to the restoration of grass in the early stage. Therefore, effects of coir geotextile and geocell on EG erosion under four confluence intensities were researched in this study. Results of the simulated water discharge erosion test showed that when the confluence strength was less than 30 L/min, geocell and coir geotextile had a good effect on controlling EG erosion, and sediment yield of geocell and coir geotextile was reduced by 25.95%–37.82% and 73.73%–88.96%, respectively. However, when confluence intensity increased to 40 L/min, protective effect of coir geotextile decreased, and sediment yield rate increased sharply by 189.03%. When confluence intensity increased to 50 L/min, the protective effect of coir geotextile was lost. On the other hand, geocell showed that the greater the flow rate, the better the protective effect. In addition, with the increase in confluence intensity, erosion pattern of coir geotextile developed from sheet erosion to intermittent fall and then to completion of main rill, and the protective effect was gradually weakened. In contrast, the protective effect of EG under geocell was gradually enhanced from the continuous rill to the intermittent rill and finally to the intermittent fall. This study shows that coir geotextile and geocell can prevent EG erosion, and the effect of geocell is better than that of coir geotextile on the surface of EG.

  • Effects of long-term fencing on soil microbial community structure and function in the desert steppe, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2024-03-13 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: One of the goals of grazing management in the desert steppe is to improve its ecosystem. However, relatively little is known about soil microbe communities in the desert steppe ecosystem under grazing management. In this study, we investigated the diversity and aboveground biomass of Caragana korshinskii Kom. shrub communities in long-term fencing and grazing areas, combined with an analysis of soil physical-chemical properties and genomics, with the aim of understanding how fence management affects plant-soil-microbial inter-relationships in the desert steppe, China. The results showed that fence management (exclosure) increased plant diversity and aboveground biomass in C. korshinskii shrub area and effectively enhanced soil organic carbon (233.94%), available nitrogen (87.77%), and available phosphorus (53.67%) contents. As well, the Shannon indices of soil bacteria and fungi were greater in the fenced plot. Plant-soil changes profoundly affected the alpha- and beta-diversity of soil bacteria. Fence management also altered the soil microbial community structure, significantly increasing the relative abundances of Acidobacteriota (5.31%–8.99%), Chloroflexi (3.99%–5.58%), and Glomeromycota (1.37%–3.28%). The soil bacterial-fungal co-occurrence networks under fence management had higher complexity and connectivity. Based on functional predictions, fence management significantly increased the relative abundance of bacteria with nitrification and nitrate reduction functions and decreased the relative abundance of bacteria with nitrate and nitrite respiration functions. The relative abundances of ecologically functional fungi with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprotrophs also significantly increased under fence management. In addition, the differential functional groups of bacteria and fungi were closely related to plant-soil changes. The results of this study have significant positive implications for the ecological restoration and reconstruction of dry desert steppe and similar areas.

  • Effects of land-use patterns on soil microbial diversity and composition in the Loess Plateau, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2024-03-13 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: In the Loess Plateau of China, land-use pattern is a major factor in controlling underlying biological processes. Additionally, the process of land-use pattern was accompanied by abandoned lands, potentially impacting soil microbe. However, limited researches were conducted to study the impacts of land-use patterns on the diversity and community of soil microorganisms in this area. The study aimed to investigate soil microbial community diversity and composition using high-throughput deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing under different land-use patterns (apricot tree land, apple tree land, peach tree land, corn land, and abandoned land). The results showed a substantial difference (P<0.050) in bacterial alpha-diversity and beta-diversity between abandoned land and other land-use patterns, with the exception of Shannon index. While fungal beta-diversity was not considerably impacted by land-use patterns, fungal alpha-diversity indices varied significantly. The relative abundance of Actinobacteriota (34.90%), Proteobacteria (20.65%), and Ascomycota (77.42%) varied in soils with different land-use patterns. Soil pH exerted a dominant impact on the soil bacterial communities' composition, whereas soil available phosphorus was the main factor shaping the soil fungal communities' composition. These findings suggest that variations in land-use pattern had resulted in changes to soil properties, subsequently impacting diversity and structure of microbial community in the Loess Plateau. Given the strong interdependence between soil and its microbiota, it is imperative to reclaim abandoned lands to maintain soil fertility and sustain its function, which will have significant ecological service implications, particularly with regards to soil conservation in ecologically vulnerable areas.

  • Ecological effect of the plantation of Sabina vulgaris in the Mu Us Sandy Land, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2024-01-12 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Vegetation restoration through artificial plantation is an effective method to combat desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study aimed to explore the ecological effect of the plantation of Sabina vulgaris on soil physical and chemical properties on the southeastern fringe of the Mu Us Sandy Land, China. We collected soil samples from five depth layers (020, 2040, 4060, 6080, and 80100 cm) in the S. vulgaris plantation plots across four plantation ages (4, 7, 10, and 16 years) in November 2019, and assessed soil physical (soil bulk density, soil porosity, and soil particle size) and chemical (soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), cation-exchange capacity (CEC), salinity, pH, and C/N ratio) properties. The results indicated that the soil predominantly consisted of sand particles (94.27%99.67%), with the remainder being silt and clay. As plantation age increased, silt and very fine sand contents progressively rose. After 16 years of planting, there was a marked reduction in the mean soil particle size. The initial soil fertility was low and declined from 4 to 10 years of planting before witnessing an improvement. Significant positive correlations were observed for the clay, silt, and very fine sand (mean diameter of 0.0000.100 mm) with SOC, AK, and pH. In contrast, fine sand and medium sand (mean diameter of 0.1000.500 mm) showed significant negative correlations with these indicators. Our findings ascertain that the plantation of S. vulgaris requires 10 years to effectively act as a windbreak and contribute to sand fixation, and needs 16 years to improve soil physical and chemical properties. Importantly, these improvements were found to be highly beneficial for vegetation restoration in arid and semi-arid areas. This research can offer valuable insights for the protection and restoration of the vegetation ecosystem in the sandy lands in China.

  • Parkland trees on smallholder farms ameliorate soil physical-chemical properties in the semi-arid area of Tigray, Ethiopia

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2024-01-12 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Proposed agroforestry options should begin with the species that farmers are most familiar with, which would be the native multipurpose trees that have evolved under smallholder farms and socioeconomic conditions. The African birch (Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. Perr.) and pink jacaranda (Stereospermum kunthianum Cham.) trees are the dominant species in the agroforestry parkland system in the drylands of Tigray, Ethiopia. Smallholder farmers highly value these trees for their multifunctional uses including timber, firewood, charcoal, medicine, etc. These trees also could improve soil fertility. However, the amount of soil physical and chemical properties enhanced by the two species must be determined to maintain the sustainable conservation of the species in the parklands and to scale up to similar agro- ecological systems. Hence, we selected twelve isolated trees, six from each species that had similar dendrometric characteristics and were growing in similar environmental conditions. We divided the canopy cover of each tree into three radial distances: mid-canopy, canopy edge, and canopy gap (control). At each distance, we took soil samples from three different depths. We collected 216 soil samples (half disturbed and the other half undisturbed) from each canopy position and soil depth. Bulk density (BD), soil moisture content (SMC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were analysed. Results revealed that soil physical and chemical properties significantly improved except for soil texture and EC under both species, CEC under A. leiocarpus, and soil pH under S. kunthianum, all the studied soils were improved under both species canopy as compared with canopy gap. SMC, TN, AP, and AK under canopy of these trees were respectively 24.1%, 11.1%, 55.0%, and 9.3% higher than those soils under control. The two parkland agroforestry species significantly enhanced soil fertility near the canopy of topsoil through improving soil physical and chemical properties. These two species were recommended in the drylands with similar agro-ecological systems.

  • Leguminosae plants play a key role in affecting soil physical-chemical and biological properties during grassland succession after farmland abandonment in the Loess Plateau, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-10-17 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Leguminosae are an important part of terrestrial ecosystems and play a key role in promoting soil nutrient cycling and improving soil properties. However, plant composition and species diversity change rapidly during the process of succession, the effect of leguminosae on soil physical-chemical and biological properties is still unclear. This study investigated the changes in the composition of plant community, vegetation characteristics, soil physical-chemical properties, and soil biological properties on five former farmlands in China, which had been abandoned for 0, 5, 10, 18, and 30 a. Results showed that, with successional time, plant community developed from annual plants to perennial plants, the importance of Leguminosae and Asteraceae significantly increased and decreased, respectively, and the importance of grass increased and then decreased, having a maximum value after 5 a of abandonment. Plant diversity indices increased with successional time, and vegetation coverage and above- and below-ground biomass increased significantly with successional time after 5 a of abandonment. Compared with farmland, 30 a of abandonment significantly increased soil nutrient content, but total and available phosphorus decreased with successional time. Changes in plant community composition and vegetation characteristics not only change soil properties and improve soil physical-chemical properties, but also regulate soil biological activity, thus affecting soil nutrient cycling. Among these, Leguminosae have the greatest influence on soil properties, and their importance values and community composition are significantly correlated with soil properties. Therefore, this research provides more scientific guidance for selecting plant species to stabilize soil ecosystem of farmland to grassland in the Loess Plateau, China.

  • Combination of artificial zeolite and microbial fertilizer to improve mining soils in an arid area of Inner Mongolia, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-10-17 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Restoration of mining soils is important to the vegetation and environment. This study aimed to explore the variations in soil nutrient contents, microbial abundance, and biomass under different gradients of substrate amendments in mining soils to select effective measures. Soil samples were collected from the Bayan Obo mining region in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Contents of soil organic matter (SOM), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), microbial biomass carbon/microbial biomass nitrogen (MBC/MBN) ratio, biomass, and bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes abundance were assessed in Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn., Elymus dahuricus Turcz., and Medicago sativa L. soils with artificial zeolite (AZ) and microbial fertilizer (MF) applied at T0 (0 g/kg), T1 (5 g/kg), T2 (10 g/kg), and T3 (20 g/kg). Redundancy analysis (RDA) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) were used to identify the main factors controlling the variation of biomass. Results showed that chemical indices and microbial content of restored soils were far greater than those of control. The application of AZ significantly increases SOM, AN, and AP by 20.27%, 23.61%, and 40.43%, respectively. AZ significantly increased bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes abundance by 0.63, 3.12, and 1.93 times of control, respectively. RDA indicated that AN, MBC/MBN ratio, and SOM were dominant predictors for biomass across samples with AZ application, explaining 87.6% of the biomass variance. SOM, MBC/MBN ratio, and AK were dominant predictors with MF application, explaining 82.9% of the biomass variance. TOPSIS indicated that T2 was the best dosage and the three plant species could all be used to repair mining soils. AZ and MF application at T2 concentration in the mining soils with M. sativa was found to be the most appropriate measure.

  • 河套灌区不同配置农田防护林对田间土壤水分和养分储量的影响

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-26 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 农田防护林作为提高生态环境效益的有效农业管理方式,对改善土壤理化性质、改善生态环境,提高作物产量具有重要意义。在河套灌区选择三种典型农田防护林(4行林带、5行林带和8行林带)测量了20192021年生长季农田内距防护林0.3 H、0.7 H、1 H、2 H、3 H和4 H处0~100 cm的土壤性质和防护林与农田的植被属性,测算了土壤水分储量(SMS)和土壤养分储量[碳储量(SCS)、氮储量(SNS)和磷储量(SPS)]。结果表明:(1)不同防护林系统水平方向上的土壤容重和土壤黏粒含量差异显著,在垂直方向上土壤属性均有显著差异。(2)防护林具有较好的保水性和养分供应功能,其中4行林带的土壤水分储量和养分储量高于其他林带,分别为SMS 237.44 mm、SCS 544.93 gm-2、SNS 953.72 gm-2和SPS 859.04 gm-2。(3)4行林带的整体长势比较好,其平均树高为30.06 m,胸径为0.41 m,且4行防护林的作物产量最高,为15.75 thm-2。(4)冗余分析结果显示,不同防护林系统中,环境因子与生态系统功能之间存在密切关系,土壤特性与土壤水分和养分储量关系密切,另外,植被属性与SNS和SPS基本呈负相关。综上所述,4行林带的水分养分供给能力最强,本研究结果可为生态脆弱地区的防护林建设和生态修复提供有效的理论依据。

  • 基于随机森林算法的土壤含盐量预测

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-26 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 快速监测区域土壤盐渍化信息,对于盐渍化治理与生态环境保护具有重要意义。本文以Sentinel-2A和Landsat8 OLI遥感影像为数据源,以银川平原为研究区,利用谷歌地球引擎(Google Earth Engine,GEE)平台,基于随机森林算法,通过建立光谱指数特征与地面实测土壤含盐量之间的关系,进行土壤含盐量估算。结果表明:GEE能够为土壤含盐量预测提供可靠的数据支撑;以Sentinel-2A为数据源建立的随机森林模型具有更好的预测精度(R2=0.789,RMSE=1.487),优于Landsat8 OLI,可用于土壤含盐量高分辨率遥感估算,能够为大尺度土壤含盐量监测工作提供理论支撑。

  • 洪水漫溢对塔里木河中游河岸胡杨林土壤有机碳及活性组分的影响

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-26 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 塔里木河生态输水使流域两岸洪水漫溢强度增加,进而对河岸胡杨林生态系统碳循环产生了重要影响。以塔里木河中游周期性洪水漫溢区胡杨林为研究对象,测定并分析河岸胡杨林洪水漫溢过程中漫溢前(W1)、漫溢第4 d(W2)、漫溢第17 d(W3)和退水后(W4)4个不同阶段1 m土体有机碳及活性组分含量的变化特征。结果表明:(1)SOC(土壤有机碳)含量在漫溢前均高于漫溢后;洪水漫溢对0~20 cm土层SOC含量的影响较20~100 cm土层显著;在同一阶段内,随着土层的深入,SOC含量呈降低趋势。(2)0~10 cm及40~100 cm土层的土壤DOC(可溶性有机碳)、MBC(微生物生物量碳)含量在漫溢第4 d较漫溢前均显著升高,但随着漫溢时间的延长,其含量逐渐降低,且各阶段间差异显著(P<0.05);同一土层随漫溢时间的延长DOC/SOC、MBC/SOC差异显著(P<0.05)。(3)漫溢前0~10cm土层EOC(易氧化有机碳)含量高于漫溢后,其他土层EOC含量则表现为漫溢期高于漫溢前及退水后;0~10 cm、20~60 cm土层EOC/SOC在不同漫溢阶段间差异显著(P<0.05)。(4)漫溢前至漫溢第17 d SOC与DOC含量呈极显著正相关(r>0.69,n=15),退水后EOC和DOC呈显著正相关(r=0.54,n=15),漫溢前SOC和DOC含量与漫溢后各阶段含量之间相关性显著。综上所述,塔里木河中游洪水漫溢过程对河岸胡杨林SOC及活性组分分布产生了显著影响,并且各组分的敏感土层不同,SOC以0~20 cm土层影响最为显著,DOC、MBC以0~10 cm及40~100 cm土层影响最为显著,EOC则为20~60 cm土层影响最为显著,其变化规律具有森林和湿地的双重特征。

  • 蒸散分离的玉米水分利用效率变化及影响因素

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-25 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 水分利用效率(WUE)是农田生态系统碳水循环的重要指标,对指导农业灌溉和提高水分生产力有重要意义。宁夏灌区是我国地处干旱气候带的大型灌区,其中,玉米种植面积最大。在涡度通量观测农田生态系统实际蒸散发(ET)的基础上,利用氢氧稳定同位素法将蒸散发分割为土壤蒸发(evaporation,E)、植物蒸腾(transpiration,T),并通过光能利用模型估算宁夏引黄灌区典型玉米农田生态系统的总初级生产力(GPP),计算群体水分利用效率WUET=GPP/T、生态系统水分利用效率WUEET=GPP/ET 以及固有水分利用效率(Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency)IWUEVPD=(GPPVPD)/ET三种水分利用效率,进而从函数响应关系、相关性以及敏感性三个方面分析不同水分利用效率与气温、饱和水汽压差(VPD)、CO2浓度、光合有效辐射以及土壤含水量等环境因子之间的关系。结果表明:宁夏引黄灌区玉米农田生态系统生长季的实际蒸散发变化呈单驼峰型,作物蒸腾与实际蒸散发的变化趋势相一致。WUET在生育期内呈W型变化,WUEET与IWUEVPD在生育期内呈单峰型变化,三种WUE的峰值出现在抽雄期,分别达到5.90 kg Cm-3H2O、5.02 kg Cm-3H2O和32.90 kg ChPam-3H2O,灌浆后期三种水分利用效率开始降低,玉米成熟晚期由于蒸腾微弱所以WUET略有增加。WUET、WUEET和IWUEVPD与土壤含水量显著正相关,相关度和敏感性最强;VPD与三种WUE显著负相关,相关度和敏感性最强次之;气温、光合有效辐射以及CO2浓度与三种WUE的负相关性但不是敏感因素。因此,在宁夏引黄灌区土壤水分和VPD是影响玉米农田生态系统WUE的关键因素。

  • 毛乌素沙地不同林龄杨柴灌木林土壤呼吸及其影响因素

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-25 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 为探究沙漠化逆转过程中林地土壤呼吸速率和通量变化趋势及其主要影响因子,本文选择毛乌素沙地林龄为9 a、18 a和30 a杨柴人工灌木林和未造林流动沙地(CK),用Li-8100A土壤碳通量监测系统对土壤呼吸速率进行定位观测,并对主要环境影响因子进行了测定。结果表明:(1)土壤呼吸速率和通量均在植物生长季510月呈现出先升高后降低的单峰曲线变化规律,最高值出现在7月。(2)土壤呼吸速率和通量随杨柴林龄增长呈持续增加趋势,而呼吸速率温度敏感性(Q10)则呈持续下降趋势。生长季510月杨柴林各样地土壤呼吸平均速率大小为:30 a(2.16 molm-2s-1)>18 a(1.98 molm-2s-1)>9 a(1.41 molm-2s-1)>CK(0.24 molm-2s-1);土壤呼吸碳通量值大小顺序为:30 a(365.74 g Cm-2)>18 a(313.63 g Cm-2)>9 a(218.66 g Cm-2)>CK(40.08 g Cm-2)。(3)CK、9 a和18 a样地土壤呼吸速率季节性变化主要受土壤温度和水分的耦合作用(P<0.01),而30 a样地的主控因子为土壤温度(P<0.01)。(4)土壤呼吸碳通量与植被生物量、土壤有机碳和全氮含量均呈显著正相关关系(P<0.05)。

  • 降雨频率对甘南尕海湿草甸土壤碳氮磷化学计量特征的影响

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-25 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 降雨是湿地水资源补给量和土壤呼吸的重要扰动因子,全球气候变化导致的未来极端降雨变率增大对湿地生态系统有着重要影响。为探究极端降雨频率下青藏高原湿草甸土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)含量及化学计量比的变化特征,本文以青藏高原东北边缘碌曲县尕海-则岔自然保护区境内的湿草甸土壤为研究对象,设置空白对照(CK:0 mm)、每周浇灌一次(DF1:25 mm19次)、每两周浇灌一次(DF2:25 mm9次)、每三周浇灌一次(DF3:25 mm6次)和每四周浇灌一次(DF4:25 mm4次)5种处理,分析极端降雨频率下0~40 cm土层土壤SOC、TN和TP化学计量特征的变化规律。结果表明:在不同降雨频率下,土壤SOC含量随降雨频率增加而增加,TN和TP含量则与之相反。在土壤垂直剖面上,SOC和TN含量均随土层深度增加而降低,TP含量随土层深度增加无显著变化;C:P和N:P均随土层加深有所降低,而C:N随土层加深无显著变化;C:N、C:P和N:P在不同降雨频率间差异不显著;此外,随着时间的推进,土壤SOC含量在生长季不同月份呈现先增后减的变化趋势,TN含量则呈现先减后增的变化趋势,而TP含量呈M型变化趋势。因此,随着全球降雨格局变化程度持续增加,较高的降雨频率会加剧高寒湿草甸浅层土壤氮磷含量的流失,造成高寒湿草甸水环境富营养化的危害加剧。

  • 呼伦贝尔沙地樟子松人工林土壤细菌网络特征

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-08-25 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 为揭示呼伦贝尔沙地樟子松人工林土壤细菌相互关系,以呼伦贝尔沙地不同林龄樟子松人工林(25 a、34a和43 a)为研究对象,以沙质草地为对照,采用分子生态网络分析法对不同土层(0~10 cm和10~20 cm)土壤细菌群落进行比较分析。结果表明:(1)从25 a到43 a,土壤细菌网络总边数增多,平均路径长度降低。土壤深度由0~10cm到10~20 cm,人工林土壤细菌网络总边数减少,平均路径长度升高。与沙质草地相比,人工林土壤细菌网络总边数较少。(2)25 a人工林关键菌种隶属于嗜酸菌目(Acidimicrobiales)、RB41 和MB-A2-108,34 a人工林关键菌种隶属于Gaiellales,43 a人工林关键菌种隶属于Gaiellales、RB41、Subgroup_7、Subgroup_6、和DA101_soil_group,草地关键菌种隶属于匿杆菌门(Latescibacteria)。(3)全氮、氨氮、微生物碳含量和脲酶酶活性对土壤细菌网络中具有高中介中心性的部分细菌有显著正相关影响(P<0.05);转化酶和过氧化氢酶活性、土壤含水量以及速效磷含量对土壤细菌网络中具有高中介中心性的部分细菌有显著负相关影响(P<0.05);土壤有机质对土壤细菌网络中具有高中介中心性的部分细菌既有显著正相关影响又有显著负相关影响(P<0.05)。樟子松人工林从25 a到43 a,土壤细菌网络愈加复杂和紧密,土壤深度由0~10 cm到10~20 cm,网络复杂性和紧密度降低;与草地相比,人工林土壤细菌网络复杂性较低。43 a人工林土壤细菌网络关键菌种类型数量最多。另外,土壤细菌网络受土壤有机质影响最大。研究结果有助于深入理解呼伦贝尔沙地樟子松人工林土壤细菌群落,并为呼伦贝尔沙地樟子松人工林的可持续经营提供科技支撑。

  • 西鄂尔多斯珍稀濒危沙冬青及伴生种对土壤特征的影响

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-05-30 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 为探究荒漠灌丛及其伴生种对灌丛下土壤粒径、养分空间异质性的影响,以西鄂尔多斯国家级自然保护区内沙冬青(Ammopiptanthus mongolicus)-霸王(Sarcozygium xanthoxylon)混生群落、单株沙冬青为研究对象,以周围无植被覆盖的裸沙地为对照(CK),对比分析不同灌丛分布类型下土壤粒度特征、养分积累变化及养分与粒度组成的作用关系。结果表明:(1)单株沙冬青土壤黏粒、粉粒、细砂的体积百分含量较沙冬青-霸王分别增加0.8%、0.8%、0.71%。随灌丛种类减少,土壤粒径依次变细,分选性变差,分形维数变小,土壤颗粒分布逐渐不对称,颗粒组成向细粒物质集中。(2)土壤有机质、碱解氮含量随灌丛种类的增多分别增加了1.85 gkg-1、8.18 mgkg-1。单株沙冬青对有机质、速效磷的富集作用较沙冬青-霸王更强,对碱解氮的积累效果较沙冬青-霸王稍差。(3)沙冬青-霸王土壤速效磷含量与细砂含量呈显著正相关(P

  • 科尔沁沙地樟子松人工林土壤水分动态及其对降雨的响应

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-05-30 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 在科尔沁沙地采用两行一带种植模式低密度栽培樟子松进行生态修复后,林地土壤水分动态及其对降雨的响应影响了同类型地区是否可以持续使用樟子松进行生态修复。为了研究科尔沁沙地南缘植被修复后土壤水分动态特征,本研究综合运用原位观测、数值模拟的方法,基于土壤水分实测数据校正Hydrus-1D模型,探究降雨-土壤水分响应关系。结果表明:(1)樟子松人工林显著改变了地区水分分布,裸沙地2.0 m处深层渗漏量占降雨量的44.16%,而樟子松林地深层渗漏量仅占降雨量的0.7%。(2)监测期内,0.4 m深度以下土壤水分对小雨无响应,土壤水分对中雨的响应深度可达1.0 m,对大雨和暴雨的响应深度涉及整个观测剖面。随着土壤深度的增加,水分波动幅度呈现减小的趋势。(3)降雨量和深度较浅的土壤体积含水量之间存在较强的相关关系,周期为周、半月的累计降雨量与各层土壤体积含水量显著相关;降雨量大于50 mm时,能保证对2.0 m处土壤水分的补给。(4)模型的决定系数范围在0.61~0.85,均方根误差范围在0.0061~0.0096 cm3cm-3,能较好地模拟研究区土壤水分的动态变化特征,且深层模拟精度高于浅层。研究结果对科尔沁沙地雨养型植被造林、生态恢复和水资源管理具有重要的意义。

  • 吉兰泰盐湖防护体系建立38 a 以来土壤养分特征

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-05-30 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 为了科学评价吉兰泰盐湖防护体系对土壤养分积累的影响。以吉兰泰盐湖防护体系不同防护体系类型(流沙固阻带、封沙育草带、防风阻沙带和盐湖防护林带)为研究对象,采用野外取样与室内实验相结合的方法,对其土壤养分积累状况进行对比研究,从而为吉兰泰盐湖防护林的管理提供理论依据。结果表明:(1)土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)、碱解氮(AN)和速效磷(AP)含量增加量分别介于0.45~1.92 gkg-1、0.03~0.58 gkg-1、0.15~0.43 gkg-1、1.33~13.31 mgkg-1和0.12~12.94 mgkg-1,且土层深度、防护体系类型及其二者的相互作用对土壤SOC、TN、TP和AP含量增加影响显著。(2)盐湖防护体系营建对0~100 cm土层土壤养分有显著正效应,且土层深度、防护体系类型及其二者的相互作用对土壤TP相对相互作用强度(RIITP)、AN相对相互作用强度(RIIAN)、AP相对相互作用强度(RIIAP)和总相对相互作用强度(RII总)影响显著。(3)土壤养分恢复指数表明盐湖防护体系内不同防护体系类型土壤养分均有不同程度提高,流沙固阻带、封沙育草带、防风阻沙带和盐湖防护林带土壤养分恢复指数分别为7.83%、37.72%、185.12%和252.36%。吉兰泰盐湖防护体系经过38 a的营建能有效促进土壤养分累积,有利于吉兰泰盐湖周边生态恢复和重建。

  • 乌兰布和沙漠草方格-灌木林对土壤水分物理性质的影响

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-05-30 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 为探讨乌兰布和沙漠典型防沙治沙生态工程实施后对土壤水分物理性质及持水性能的影响,以流沙地为对照、选择草方格沙障+两种乡土树种(梭梭、花棒)为主的防沙治沙工程为研究对象,采用野外取样与室内分析相结合的方法,对各样地0~100 cm深度内不同土层的土壤粒度组成、水分含量、容重、孔隙度、持水性能等进行了分析。结果表明:营建以草方格沙障+乡土树种为主的防沙治沙生态工程对沙地土壤水分物理性质及持水性能均有一定的改良作用。(1)表层土壤粒度组成整体出现细化趋势,土壤容重减小,土壤孔隙度增大,土壤持水量和贮水量增大,土壤持水性能明显提升。(2)乌兰布和沙漠典型防沙治沙生态工程实施后,土壤成土作用较明显、持水性能明显提升,沙化土地治理效果良好。研究结果可为区域防沙治沙的成效评估提供基础数据,同时也可为区域防沙治沙生态工程的类型选择提供科学依据和参考。

  • 六盘山半干旱区华北落叶松林坡面土壤含水量的降雨响应

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-05-30 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: 在宁夏六盘山外围半干旱区,土壤含水量是影响林木成活与生长的关键因子,需深入理解森林坡面不同坡位的土壤含水量对降雨量的响应差异。本文在宁夏六盘山叠叠沟小流域,选择一个华北落叶松人工林典型坡面,于2021年510月利用自动气象站和土壤水分仪连续监测降雨等气象条件和坡面土壤含水量变化,分析土壤含水量的坡位差异及对降雨量级的响应。观测期间总降水量为443.7 mm,虽然接近多年平均值,但夏季干旱严重。结果表明:(1)土壤含水量存在明显的生长季内变化,整体表现为先降低后升高的趋势,8月最低(0.112 m3m-3)。(2)土壤含水量存在明显的坡位差异,整体表现为:上坡([ 0.1910.044)m3m-3]>中坡([ 0.1580.045)m3m-3]>下坡([ 0.1460.034) m3m-3],表明土壤含水量的坡位变化因处于干旱年,主要受植被蒸散耗水量大小的影响,而受坡面汇流影响不大。(3)在同一降雨量级时,因受土壤孔隙度和持水能力、林下草本截持、优先流等的影响差异,中坡的土壤含水量对降雨量增加的响应最敏感,其次是上坡,下坡最不敏感。(4)在本研究区,降雨以

  • 古尔班通古特沙漠SMAP土壤水分产品降尺度分析

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-05-30 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要: SMAP(Soil Moisture Active Passive,SMAP)产品空间分辨率低的特征限制了在地表高异质性的干旱区沙漠稀疏植被区的适用性。考虑到干旱区沙漠植被区特殊的环境特征,在地表温度(Land Surface Temperature,LST)、归一化植被指数(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index,NDVI)、数字高程模型(Digital Elevation Model,DEM)等传统降尺度因子的基础上,增加了与荒漠地表土壤水分关联性更强的增强型修改土壤植被指数(Enhanced Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index,EMSAVI)与比值沙地亮度指数(Ratio Sand Brightness Index,RSBI)分别作为反映研究区植被盖度和裸沙分布状况的降尺度因子,利用随机森林算法(Random Forest,RF),构建了干旱区土壤水分降尺度模型。结果表明:(1)由相关性分析可知,EMSAVI(r 干=-0.37,r 湿=-0.34)、RSBI(r 干=-0.42,r 湿=-0.25)对荒漠土壤水分均有较好的指示作用且效果优于NDVI(r 干=-0.21,r 湿=0.08);(2)EMSAVI 和NDVI 重要性分别为18.7%、13.2%,EMSAVI在构建降尺度模型时贡献度更高。(3)构建的干、湿季干旱区土壤水分降尺度模型得到的结果与SMAP产品的R2分别达到了0.916,0.910,RMSE分别达到了0.0075 cm3cm-3、0.0063 cm3cm-3,较传统模型的RMSE均降低了0.0013 cm3cm-3。(4)通过计算LBP(Local Binary Patterns)的差值(LBPC)对空间一致性评价,新构建降尺度模型的结果(0.0585)优于传统降尺度(0.0645)。研究结果将短波红外波段引入到植被指数建立的EMSAVI,可较好地应用于干旱区沙漠稀疏植被区土壤水分降尺度研究。