• Temporal variation in sap-flow-scaled transpiration and cooling effect of a subtropical Schima superba plantation in the urban area of Guangzhou

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 提交时间: 2018-01-22

    摘要: Thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flux density for a Schima superba plantation growing in the urban area of Guangzhou city, South China. Stand transpiration was calculated by multiplying mean sap flux density by total sapwood area. The peak of sap flux density occurred later in wet season than in dry season. The maximum of daily sap flux density was the highest of 59 g m-2 s-1 in July and August, and the lowest of 28 g m-2 s-1 in December. During November 2007- October 2008 and during November 2008-October 2009, the stand transpiration was 263.2 and 291.6 mm, respectively. In the study periods, stand transpiration in wet season (from April to September) could account for about 58.5% and 53.8% of the annual transpiration, respectively. Heat energy absorbed by tree transpiration averaged 1.4×108 and 1.6×108 kJ per month in the Schima superba plantation with the area of 2885 m2, and temperature could be reduced by 4.3 and 4.7 oC s-1 for 10 m3 air.

  • Effects of landscape fragmentation of plantation forests on carbon storage in the Loess Plateau, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 林学 提交时间: 2024-02-21 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Tree plantation and forest restoration are the major strategies for enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change. The Grain for Green Project in China has positively impacted global carbon sequestration and the trend towards fragmentation of plantation forests. Limited studies have been conducted on changes in plantation biomass and stand structure caused by fragmentation, and the effect of fragmentation on the carbon storage of plantation forests remains unclear. This study evaluated the differences between carbon storage and stand structure in black locust forests in fragmented and continuous landscape in the Ansai District, China and discussed the effects of ecological significance of four landscape indices on carbon storage and tree density. We used structural equation modelling to explore the direct and indirect effects of fragmentation, edge, abiotic factors, and stand structure on above-ground carbon storage. Diameter at breast height (DBH) in fragmented forests was 53.3% thicker, tree density was 40.9% lower, and carbon storage was 49.8% higher than those in continuous forests; for all given DBH>10 cm, the trees in fragmented forests were shorter than those in continuous forests. The patch area had a negative impact on carbon storage, i.e., the higher the degree of fragmentation, the lower the density of the tree; and fragmentation and distance to edge (DTE) directly increased canopy coverage. However, canopy coverage directly decreased carbon storage, and fragmentation directly increased carbon storage and tree density. In non-commercial forests, fragmentation reduces the carbon storage potential of plantation, and the influence of patch area, edge, and patchy connection on plantation should be considered when follow-up trees are planted and for the plantation management. Thus, expanding the area of plantation patches, repairing the edges of complex-shaped patches, enhancing the connectivity of similar patches, and applying nutrients to plantation forests at regular intervals are recommended in fragmented areas of the Loess Plateau.

  • Effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and litter layer thickness on litter decomposition of two tree species in a semi-arid site of Northeast China

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2018-04-03 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Forests and grasslands in arid and semi-arid regions receive high-intensity ultraviolet (UV) radiation year-round. However, how the UV radiation affects the litter decomposition on the forest floor remains unclear. Here, we conducted a field-based experiment in 2011 in the southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northeast China, to investigate the effects of UV radiation, litter layer thickness, and their interaction on the mass loss and chemical properties of decomposing litter from Xiaozhuan poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica) and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation trees. We found that UV radiation accelerated the decomposition rates of both the Xiaozhuan poplar litter and Mongolian pine litter. For both species, the thick-layered litter had a lower mass loss than the thin-layered litter. The interaction between UV radiation and litter layer thickness significantly affected the litter mass loss of both tree species. However, the effects of UV radiation on the chemical properties of decomposing litter differed between the two species, which may be attributed to the contrasting initial leaf litter chemical properties and morphology. UV radiation mostly had positive effects on the lignin concentration and lignin/N ratio of Xiaozhuan poplar litter, while it had negative effects on the N concentration of Mongolian pine litter. Moreover, litter layer thickness and its interaction with UV radiation showed mostly positive effects on the N concentration and lignin/N ratio of Xiaozhuan poplar litter and the ratios of C/N and lignin/N of Mongolian pine litter, and mostly negative effects on the C/N ratio of Xiaozhuan poplar litter and the N concentration of Mongolian pine litter. Together, these results reveal the important roles played by UV radiation and litter layer thickness in the process of litter decomposition in this semi-arid region, and highlight how changes in the litter layer thickness can exert strong influences on the photodegradation of litter in tree plantations.

  • Carbon storage in a wolfberry plantation chronosequence established on a secondary saline land in an arid irrigated area of Gansu Province, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2018-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Carbon (C) storage has received significant attention for its relevance to agricultural security and climate change. Afforestation can increase C storage in terrestrial ecosystems, and has been recognized as an important measure to offset CO2 emissions. In order to analyze the C benefits of planting wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) on the secondary saline lands in arid areas, we conducted a case study on the dynamics of biomass carbon (BC) storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in different-aged wolfberry plantations (4-, 7- and 11-year-old) established on a secondary saline land as well as on the influence of wolfberry plantations on C storage in the plant-soil system in an arid irrigated area (Jingtai County) of Gansu Province, China. The C sequestration and its potential in the wolfberry plantations of Gansu Province were also evaluated. An intact secondary saline land was selected as control. Results show that wolfberry planting could decrease soil salinity, and increase BC, SOC and litter C storage of the secondary saline land significantly, especially in the first 4 years after planting. The aboveground and belowground BC storage values in the intact secondary saline land (control) accounted for only 1.0% and 1.2% of those in the wolfberry plantations, respectively. Compared to the intact secondary saline land, the SOC storage values in the 4-, 7- and 11-year-old wolfberry plantations increased by 36.4%, 37.3% and 43.3%, respectively, and the SOC storage in the wolfberry plantations occupied more than 92% of the ecosystem C storage. The average BC and SOC sequestration rates of the wolfberry plantations for the age group of 0–11 years were 0.73 and 3.30 Mg C/(hm2•a), respectively. There were no significant differences in BC and SOC storage between the 7-year-old and 11-year-old wolfberry plantations, which may be due in part to the large amounts of C offtakes in new branches and fruits. In Gansu Province, the C storage in the wolfberry plantations has reached up to 3.574 Tg in 2013, and the C sequestration potential of the existing wolfberry plantations was 0.134 Tg C/a. These results indicate that wolfberry planting is an ideal agricultural model to restore the degraded saline lands and increase the C sequestration capacity of agricultural lands in arid areas.

  • Ecological effect of the plantation of Sabina vulgaris in the Mu Us Sandy Land, China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2024-01-12 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Vegetation restoration through artificial plantation is an effective method to combat desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study aimed to explore the ecological effect of the plantation of Sabina vulgaris on soil physical and chemical properties on the southeastern fringe of the Mu Us Sandy Land, China. We collected soil samples from five depth layers (020, 2040, 4060, 6080, and 80100 cm) in the S. vulgaris plantation plots across four plantation ages (4, 7, 10, and 16 years) in November 2019, and assessed soil physical (soil bulk density, soil porosity, and soil particle size) and chemical (soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), cation-exchange capacity (CEC), salinity, pH, and C/N ratio) properties. The results indicated that the soil predominantly consisted of sand particles (94.27%99.67%), with the remainder being silt and clay. As plantation age increased, silt and very fine sand contents progressively rose. After 16 years of planting, there was a marked reduction in the mean soil particle size. The initial soil fertility was low and declined from 4 to 10 years of planting before witnessing an improvement. Significant positive correlations were observed for the clay, silt, and very fine sand (mean diameter of 0.0000.100 mm) with SOC, AK, and pH. In contrast, fine sand and medium sand (mean diameter of 0.1000.500 mm) showed significant negative correlations with these indicators. Our findings ascertain that the plantation of S. vulgaris requires 10 years to effectively act as a windbreak and contribute to sand fixation, and needs 16 years to improve soil physical and chemical properties. Importantly, these improvements were found to be highly beneficial for vegetation restoration in arid and semi-arid areas. This research can offer valuable insights for the protection and restoration of the vegetation ecosystem in the sandy lands in China.