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  • Distinguish the $f(T)$ model from $\Lambda$CDM model with Gravitational Wave observations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Separately, neither electromagnetic (EM) observations nor gravitational wave (GW) observations can distinguish between the $f(T)$ model and the $\Lambda$CDM model effectively. To break this degeneration, we simulate the GW measurement based on the coming observation facilities, explicitly the Einstein Telescope. We make cross-validations between the simulated GW data and factual EM data, including the Pantheon, H(z), BAO and CMBR data, and the results show that they are consistent with each other. Anyway, the EM data itself have the $H_0$ tension problem which plays critical role in the distinguishable problem as we will see. Our results show that the GW$+$BAO$+$CMBR data could distinguish the $f(T)$ theory from the $\Lambda$CDM model in $2\sigma$ regime.

  • A singularity problem for interacting massive vectors

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Interacting massive spin-1 fields have been widely used in cosmology and particle physics. We obtain a new condition on the validity of the classical limit of these theories related to the non-trivial constraints that exist for vector field components. A violation of this consistency condition causes a singularity in the time derivative of the auxiliary component and could impact, for example, the field's cosmic history and superradiance around black holes. Such a condition is expected to exist generically in many other non-trivially constrained systems.

  • Polarized Vector Oscillons

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Oscillons are spatially localized, time-periodic and long-lived configurations that were primarily proposed in scalar field theories with attractive self-interactions. In this letter, we demonstrate that oscillons also exist in the low-energy effective theory of an interacting massive (real) vector field. We provide two types of vector oscillons with vanishing orbital angular momentum, and approximately spherically symmetric energy density, but not field configurations. These are: (1) "directional" oscillons (linearly polarized), with vanishing total intrinsic spin, and (2) "spinning" oscillons (circularly polarized) with a macroscopic instrinsic spin equal to $\hbar\times$ number of particles in the oscillon. In contrast to the case with only gravitational interactions, the two oscillons have different energy at a fixed particle number even in the nonrelativistic limit. By carrying out relativistic $3+1$d simulations, we show that these oscillons can be long-lived (compared to the oscillation time for the fields), and can arise from a range of Gaussian initial spatial profiles. These considerations make vector oscillons potentially relevant during the early universe and in dark photon dark matter, with novel phenomenology related to their polarization.

  • Prospects for Constraining interacting dark energy cosmology with gravitational-wave bright sirens detected by future SKA-era pulsar timing arrays

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) have the potential to detect Nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) that are usually generated by the individual inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in the galactic centers. The GW signals as cosmological standard sirens can provide the absolute cosmic distances, thereby can be used to constrain the cosmological parameters. In this paper, we analyze the ability of future SKA-era PTAs to detect the existing SMBHBs candidates assuming the root mean square of timing noise $\sigma_t=20\ {\rm ns}$, and use the simulated PTA data to constrain the interacting dark energy (IDE) models with energy transfer rate $Q = \beta H\rho_c$. We find that, the future SKA-era PTAs will play an important role in constraining the IDE cosmology. Using only the mock PTA data consisting of 100 pulsars, we obtain $\sigma(H_0)=0.239\ {\rm km} \ {\rm s}^{-1} {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\sigma(\Omega_m)=0.0103$ in the I$\Lambda$CDM model, which are much better than the results from the Planck TT, TE, EE+lowE. However, the PTA data cannot provide a tight constraint on the coupling parameter $\beta$ compared with Planck, but the data combination of Planck+PTA can provide a rather tight constraint, i.e., $\sigma(\beta)=0.00232$, since the PTA data could break the parameter degeneracies inherent in CMB. In the I$w$CDM model, we obtain $\sigma(\beta)=0.00137$ and $\sigma(w)=0.0492$ from the Planck+PTA data combination. In addition, we also find that with the increase of the number of pulsars in PTA, the constraint results from the Planck+PTA will be further improved to some extent. We show that the observations of Nanohertz GWs with future SKA-era PTAs will provide a powerful tool for exploring the nature of dark energy and measuring the coupling between dark energy and dark matter.

  • Prospects for Constraining interacting dark energy cosmology with gravitational-wave bright sirens detected by future SKA-era pulsar timing arrays

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) have the potential to detect Nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) that are usually generated by the individual inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in the galactic centers. The GW signals as cosmological standard sirens can provide the absolute cosmic distances, thereby can be used to constrain the cosmological parameters. In this paper, we analyze the ability of future SKA-era PTAs to detect the existing SMBHBs candidates assuming the root mean square of timing noise $\sigma_t=20\ {\rm ns}$, and use the simulated PTA data to constrain the interacting dark energy (IDE) models with energy transfer rate $Q = \beta H\rho_c$. We find that, the future SKA-era PTAs will play an important role in constraining the IDE cosmology. Using only the mock PTA data consisting of 100 pulsars, we obtain $\sigma(H_0)=0.239\ {\rm km} \ {\rm s}^{-1} {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\sigma(\Omega_m)=0.0103$ in the I$\Lambda$CDM model, which are much better than the results from the Planck TT, TE, EE+lowE. However, the PTA data cannot provide a tight constraint on the coupling parameter $\beta$ compared with Planck, but the data combination of Planck+PTA can provide a rather tight constraint, i.e., $\sigma(\beta)=0.00232$, since the PTA data could break the parameter degeneracies inherent in CMB. In the I$w$CDM model, we obtain $\sigma(\beta)=0.00137$ and $\sigma(w)=0.0492$ from the Planck+PTA data combination. In addition, we also find that with the increase of the number of pulsars in PTA, the constraint results from the Planck+PTA will be further improved to some extent. We show that the observations of Nanohertz GWs with future SKA-era PTAs will provide a powerful tool for exploring the nature of dark energy and measuring the coupling between dark energy and dark matter.

  • Dual camera snapshot hyperspectral imaging system via physics informed learning

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We consider using the system's optical imaging process with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to solve the snapshot hyperspectral imaging reconstruction problem, which uses a dual-camera system to capture the three-dimensional hyperspectral images (HSIs) in a compressed way. Various methods using CNNs have been developed in recent years to reconstruct HSIs, but most of the supervised deep learning methods aimed to fit a brute-force mapping relationship between the captured compressed image and standard HSIs. Thus, the learned mapping would be invalid when the observation data deviate from the training data. Especially, we usually don't have ground truth in real-life scenarios. In this paper, we present a self-supervised dual-camera equipment with an untrained physics-informed CNNs framework. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that our method without training can be adapted to a wide imaging environment with good performance. Furthermore, compared with the training-based methods, our system can be constantly fine-tuned and self-improved in real-life scenarios.

  • Interaction between shrub encroachment and water infiltration on a hillslope at the typical Steppe

    分类: 地球科学 >> 水文学 提交时间: 2021-03-17

    摘要: The interaction between the surface hydrologic cycle and the shrub-encroached landscape at different slope positions remains poorly investigated. This study aims to explore the interaction between the water infiltration patterns affected by shrub encroachment at different hillslope positions. Soil water content and temperature were continuously measured at 10-min intervals at four or five depths under shrub patches and the grass matrix at four slope positions of a Caragana microphylla encroached hillslope from July 2009 to May 2013. The rainfall and meltwater infiltrations were estimated based on above data. Results showed that the rainfall infiltration ratios (IRs) at the grass matrix were as high as 0.78±0.08, except at the lower site, where it was only 0.47. The IRs of shrub patches increased from 0.38 at the top site to 0.77 at the lower site. The IRs were higher at the grass matrix than that at the shrub downslope edges at the top, upper, and middle sites of the hillslope due to the raised microtopography of the shrub mounds. However, at the lower site, IR was higher at the shrub patch than that at the grass matrix than due to more upper slope runoff input and higher infiltration capacity at the shrub patches. The preferential flow was not an important factor influencing the redistribution of water resources on the slope. Snow and ice were blown up by wind and accumulated in the shrub patches and their lees resulted higher water input to the shrub patches than that in the grass matrix during snowy years. Shrub encroachment changed the microtopography, soil property under different canopy and slope positions, and further affected the surface hydrological processes. The feedbacks between shrub encroachment and water infiltration varied at different sites of the hillslope and affected the development of shrub patches.

  • Ultra-Broadband Dispersion-Manipulated Dielectric Metalenses by Nonlinear Dispersive Phase Compensation

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Dispersion decomposes compound light into monochromatic components at different spatial locations, which needs to be eliminated in imaging but utilized in spectral detection. Metasurfaces provide a unique path to modulate the dispersion only by adjusting the structural parameters without changing the material as required for refractive elements. However, the common linear phase compensation does not conform to the dispersion characteristics of the meta-unit limiting dispersion modulation in broader wavelength bands, which is desired for ultra-broadband or multiband imaging. Here, we propose a nonlinear dispersive phase compensation method to design polarization-insensitive achromatic metalenses from 400 nm to 1000 nm constructed with single-layer high aspect ratio nanostructures. This band matches the response spectrum of a typical CMOS sensor for both visible and near-infrared imaging applications without additional lens replacement. Moreover, the capability of the method in achieving arbitrary dispersion modulation is demonstrated for applications such as chromatography imaging and spectral detection.

  • Quantification of red soil macropores affected by slope erosion and sediment using computed tomography

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2021-03-17

    摘要: Purpose Soil structures are the main course of the formation and development of collapsing gullies, which are the most severe type of erosion in south China. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between soil macropores, soil erosion, and local topography. This study aimed to quantify and compare soil properties and macropore characteristics in the collapsing gully region, and explore their influences on the formation and development of the associated erosion. Materials and methods Soil core columns at different positions of a typical collapsing gully were excavated, and then scanned to analyze soil macropores. Moreover, soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity were investigated in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Results and discussion The results indicated that the sand content increased from the ridge to the slope and the valley, while silt and clay contents decreased for the same catena. The mean weight diameter of aggregates was largest at the ridge and lowest at the valley. The infiltrate rates were highest at the valley and lowest at the slope. The valley had the greatest macroporosity (1.09±0.33%), and the highest number (5919±703), volumes (24.7±7.5 cm3) and surface (10.4±2.6 m2) of macropores, as well as the highest conectivity (42.3), while the slope had the smallest macroporosity (0.15±0.14%), and the smallest number (1189±747), volumes (3.4±3.2 cm3) and surface (1.7±1.4 m2) of macropores. The mean pore volume of macropores larger than 1 mm3 was largest at the ridge (16.8±7.4), and smallest at the slope (10.6±2.9). The number of macropores and their macroporosity mainly decreased with increasing depth, but were influenced by the soil macrofauna as well as the erosion and sediment processes. Macropores were mainly vertical, which is affected by the roots of plants and is conducive to the vertical infiltration of water. But, there wer many horizontal macropores at the valley because of the sediment process. The equivalent pore diameter of macropores was mainly smaller than 2 mm (accouting for more than 76.3%), and the macropores larger than 5 mm were less than 1%. Conclusions The macropore characteristics at different sites of the collapsing gullies affected the soil water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, and further affected the processes of water erosion and mass ersion. The highest macroposities at the valley would result strong subsurface flow erosion and the loss of the base of collapsing wall. Macropores at the ridge would increase rain infiltration and promote soil collapsing. Few macropores and low infiltration abilities at the slope would strengthen the overland flow erosion. Thus, macropore characteristics had significant effects on both the formation and development of collapsing gullies.

  • Tunable Polarization-Multiplexed Achromatic Dielectric Metalens

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Tunable metasurfaces provide a compact and efficient strategy for optical components that require active wavefront shaping. Varifocal metalens is one of the most important applications. However, the existing tunable metalens rarely serves broadband wavelengths restricting their applications in broadband imaging and color display due to chromatic aberration. Herein, we demonstrate an electrically tunable polarization-multiplexed varifocal achromatic dielectric metalens integrated with twisted nematic liquid crystals (TNLCs) in the visible region. The phase profiles at different wavelengths under two orthogonal polarization channels are customized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm and optimally matched with the metaunits database to achieve polarization-multiplexed dispersion manipulation including achromatic performance. By combining the broadband linear polarization conversion ability of TNLC, the tunability of varifocal achromatic metalens is realized by applying different voltages. Further, the electrically tunable customized dispersion-manipulated metalens and switchable color metaholograms are demonstrated. The proposed devices will accelerate the application of metasurfaces in broadband zoom imaging, AR/VR displays, and spectral detection.

  • Cross section determination of 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction induced by 14 MeV neutrons uniting with D-T neutron activation and AMS techniques

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-11

    摘要: Aluminum is the primary structural material in nuclear engineering, and its cross-section induced by 14 MeV neutrons is of great significance. To address the issue of insufficient accuracy for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction cross-section, the activation method and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique were used to determine the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross-section, which could be used as a D-T plasma ion temperature monitor in fusion reactors. At the China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), neutron activation was performed using a K-400 neutron generator produced by the T(d,n)4He reaction. The 26Al/27Al isotope ratios were measured using the newly installed GYIG 1 MV AMS at the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The neutron flux was monitored by measuring the activity of 92mNb produced by the 93Nb(n,2n)92mNb reaction. The measured results were compared with available data in the experimental nuclear reaction database, and the measured values showed a reasonable degree of consistency with partially available literature data. Thenewly acquired cross-sectional data at 12 neutron energy points through systematic measurements clarified the divergence, which has two different growth trends from the existing experimental values. The obtained results are also compared with the corresponding evaluated database, and the newly calculated excitation functions with TALYS-1.95 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes, the agreement with CENDL-3.2, TENDL-2021 and EMPIRE-3.2 results are generally acceptable. A substantial improvement in the knowledge of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction excitation function was obtained in the present work, which will lay the foundation for the diagnosis of the fusion ion temperature, testing of the nuclear physics model, and evaluation of nuclear data, etc.

  • Photometric Redshift Estimation of BASS DR3 Quasars by Machine Learning

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Correlating BASS DR3 catalogue with ALLWISE database, the data from optical and infrared information are obtained. The quasars from SDSS are taken as training and test samples while those from LAMOST are considered as external test sample. We propose two schemes to construct the redshift estimation models with XGBoost, CatBoost and Random forest. One scheme (namely one-step model) is to predict photometric redshifts directly based on the optimal models created by these three algorithms; the other scheme (namely two-step model) is to firstly classify the data into low- and high- redshift datasets, and then predict photometric redshifts of these two datasets separately. For one-step model, the performance of these three algorithms on photometric redshift estimation is compared with different training samples, and CatBoost is superior to XGBoost and Random forest. For two-step model, the performance of these three algorithms on the classification of low- and high-redshift subsamples are compared, and CatBoost still shows the best performance. Therefore CatBoost is regard as the core algorithm of classification and regression in two-step model. By contrast with one-step model, two-step model is optimal when predicting photometric redshift of quasars, especially for high redshift quasars. Finally the two models are applied to predict photometric redshifts of all quasar candidates of BASS DR3. The number of high redshift quasar candidates is 3938 (redshift $\ge 3.5$) and 121 (redshift $\ge 4.5$) by two-step model. The predicted result will be helpful for quasar research and follow up observation of high redshift quasars.

  • Photometric redshift estimation of galaxies in the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The accurate estimation of photometric redshifts plays a crucial role in accomplishing science objectives of the large survey projects. The template-fitting and machine learning are the two main types of methods applied currently. Based on the training set obtained by cross-correlating the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys DR9 galaxy catalogue and SDSS DR16 galaxy catalogue, the two kinds of methods are used and optimized, such as EAZY for template-fitting approach and CATBOOST for machine learning. Then the created models are tested by the cross-matched samples of the DESI Legacy Imaging SurveysDR9 galaxy catalogue with LAMOST DR7, GAMA DR3 and WiggleZ galaxy catalogues. Moreover three machine learning methods (CATBOOST, Multi-Layer Perceptron and Random Forest) are compared, CATBOOST shows its superiority for our case. By feature selection and optimization of model parameters, CATBOOST can obtain higher accuracy with optical and infrared photometric information, the best performance ($MSE=0.0032$, $\sigma_{NMAD}=0.0156$ and $O=0.88$ per cent) with $g \le 24.0$, $r \le 23.4$ and $z \le 22.5$ is achieved. But EAZY can provide more accurate photometric redshift estimation for high redshift galaxies, especially beyond the redhisft range of training sample. Finally, we finish the redshift estimation of all DESI DR9 galaxies with CATBOOST and EAZY, which will contribute to the further study of galaxies and their properties.

  • Photometric redshift estimation of galaxies in the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The accurate estimation of photometric redshifts plays a crucial role in accomplishing science objectives of the large survey projects. The template-fitting and machine learning are the two main types of methods applied currently. Based on the training set obtained by cross-correlating the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys DR9 galaxy catalogue and SDSS DR16 galaxy catalogue, the two kinds of methods are used and optimized, such as EAZY for template-fitting approach and CATBOOST for machine learning. Then the created models are tested by the cross-matched samples of the DESI Legacy Imaging SurveysDR9 galaxy catalogue with LAMOST DR7, GAMA DR3 and WiggleZ galaxy catalogues. Moreover three machine learning methods (CATBOOST, Multi-Layer Perceptron and Random Forest) are compared, CATBOOST shows its superiority for our case. By feature selection and optimization of model parameters, CATBOOST can obtain higher accuracy with optical and infrared photometric information, the best performance ($MSE=0.0032$, $\sigma_{NMAD}=0.0156$ and $O=0.88$ per cent) with $g \le 24.0$, $r \le 23.4$ and $z \le 22.5$ is achieved. But EAZY can provide more accurate photometric redshift estimation for high redshift galaxies, especially beyond the redhisft range of training sample. Finally, we finish the redshift estimation of all DESI DR9 galaxies with CATBOOST and EAZY, which will contribute to the further study of galaxies and their properties.

  • Prospective Study on Observations of {\gamma}-Ray Sources in the Galaxy Using the HADAR Experiment

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The High Altitude Detection of Astronomical Radiation (HADAR) experiment is a refracting terrestrial telescope array based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique. It focuses the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers through a large aperture water-lens system for observing very-high-energy-rays and cosmic rays. With the advantages of a large field-of-view (FOV) and low energy threshold, the HADAR experiment operates in a large-scale sky scanning mode to observe galactic sources. This study presents the prospects of using the HADAR experiment for the sky survey of TeV {\gamma}-ray sources from TeVCat and provids a one-year survey of statistical significance. Results from the simulation show that a total of 23 galactic point sources, including five supernova remnant sources and superbubbles, four pulsar wind nebula sources, and 14 unidentified sources, were detected in the HADAR FOV with a significance greater than 5 standard deviations ({\sigma}). The statistical significance for the Crab Nebula during one year of operation reached 346.0 {\sigma} and the one-year integral sensitivity of HADAR above 1TeV was ~1.3%-2.4% of the flux from the Crab Nebula.

  • Prospective Study on Observations of {\gamma}-Ray Sources in the Galaxy Using the HADAR Experiment

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The High Altitude Detection of Astronomical Radiation (HADAR) experiment is a refracting terrestrial telescope array based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique. It focuses the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers through a large aperture water-lens system for observing very-high-energy-rays and cosmic rays. With the advantages of a large field-of-view (FOV) and low energy threshold, the HADAR experiment operates in a large-scale sky scanning mode to observe galactic sources. This study presents the prospects of using the HADAR experiment for the sky survey of TeV {\gamma}-ray sources from TeVCat and provids a one-year survey of statistical significance. Results from the simulation show that a total of 23 galactic point sources, including five supernova remnant sources and superbubbles, four pulsar wind nebula sources, and 14 unidentified sources, were detected in the HADAR FOV with a significance greater than 5 standard deviations ({\sigma}). The statistical significance for the Crab Nebula during one year of operation reached 346.0 {\sigma} and the one-year integral sensitivity of HADAR above 1TeV was ~1.3%-2.4% of the flux from the Crab Nebula.

  • Insight-HXMT observations of the first binary neutron star merger GW170817

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2017-11-10

    摘要: Finding the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart of binary compact star merger, especially the binary neutron star (BNS) merger, is critically important for gravitational wave (GW) astronomy, osmology and fundamental physics. On Aug. 17, 2017, Advanced LIGO and Fermi/GBM independently triggered the first BNS merger, GW170817, and its high energy EM counterpart, GRB 170817A, respectively, resulting in a global observation campaign covering gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, IR, radio as well as neutrinos. The High Energy X-ray telescope (HE) onboard Insight-HXMT (Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope) is the unique high-energy gamma-ray telescope that monitored the entire GW localization area and especially the optical counterpart (SSS17a/AT2017gfo) with very large collection area (~1000 cm2) and microsecond time resolution in 0.2-5 MeV. In addition, Insight-HXMT quickly implemented a Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation to scan the GW localization area for potential X-ray emission from the GW source. Although Insight-HXMT did not detect any significant high energy (0.2-5 MeV) radiation from GW170817, its observation helped to confirm the nexpected weak and soft nature of GRB 170817A. Meanwhile, Insight-HXMT/HE provides one of the most stringent constraints (~10-7 to 10-6 erg/cm2/s) for both GRB170817A and any other possible precursor or extended emissions in 0.2-5 MeV, which help us to better understand the properties of EM radiation from this BNS merger. Therefore the observation of Insight-HXMT constitutes an important chapter in the full context of multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observation of this historical GW event.