您选择的条件: Shuang Zhou
  • Application of a neural network model with multimodel fusion for fluorescence spectroscopy

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-06-19

    摘要: In energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the estimation of the pulse amplitude determines the accuracy of the spectrum measurement. The error generated by the amplitude estimation of the pulse output distorted by the measurement system leads to false peaks in the measured spectrum. To eliminate these false peaks and achieve an accurate estimation of the distorted pulse amplitude, a composite neural network model is proposed, which embeds long and short-term memory (LSTM) into the UNet structure. The UNet network realizes the fusion of pulse sequence features and the LSTM model realizes pulse amplitude estimation. The model is trained using simulated pulse datasets with different amplitudes and distortion times. For the pulse height estimation, the average relative error of the trained model on the test set was approximately 0.64%, which is 27.37% lower than that of the traditional trapezoidal shaping algorithm. Offline processing of a standard iron source further validated the pulse height estimation performance of the UNet-LSTM model. After estimating the amplitude of the distorted pulses using the model, the false-peak area was reduced by approximately 91% over the full spectrum and was corrected to the characteristic peak region of interest (ROI). The corrected peak area accounted for approximately 1.32% of the characteristic peak ROI area. The results indicate that the model can accurately estimate the height of distorted pulses and has substantial corrective effects on false peaks.

  • Mapping dust attenuation and the 2175 {\AA} bump at kpc scales in nearby galaxies

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We develop a novel approach to measure dust attenuation properties of galaxies,including the dust opacity and shape of the attenuation curve in both optical and NUV, as well as the strength of the 2175{\AA} absorption feature. From an observed spectrum the method uses a model-independent approach to derive a relative attenuation curve.The absolute amplitude is then calibrated with the NIR photometry. The dust-corrected spectrum is fitted with stellar population models to derive the dust-free model spectrum covering the whole wavelength range from NUV to NIR and is compared with the observed SED/spectrum to determine dust attenuation properties. We apply this method to investigate dust attenuation on kpc scales, using a sample of 134 galaxies with the integral field spectroscopy from MaNGA, the NIR imaging from 2MASS, and the NUV imaging from Swift/UVOT. We find that the attenuation curves in regions of kpc scales span a wide range of slopes in both optical and UV. The slope is shallower at higher optical opacity, a trend that is held even when the sample is limited to narrow ranges of specific star formation rate (sSFR), minor-to-major axis ratio (b/a) and the location within individual galaxies. The 2175{\AA} bump in the attenuation curve at kpc scales presents a wide range of strength. The strength shows a strong negative correlation with the sSFR, but the correlations with the optical opacity, $b/a$ and the location within individual galaxies are all weak. All these trends appear to be independent of the stellar mass of galaxies, implying that the dust attenuation is regulated by local processes rather than by global properties of galaxies. Our results support the scenario that the variation of the 2175{\AA} bump is driven predominantly by processes related to star formation, such as destruction of small dust grains by UV radiation in star-forming regions.

  • The impact of environment on the lives of disk galaxies as revealed by SDSS-IV MaNGA

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Environment has long been known to have significant impact on the evolution of galaxies, but here we seek to quantify the subtler differences that might be found in disk galaxies, depending on whether they are isolated, the most massive galaxy in a group (centrals), or a lesser member (satellites). The MaNGA survey allows us to define a large mass-matched sample of 574 galaxies with high-quality integrated spectra in each category. Initial examination of their spectral indices indicates significant differences, particularly in low-mass galaxies. Semi-analytic spectral fitting of a full chemical evolution model to these spectra confirms these differences, with low-mass satellites having a shorter period of star formation and chemical enrichment typical of a closed box, while central galaxies have more extended histories, with evidence of on-going gas accretion over their lifetimes. The derived parameters for gas infall timescale and wind strength suggest that low-mass satellite galaxies have their hot halos of gas effectively removed, while central galaxies retain a larger fraction of gas than isolated galaxies due to the deeper group potential well in which they sit. S0 galaxies form a distinct subset within the sample, particularly at higher masses, but do not bias the inferred lower-mass environmental impact significantly. The consistent picture that emerges underlines the wealth of archaeological information that can be extracted from high-quality spectral data using techniques like semi-analytic spectral fitting.

  • Are Milky-Way-like galaxies like the Milky Way? A view from SDSS-IV/MaNGA

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In this paper, we place the Milky Way (MW) in the context of similar-looking galaxies in terms of their star-formation and chemical evolution histories. We select a sample of 138 Milky-Way analogues (MWAs) from the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey based on their masses, Hubble types, and bulge-to-total ratios. To compare their chemical properties to the detailed spatially-resolved information available for the MW, we use a semi-analytic spectral fitting approach, which fits a self-consistent chemical-evolution and star-formation model directly to the MaNGA spectra. We model the galaxies' inner and outer regions assuming that some of the material lost in stellar winds falls inwards. We also incorporate chemical enrichment from type II and Ia supernovae to follow the alpha-element abundance at different metallicities and locations. We find some MWAs where the stellar properties closely reproduce the distribution of age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement at both small and large radii in the MW. In these systems, the match is driven by the longer timescale for star formation in the outer parts, and the inflow of enriched material to the central parts. However, other MWAs have very different histories. These divide into two categories: self-similar galaxies where the inner and outer parts evolve identically; and centrally-quenched galaxies where there is very little evidence of late-time central star formation driven by material accreted from the outer regions. We find that, although selected to be comparable, there are subtle morphological differences between galaxies in these different classes, and that the centrally-quenched galaxies formed their stars systematically earlier.

  • Semi-analytic spectral fitting: simultaneously modelling the mass accumulation and chemical evolution in MaNGA spiral galaxies

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We develop a novel semi-analytic spectral fitting approach to quantify the star-formation histories (SFHs) and chemical enrichment histories (ChEHs) of individual galaxies. We construct simple yet general chemical evolution models that account for gas inflow and outflow processes as well as star formation, to investigate the evolution of merger-free star-forming systems. These models are fitted directly to galaxies' absorption-line spectra, while their emission lines are used to constrain current gas phase metallicity and star formation rate. We apply this method to spiral galaxies selected from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. By fitting the co-added absorption-line spectra for each galaxy, and using the emission-line constraints on present-day metallicity and star formation, we reconstruct both the SFHs and the ChEHs for all objects in the sample. We can use these reconstructions to obtain archaeological measures of derived correlations such as the mass--metallicity relation at any redshift, which compare favourably with direct observations. We find that both the SFHs and ChEHs have strong mass dependence: massive galaxies accumulate their stellar masses and become enriched earlier. This mass dependence causes the observed flattening of the mass--metallicity relation at lower redshifts. The model also reproduces the observed gas-to-stellar mass ratio and its mass dependence. Moreover, we are able to determine that more massive galaxies have earlier gas infall times and shorter infall time-scales, and that the early chemical enrichment of low-mass galaxies is suppressed by strong outflows, while outflows are not very significant in massive galaxies.

  • Star formation histories of massive red spiral galaxies in the local universe

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the star formation histories (SFHs) of massive red spiral galaxies with stellar mass $M_\ast>10^{10.5}M_\odot$, and make comparisons with blue spirals and red ellipticals of similar masses. We make use of the integral field spectroscopy from the SDSS-IV/DR15 MaNGA sample, and estimate spatially resolved SFHs and stellar population properties of each galaxy by applying a Bayesian spectral fitting code to the MaNGA spectra. We find that both red spirals and red ellipticals have experienced only one major star formation episode at early times, and the result is independent of the adopted SFH model. On average, more than half of their stellar masses were formed $>$10 Gyrs ago, and more than 90\% were formed $>6$ Gyrs ago. The two types of galaxies show similarly flat profiles in a variety of stellar population parameters: old stellar ages indicated by $D4000$ (the spectral break at around 4000\AA), high stellar metallicities, large Mgb/Fe ratios indicating fast formation, and little stellar dust attenuation. In contrast, although blue spirals also formed their central regions $>$10 Gyrs ago, both their central regions and outer disks continuously form stars over a long timescale. Our results imply that, massive red spirals are likely to share some common processes of formation (and possibly quenching) with massive red ellipticals in the sense that both types were formed at $z > 2$ through a fast formation process.Possible mechanisms for the formation and quenching of massive red spirals are discussed.

  • Wolf-Rayet galaxies in SDSS-IV MaNGA. II. Metallicity dependence of the high-mass slope of the stellar initial mass function

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: As hosts of living high-mass stars, Wolf-Rayet (WR) regions or WR galaxies are ideal objects for constraining the high-mass end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). We construct a large sample of 910 WR galaxies/regions that cover a wide range of stellar metallicity (from Z~0.001 up to Z~0.03), by combining three catalogs of WR galaxies/regions previously selected from the SDSS and SDSS-IV/MaNGA surveys. We measure the equivalent widths of the WR blue bump at ~4650 A for each spectrum. They are compared with predictions from stellar evolutionary models Starburst99 and BPASS, with different IMF assumptions (high-mass slope {\alpha} of the IMF ranging from 1.0 up to 3.3). Both singular evolution and binary evolution are considered. We also use a Bayesian inference code to perform full spectral fitting to WR spectra with stellar population spectra from BPASS as fitting templates. We then make model selection among different {\alpha} assumptions based on Bayesian evidence. These analyses have consistently led to a positive correlation of IMF high-mass slope {\alpha} with stellar metallicity Z, i.e. with steeper IMF (more bottom-heavy) at higher metallicities. Specifically, an IMF with {\alpha}=1.00 is preferred at the lowest metallicity (Z~0.001), and a Salpeter or even steeper IMF is preferred at the highest metallicity (Z~0.03). These conclusions hold even when binary population models are adopted.

  • Mapping dust attenuation and the 2175 {\AA} bump at kpc scales in nearby galaxies

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We develop a novel approach to measure dust attenuation properties of galaxies,including the dust opacity and shape of the attenuation curve in both optical and NUV, as well as the strength of the 2175{\AA} absorption feature. From an observed spectrum the method uses a model-independent approach to derive a relative attenuation curve.The absolute amplitude is then calibrated with the NIR photometry. The dust-corrected spectrum is fitted with stellar population models to derive the dust-free model spectrum covering the whole wavelength range from NUV to NIR and is compared with the observed SED/spectrum to determine dust attenuation properties. We apply this method to investigate dust attenuation on kpc scales, using a sample of 134 galaxies with the integral field spectroscopy from MaNGA, the NIR imaging from 2MASS, and the NUV imaging from Swift/UVOT. We find that the attenuation curves in regions of kpc scales span a wide range of slopes in both optical and UV. The slope is shallower at higher optical opacity, a trend that is held even when the sample is limited to narrow ranges of specific star formation rate (sSFR), minor-to-major axis ratio (b/a) and the location within individual galaxies. The 2175{\AA} bump in the attenuation curve at kpc scales presents a wide range of strength. The strength shows a strong negative correlation with the sSFR, but the correlations with the optical opacity, $b/a$ and the location within individual galaxies are all weak. All these trends appear to be independent of the stellar mass of galaxies, implying that the dust attenuation is regulated by local processes rather than by global properties of galaxies. Our results support the scenario that the variation of the 2175{\AA} bump is driven predominantly by processes related to star formation, such as destruction of small dust grains by UV radiation in star-forming regions.

  • Estimating dust attenuation from galactic spectra. II. Stellar and gas attenuation in star-forming and diffuse ionized gas regions in MaNGA

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the dust attenuation in both stellar populations and ionized gas in kpc-scale regions in nearby galaxies, using integral field spectroscopy data from MaNGA MPL-9. We identify star-forming (HII) and diffuse ionized gas (DIG) regions from MaNGA datacubes. From the stacked spectrum of each region, we measure the stellar attenuation, $E(B-V)_{\rm star}$, using the technique developed by Li et al.(2020), as well as the gas attenuation, $E(B-V)_{\rm gas}$, from the Balmer decrement. We then examine the correlation of $E(B-V)_{\rm star}$, $E(B-V)_{\rm gas}$, $E(B-V)_{\rm gas}-E(B-V)_{\rm star}$ and $E(B-V)_{\rm star}/E(B-V)_{\rm gas}$ with 16 regional/global properties, and for regions with different $\rm H{\alpha}$ surface brightnesses ($\Sigma_{\rm H\alpha}$). We find a stronger correlation between $E(B-V)_{\rm star}$ and $E(B-V)_{\rm gas}$ in regions of higher $\Sigma_{\rm H\alpha}$. Luminosity-weighted age ($t_L$) is found to be the property that is the most strongly correlated with $E(B-V)_{\rm star}$, and consequently with $E(B-V)_{\rm gas}-E(B-V)_{\rm star}$ and $E(B-V)_{\rm star}/E(B-V)_{\rm gas}$. At fixed $\Sigma_{\rm H\alpha}$, $\log_{10}t_L$ is linearly and negatively correlated with $E(B-V)_{\rm star}/E(B-V)_{\rm gas}$ at all ages. Gas-phase metallicity and ionization level are important for the attenuation in the gas. Our results indicate that the ionizing source for DIG regions is likely distributed in the outer-skirt of galaxies, while for HII regions our results can be well explained by the two-component dust model of Charlot & Fall (2000).