您选择的条件: Sihan Jiao
  • The ALMaQUEST Survey XV: The Dependence of the Molecular-to-Atomic Gas Ratios on Resolved Optical Diagnostics

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-03-30

    摘要: The atomic-to-molecular gas conversion is a critical step in the baryon cycle of galaxies, which sets the initial conditions for subsequent star formation and influences the multi-phase interstellar medium. We compiled a sample of 94 nearby galaxies with observations of multi-phase gas contents by utilizing public H I, CO, and optical IFU data from the MaNGA survey together with new FAST H I observations. In agreement with previous results, our sample shows that the global molecular-to-atomic gas ratio ($R_{\rm mol} \equiv$ log $M_{\rm H_2}/M_{\rm H\ I}$) is correlated with the global stellar mass surface density $\mu_*$ with a Kendall's $\tau$ coefficient of 0.25 and $p < 10^{-3}$, less tightly but still correlated with stellar mass and NUV$-$ r color, and not related to the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The cold gas distribution and kinematics inferred from the H I and CO global profile asymmetry and shape do not significantly rely on $R_{\rm mol}$. Thanks to the availability of kpc-scale observations of MaNGA, we decompose galaxies into H II, composite, and AGN-dominated regions by using the BPT diagrams. With increasing $R_{\rm mol}$, the fraction of H II regions within 1.5 effective radius decreases slightly; the density distribution in the spatially resolved BPT diagram also changes significantly, suggesting changes in metallicity and ionization states. Galaxies with high $R_{\rm mol}$ tend to have high oxygen abundance, both at one effective radius with a Kendall's $\tau$ coefficient of 0.37 ($p < 10^{-3}$) and their central regions. Among all parameters investigated here, the oxygen abundance at one effective radius has the strongest relation with global $R_{\rm mol}$, but the dependence of gas conversion on gas distribution and galaxy ionization states is weak.

  • Convergent Filaments Contracting Towards an Intermediate-mass Prestellar Core

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Filamentary structures are closely associated with star-forming cores, but their detailed physical connections are still not clear. We studied the dense gas in the region of OMC-3 MMS-7 in Orion A molecular cloud using the molecular lines observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The ALMA N$_2$H$^+$ (1-0) emission has revealed three dense filaments intersected at the center, coincident with the central core MMS-7, which has a mass of $3.6\,M_\odot$. The filaments and cores are embedded in a parental clump with total mass of $29\,M_\odot$. The N$_2$H$^+$ velocity field exhibits a noticeable increasing trend along the filaments towards the central core MMS-7 with a scale of $v-v_{\rm lsr} \simeq 1.5$ ${\rm km\, s^{-1}}$ over a spatial range of $\sim$20 arcsec ($8\times 10^3$ AU), corresponding to a gradient of $40\,{\rm km\, s^{-1}}\,{\rm pc}^{-1}$. This feature is most likely to indicate an infall motion towards the center. The derived infall rate ($8\times 10^{-5}\,M_\odot$ year$^{-1}$) and timescale ($3.6\times 10^5$ years) are much lower than that in a spherical free-fall collapse and more consistent with the contraction of filament structures. The filaments also exhibit a possible fragmentation, but it does not seem to largely interrupt the gas structure or the infall motion towards the center. MMS-7 thus provides an example of filamentary infall into an individual prestellar core. The filament contraction could be less intense but more steady than the global spherical collapse, and may help generate an intermediate- or even high-mass star.

  • J-comb: An image fusion algorithm to combine observations covering different spatial frequency ranges

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Ground-based, high-resolution bolometric (sub)millimeter continuum mapping observations on spatially extended target sources are often subject to significant missing fluxes. This hampers accurate quantitative analyses. Missing flux can be recovered by fusing high-resolution images with observations that preserve extended structures. However, the commonly adopted image fusion approaches do not maintain the simplicity of the beam response function and do not try to elaborate the details of the yielded beam response functions. These make the comparison of the observations at multiple wavelengths not straightforward. We present a new algorithm, J-comb, which combines the high and low-resolution images linearly. By applying a taper function to the low-pass filtered image and combining it with a high-pass filtered image using proper weights, the beam response functions of our combined images are guaranteed to have near-Gaussian shapes. This makes it easy to convolve the observations at multiple wavelengths to share the same beam response functions. Moreover, we introduce a strategy to tackle the specific problem that the imaging at 850 um from the present-date ground-based bolometric instrument and that taken with the Planck satellite do not overlap in the Fourier domain. We benchmarked our method against two other widely-used image combination algorithms, CASA-feather and MIRIAD-immerge, with mock observations of star-forming molecular clouds. We demonstrate that the performance of the J-comb algorithm is superior to those of the other two algorithms. We applied the J-comb algorithm to real observational data of the Orion A star-forming region. We successfully produced dust temperature and column density maps with ~10" angular resolution, unveiling much greater details than the previous results.

  • The Distribution of UV Radiation Field in the Molecular Clouds of Gould Belt

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The distribution of ultraviolet (UV) radiation field provides critical constraints on the physical environments of molecular clouds. Within 1 kpc of our solar system and fostering protostars of different masses, the giant molecular clouds in the Gould Belt present an excellent opportunity to resolve the UV field structure in star forming regions. We performed spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of the archival data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (HGBS). Dust radiative transfer analysis with the DUSTY code were applied to 23 regions in 14 molecular complexes of the Gould Belt, resulting in the spatial distribution of radiation field in these regions. For 10 of 15 regions with independent measurements of star formation rate, their star formation rate and UV radiation intensity largely conform to a linear correlation found in previous studies.

  • An Early Transition to Magnetic Supercriticality in Star Formation

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Magnetic fields play an important role in the evolution of interstellar medium and star formation. As the only direct probe of interstellar field strength, credible Zeeman measurements remain sparse due to the lack of suitable Zeeman probes, particularly for cold, molecular gas. Here we report the detection of a magnetic field of $+$3.8 $\pm$ 0.3 $\mu$G through the HI narrow self-absorption (HINSA) toward L1544, a well-studied prototypical prestellar core in an early transition between starless and protostellar phases characterized by high central number density and low central temperature. A combined analysis of the Zeeman measurements of quasar HI absorption, HI emission, OH emission, and HINSA reveals a coherent magnetic field from the atomic cold neutral medium (CNM) to the molecular envelope. The molecular envelope traced by HINSA is found to be magnetically supercritical, with a field strength comparable to that of the surrounding diffuse, magnetically subcritical CNM despite a large increase in density. The reduction of the magnetic flux relative to the mass, necessary for star formation, thus seems to have already happened during the transition from the diffuse CNM to the molecular gas traced by HINSA, earlier than envisioned in the classical picture where magnetically supercritical cores capable of collapsing into stars form out of magnetically subcritical envelopes.