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您选择的条件: Yi Zhang
  • Towards adaptable synchrotron image restoration pipeline

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-06-20

    摘要: Synchrotron microscopic data commonly suffer from poor image quality with degraded resolution incurred by instrumentation defects or experimental conditions. Image restoration methods are often applied to recover the reduced resolution, providing improved image details that can greatly facilitate scientific discovery. Among these methods, deconvolution techniques are straightforward, yet either require known prior information or struggle to tackle large experimental data. Deep learning (DL)-based super-resolution (SR) methods handle large data well, however data scarcity and model generalizability are problematic. In addition, current image restoration methods are mostly offline and inefficient for many beamlines where high data volumes and data complexity issuesare encountered. To overcome these limitations, an online image-restoration pipeline that adaptably selects suitable algorithms and models from a method repertoire is promising. In this study, using both deconvolution and pretrained DL-based SR models, we showthatdifferent restoration efficacies can be achieved on different types of synchrotron experimental data. We describe the necessity, feasibility, and significance of constructing suchan image-restoration pipeline for future synchrotron experiments.

  • Cross section determination of 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction induced by 14 MeV neutrons uniting with D-T neutron activation and AMS techniques

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-11

    摘要: Aluminum is the primary structural material in nuclear engineering, and its cross-section induced by 14 MeV neutrons is of great significance. To address the issue of insufficient accuracy for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction cross-section, the activation method and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique were used to determine the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross-section, which could be used as a D-T plasma ion temperature monitor in fusion reactors. At the China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), neutron activation was performed using a K-400 neutron generator produced by the T(d,n)4He reaction. The 26Al/27Al isotope ratios were measured using the newly installed GYIG 1 MV AMS at the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The neutron flux was monitored by measuring the activity of 92mNb produced by the 93Nb(n,2n)92mNb reaction. The measured results were compared with available data in the experimental nuclear reaction database, and the measured values showed a reasonable degree of consistency with partially available literature data. Thenewly acquired cross-sectional data at 12 neutron energy points through systematic measurements clarified the divergence, which has two different growth trends from the existing experimental values. The obtained results are also compared with the corresponding evaluated database, and the newly calculated excitation functions with TALYS-1.95 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes, the agreement with CENDL-3.2, TENDL-2021 and EMPIRE-3.2 results are generally acceptable. A substantial improvement in the knowledge of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction excitation function was obtained in the present work, which will lay the foundation for the diagnosis of the fusion ion temperature, testing of the nuclear physics model, and evaluation of nuclear data, etc.

  • Prospective Study on Observations of {\gamma}-Ray Sources in the Galaxy Using the HADAR Experiment

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The High Altitude Detection of Astronomical Radiation (HADAR) experiment is a refracting terrestrial telescope array based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique. It focuses the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers through a large aperture water-lens system for observing very-high-energy-rays and cosmic rays. With the advantages of a large field-of-view (FOV) and low energy threshold, the HADAR experiment operates in a large-scale sky scanning mode to observe galactic sources. This study presents the prospects of using the HADAR experiment for the sky survey of TeV {\gamma}-ray sources from TeVCat and provids a one-year survey of statistical significance. Results from the simulation show that a total of 23 galactic point sources, including five supernova remnant sources and superbubbles, four pulsar wind nebula sources, and 14 unidentified sources, were detected in the HADAR FOV with a significance greater than 5 standard deviations ({\sigma}). The statistical significance for the Crab Nebula during one year of operation reached 346.0 {\sigma} and the one-year integral sensitivity of HADAR above 1TeV was ~1.3%-2.4% of the flux from the Crab Nebula.

  • Prospective Study on Observations of {\gamma}-Ray Sources in the Galaxy Using the HADAR Experiment

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The High Altitude Detection of Astronomical Radiation (HADAR) experiment is a refracting terrestrial telescope array based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique. It focuses the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers through a large aperture water-lens system for observing very-high-energy-rays and cosmic rays. With the advantages of a large field-of-view (FOV) and low energy threshold, the HADAR experiment operates in a large-scale sky scanning mode to observe galactic sources. This study presents the prospects of using the HADAR experiment for the sky survey of TeV {\gamma}-ray sources from TeVCat and provids a one-year survey of statistical significance. Results from the simulation show that a total of 23 galactic point sources, including five supernova remnant sources and superbubbles, four pulsar wind nebula sources, and 14 unidentified sources, were detected in the HADAR FOV with a significance greater than 5 standard deviations ({\sigma}). The statistical significance for the Crab Nebula during one year of operation reached 346.0 {\sigma} and the one-year integral sensitivity of HADAR above 1TeV was ~1.3%-2.4% of the flux from the Crab Nebula.

  • Distinguish the $f(T)$ model from $\Lambda$CDM model with Gravitational Wave observations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Separately, neither electromagnetic (EM) observations nor gravitational wave (GW) observations can distinguish between the $f(T)$ model and the $\Lambda$CDM model effectively. To break this degeneration, we simulate the GW measurement based on the coming observation facilities, explicitly the Einstein Telescope. We make cross-validations between the simulated GW data and factual EM data, including the Pantheon, H(z), BAO and CMBR data, and the results show that they are consistent with each other. Anyway, the EM data itself have the $H_0$ tension problem which plays critical role in the distinguishable problem as we will see. Our results show that the GW$+$BAO$+$CMBR data could distinguish the $f(T)$ theory from the $\Lambda$CDM model in $2\sigma$ regime.

  • Prospects for Constraining interacting dark energy cosmology with gravitational-wave bright sirens detected by future SKA-era pulsar timing arrays

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) have the potential to detect Nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) that are usually generated by the individual inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in the galactic centers. The GW signals as cosmological standard sirens can provide the absolute cosmic distances, thereby can be used to constrain the cosmological parameters. In this paper, we analyze the ability of future SKA-era PTAs to detect the existing SMBHBs candidates assuming the root mean square of timing noise $\sigma_t=20\ {\rm ns}$, and use the simulated PTA data to constrain the interacting dark energy (IDE) models with energy transfer rate $Q = \beta H\rho_c$. We find that, the future SKA-era PTAs will play an important role in constraining the IDE cosmology. Using only the mock PTA data consisting of 100 pulsars, we obtain $\sigma(H_0)=0.239\ {\rm km} \ {\rm s}^{-1} {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\sigma(\Omega_m)=0.0103$ in the I$\Lambda$CDM model, which are much better than the results from the Planck TT, TE, EE+lowE. However, the PTA data cannot provide a tight constraint on the coupling parameter $\beta$ compared with Planck, but the data combination of Planck+PTA can provide a rather tight constraint, i.e., $\sigma(\beta)=0.00232$, since the PTA data could break the parameter degeneracies inherent in CMB. In the I$w$CDM model, we obtain $\sigma(\beta)=0.00137$ and $\sigma(w)=0.0492$ from the Planck+PTA data combination. In addition, we also find that with the increase of the number of pulsars in PTA, the constraint results from the Planck+PTA will be further improved to some extent. We show that the observations of Nanohertz GWs with future SKA-era PTAs will provide a powerful tool for exploring the nature of dark energy and measuring the coupling between dark energy and dark matter.

  • Prospects for Constraining interacting dark energy cosmology with gravitational-wave bright sirens detected by future SKA-era pulsar timing arrays

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) have the potential to detect Nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) that are usually generated by the individual inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in the galactic centers. The GW signals as cosmological standard sirens can provide the absolute cosmic distances, thereby can be used to constrain the cosmological parameters. In this paper, we analyze the ability of future SKA-era PTAs to detect the existing SMBHBs candidates assuming the root mean square of timing noise $\sigma_t=20\ {\rm ns}$, and use the simulated PTA data to constrain the interacting dark energy (IDE) models with energy transfer rate $Q = \beta H\rho_c$. We find that, the future SKA-era PTAs will play an important role in constraining the IDE cosmology. Using only the mock PTA data consisting of 100 pulsars, we obtain $\sigma(H_0)=0.239\ {\rm km} \ {\rm s}^{-1} {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\sigma(\Omega_m)=0.0103$ in the I$\Lambda$CDM model, which are much better than the results from the Planck TT, TE, EE+lowE. However, the PTA data cannot provide a tight constraint on the coupling parameter $\beta$ compared with Planck, but the data combination of Planck+PTA can provide a rather tight constraint, i.e., $\sigma(\beta)=0.00232$, since the PTA data could break the parameter degeneracies inherent in CMB. In the I$w$CDM model, we obtain $\sigma(\beta)=0.00137$ and $\sigma(w)=0.0492$ from the Planck+PTA data combination. In addition, we also find that with the increase of the number of pulsars in PTA, the constraint results from the Planck+PTA will be further improved to some extent. We show that the observations of Nanohertz GWs with future SKA-era PTAs will provide a powerful tool for exploring the nature of dark energy and measuring the coupling between dark energy and dark matter.

  • Ultra-Broadband Dispersion-Manipulated Dielectric Metalenses by Nonlinear Dispersive Phase Compensation

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Dispersion decomposes compound light into monochromatic components at different spatial locations, which needs to be eliminated in imaging but utilized in spectral detection. Metasurfaces provide a unique path to modulate the dispersion only by adjusting the structural parameters without changing the material as required for refractive elements. However, the common linear phase compensation does not conform to the dispersion characteristics of the meta-unit limiting dispersion modulation in broader wavelength bands, which is desired for ultra-broadband or multiband imaging. Here, we propose a nonlinear dispersive phase compensation method to design polarization-insensitive achromatic metalenses from 400 nm to 1000 nm constructed with single-layer high aspect ratio nanostructures. This band matches the response spectrum of a typical CMOS sensor for both visible and near-infrared imaging applications without additional lens replacement. Moreover, the capability of the method in achieving arbitrary dispersion modulation is demonstrated for applications such as chromatography imaging and spectral detection.

  • Dual camera snapshot hyperspectral imaging system via physics informed learning

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We consider using the system's optical imaging process with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to solve the snapshot hyperspectral imaging reconstruction problem, which uses a dual-camera system to capture the three-dimensional hyperspectral images (HSIs) in a compressed way. Various methods using CNNs have been developed in recent years to reconstruct HSIs, but most of the supervised deep learning methods aimed to fit a brute-force mapping relationship between the captured compressed image and standard HSIs. Thus, the learned mapping would be invalid when the observation data deviate from the training data. Especially, we usually don't have ground truth in real-life scenarios. In this paper, we present a self-supervised dual-camera equipment with an untrained physics-informed CNNs framework. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that our method without training can be adapted to a wide imaging environment with good performance. Furthermore, compared with the training-based methods, our system can be constantly fine-tuned and self-improved in real-life scenarios.

  • Tunable Polarization-Multiplexed Achromatic Dielectric Metalens

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Tunable metasurfaces provide a compact and efficient strategy for optical components that require active wavefront shaping. Varifocal metalens is one of the most important applications. However, the existing tunable metalens rarely serves broadband wavelengths restricting their applications in broadband imaging and color display due to chromatic aberration. Herein, we demonstrate an electrically tunable polarization-multiplexed varifocal achromatic dielectric metalens integrated with twisted nematic liquid crystals (TNLCs) in the visible region. The phase profiles at different wavelengths under two orthogonal polarization channels are customized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm and optimally matched with the metaunits database to achieve polarization-multiplexed dispersion manipulation including achromatic performance. By combining the broadband linear polarization conversion ability of TNLC, the tunability of varifocal achromatic metalens is realized by applying different voltages. Further, the electrically tunable customized dispersion-manipulated metalens and switchable color metaholograms are demonstrated. The proposed devices will accelerate the application of metasurfaces in broadband zoom imaging, AR/VR displays, and spectral detection.

  • Insight-HXMT observations of the first binary neutron star merger GW170817

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2017-11-10

    摘要: Finding the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart of binary compact star merger, especially the binary neutron star (BNS) merger, is critically important for gravitational wave (GW) astronomy, osmology and fundamental physics. On Aug. 17, 2017, Advanced LIGO and Fermi/GBM independently triggered the first BNS merger, GW170817, and its high energy EM counterpart, GRB 170817A, respectively, resulting in a global observation campaign covering gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, IR, radio as well as neutrinos. The High Energy X-ray telescope (HE) onboard Insight-HXMT (Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope) is the unique high-energy gamma-ray telescope that monitored the entire GW localization area and especially the optical counterpart (SSS17a/AT2017gfo) with very large collection area (~1000 cm2) and microsecond time resolution in 0.2-5 MeV. In addition, Insight-HXMT quickly implemented a Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation to scan the GW localization area for potential X-ray emission from the GW source. Although Insight-HXMT did not detect any significant high energy (0.2-5 MeV) radiation from GW170817, its observation helped to confirm the nexpected weak and soft nature of GRB 170817A. Meanwhile, Insight-HXMT/HE provides one of the most stringent constraints (~10-7 to 10-6 erg/cm2/s) for both GRB170817A and any other possible precursor or extended emissions in 0.2-5 MeV, which help us to better understand the properties of EM radiation from this BNS merger. Therefore the observation of Insight-HXMT constitutes an important chapter in the full context of multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observation of this historical GW event.