摘要：The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a unidirectional adenosine triphosphatase polymerization, primed with a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 per disk. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at subnanometer resolution revealed a similar to 90 degrees hinge rotation accompanying NLRC4 activation. Unlike in the related heptameric Apaf-1 apoptosome, in which each subunit needs to be conformationally activated by its ligand before assembly, a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 initiates NLRC4 polymerization in a domino-like reaction to promote the disk assembly. These insights reveal the mechanism of signal amplification in NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes.
摘要：Identification and detection of dendritic spines in neuron images are of high interest in diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, and autism). In this paper, we have proposed a novel automatic approach using wavelet-based conditional symmetric analysis and regularized morphological shared-weight neural networks (RMSNN) for dendritic spine identification involving the following steps: backbone extraction, localization of dendritic spines, and classification. First, a new algorithm based on wavelet transform and conditional symmetric analysis has been developed to extract backbone and locate the dendrite boundary. Then, the RMSNN has been proposed to classify the spines into three predefined categories (mushroom, thin, and stubby). We have compared our proposed approach against the existing methods. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed approach can accurately locate the dendrite and accurately classify the spines into three categories with the accuracy of 99.1% for "mushroom" spines, 97.6% for "stubby" spines, and 98.6% for "thin" spines.
摘要：FUS-proteinopathies, a group of heterogeneous disorders including ALS-FUS and FTLD-FUS, are characterized by the formation of inclusion bodies containing the nuclear protein FUS in the affected patients. However, the underlying molecular and cellular defects remain unclear. Here we provide evidence for mitochondrial localization of FUS and its induction of mitochondrial damage. Remarkably, FTLD-FUS brain samples show increased FUS expression and mitochondrial defects. Biochemical and genetic data demonstrate that FUS interacts with a mitochondrial chaperonin, HSP60, and that FUS translocation to mitochondria is, at least in part, mediated by HSP60. Down-regulating HSP60 reduces mitochondrially localized FUS and partially rescues mitochondrial defects and neurodegenerative phenotypes caused by FUS expression in transgenic flies. This is the first report of direct mitochondrial targeting by a nuclear protein associated with neurodegeneration, suggesting that mitochondrial impairment may represent a critical event in different forms of FUS-proteinopathies and a common pathological feature for both ALS-FUS and FTLD-FUS. Our study offers a potential explanation for the highly heterogeneous nature and complex genetic presentation of different forms of FUS-proteinopathies. Our data also suggest that mitochondrial damage may be a target in future development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for FUS-proteinopathies, a group of devastating neurodegenerative diseases.