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  • 关于档案学人才培养进一步服务党和国家战略的思考

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-27

    摘要:一级学科由“图书情报与档案管理”更名为“信息资源管理”,面临更为宽广的学科发展空间。党的二十大旗帜鲜明地指出深入实施科教兴国战略,强调“教育是国之大计、党之大计”,再次给学科建设注入强大动力。1952年在国家档案事业严重缺乏专业人才的背景下,在周恩来等党和国家领导人的亲切关怀下,中国人民大学受中央委托创建新中国档案高等教育,可以说为党育人、为国育才是档案学的红色基因,档案事业的需要是档案学科得以建立和发展的根本原因。本文探讨一级学科更名及贯彻党的二十大精神背景下档案学人才培养如何传承红色基因,进一步服务党和国家战略。

  • 一级学科更名后信息资源管理学科建设新挑战

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-27

    摘要:党的二十大擘画了以中国式现代化推进中华民族伟大复兴的宏伟蓝图。习近平总书记在党的二十大报告中郑重宣告:“从现在起,中国共产党的中心任务就是团结带领全国各族人民全面建成社会主义现代化强国、实现第二个百年奋斗目标,以中国式现代化全面推进中华民族伟大复兴。”作为图情档人,我们必须认真学习宣传贯彻党的二十大精神,深刻领会二十大的内涵实质,通过加强我们自身的学科建设贯彻落实二十大会议精神,反思传统的学科建设存在的问题,以中国式现代化统领学科建设发展,积极面对一级学科更名后信息资源管理学科建设的新挑战,做好学科建设的谋篇布局,更好地适应国家的战略需求。

  • 不变流形生长公式及其在磁约束聚变中的应用

    分类: 物理学 >> 气体、等离子体、放电物理 分类: 数学 >> 数学(综合) 提交时间: 2022-11-26

    摘要:过去的研究中已发现偏滤器上螺旋条带状的热负荷分布,其磁场的结构对如何增大热负荷湿区以降低偏滤器材料的耐热要求至为关键。本文将磁拓扑相关的概念形式化以利用动力系统中的知识。对于一般三维向量场拓扑的理解,环和鞍环上生长出的不变流形至为关键,本文进行有详细分析。Poincaré 映射的 Jacobian 在环上如何演化,文中给出其公式。鞍环的不变流形从 Poincaré 映射的 Jacobian 矩阵的特征向量上长出,它们对混沌场区的确定十分重要,混沌场会在等离子体中造成一定的混合效应。就三维连续时间动力系统,本文推导得到柱坐标中不变流形的生长公式。

  • 内源性空间线索有效性对老年人视听觉整合的影响

    分类: 心理学 >> 认知心理学 分类: 心理学 >> 实验心理学 提交时间: 2022-11-26

    摘要:

    视听觉整合是将视觉和听觉信息整合成为统一、连贯且稳定的知觉过程。研究采用内源性线索−靶子范式,探讨了不同内源性空间线索有效性对老年人视听觉整合的影响,以及不同线索有效性条件下老年人和青年人视听觉整合的差异。结果表明,(1)无论线索有效性的高低,老年人的视听觉整合均弱于青年人;(2)低线索有效性(50%)条件下,老年人和青年人在有效线索条件下视听觉整合效应均与无效线索条件下没有差异;(3)中线索有效性(70%)条件下,老年人在有效线索条件下视听觉整合效应与无效线索条件下没有差异,青年人在有效线索条件下视听觉整合效应显著高于无效线索条件;(4)高线索有效性(90%)条件下,老年人和青年人在有效线索条件下视听觉整合效应均显著高于无效线索条件。研究结果支持了空间不确定性假说,并且进一步揭示了内源性注意与视听觉整合的交互作用,明确了不同线索有效性条件下内源性空间注意定向收益的不同是导致老年人与青年人视听觉整合差异的原因之一。

  • 基于引文内容分析法的刘国钧《近代图书馆之性质及功用》影响研究

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:

    《近代图书馆之性质及功用》是刘国钧先生早期图书馆学代表作,其对当今图书馆学研究的影响值得探索。使用引文内容分析法,构建指标体系,从引用方式、引用内容、引用位置、引用情感、引文的作用对该文的施引文献进行标注,统计该文被引情况,使用质性分析方法对引文内容进行编码并提炼出核心范畴,分析该文影响。《近代图书馆之性质及功用》影响时间长,主要影响的研究领域为图书馆学史,文中对古代藏书特点的总结、近代图书馆性质的描述、关于图书馆是一种制度的观点被引较多。该文不仅具有历史价值,对今天的图书馆学研究也具有一定启迪作用。

  • 引文分析视角下的中国古诗词用典问题初探

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:基于引文分析视角对中国古诗词用典问题进行理论分析和实证研究,致力于促进传统人文研究范式向当前大数据时代基于数据驱动的量化研究范式的转变与拓展,推动中国古诗词用典研究与文献计量学方法的交叉融合与创新性发展。首先通过对中国古诗词用典行为(现象)与学术论文引用行为(现象)之间异同点的比较对照,对古诗词用典现象的产生与发展、用典动机与用典行为、用典关系与用典网络等进行理论分析;其次,选用《全宋词》和《全宋词典故辞典》等语料,从施典维度和典源维度对宋词用典开展量化实证研究。中国古诗词用典现象历史悠久,研究议题丰富,现阶段亟需研究范式的创新和转变。通过理论分析和实证结果可以看出,引文分析法有助于在较大规模古诗词语料上开展更深入的探索。目前研究存在的最大困难在于典故自动识别和提取。未来需加强与 NLP技术的密切结合,致力在典故识别提取、用典动机与用典行为分类、用典网络与典故知识图谱构建等问题上提出更有效的自动化解决方案和量化分析策略,以有力促进传统人文研究范式由理论阐释到实证解读、由主观判断到客观揭示、由定性分析到定量分析的转变,并在更多数字人文研究议题上产生出具有创新性的成果。

  • 学者画像研究综述

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:

    对学者画像研究进行梳理,为其相关研究提供参考。通过文献调研与分析,对学者画像及其相关概念进行辨析,归纳总结学者画像的构建流程、关键技术以及主要的应用,并分析目前研究面临的挑战。学者画像的构建流程包含数据搜集、数据预处理、学者标签构造与可视化分析,主要实践应用包括专家推荐、学术资源推荐和科研能力评价。当前相关研究面临多源数据获取与融合难度大、学者画像动态更新研究困难以及有效评价机制缺乏等挑战。

  • 网络分析在数字人文中的应用框架

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:

    网络分析作为有效的分析手段与可视化方式,是数字人文领域应用最广泛的方向之一。对网络分析在数字人文领域的应用进行系统总结与归纳,有助于数字人文研究人员快速明确网络分析的能力与局限,以便开展更深层次的研究实践。采用内容分析法对发表在国际数字人文领域最有影响力的期刊和国际数字人文会议上近5年的文章进行梳理与总结,从研究问题、数据集、网络特性、网络分析指标4个方面进行梳理,最终提炼出网络分析方法在数字人文领域的应用框架。该应用框架包括三类数据规模(单一文本、平行文本和语料库)、五大应用场景(角色分析网络、人物关联网络、话语空间网络、文本关联网络、文化主题网络)、两种指标规模(全局指标和局部指标)以及五类指标类型(构成、密度、中心度、派系和结构)。

  • 新冠疫情下的数字鸿沟:研究进展与新兴数字不平等

    分类: 管理学 >> 公共管理 提交时间: 2022-11-26

    摘要:

    数字鸿沟关注数字媒体的获取、使用和结果,是一门涉及传播学、社会学、心理学、经济学和教育学等多个学科的跨学科研究。在新冠疫情的影响下,有关数字鸿沟的探讨再次掀起热潮,数字鸿沟问题已经成为全球范围内迫切需要解决的难题之一。文章首先从互联网的获取、使用和效益三个层次系统回顾和梳理了数字鸿沟概念的演进历程和与研究进展;其次,着重探讨了新冠疫情对数字鸿沟的影响及其在城乡差异、在线教育、在线医疗等方面的具体体现;最后,结合数字鸿沟的动态演变特性,从算法知识、数字劳动与数字剥削以及个人信息保护三个角度分析了大数据时代数字不平等的新维度。通过研究在理论上指明了数字不平等研究的未来发展方向与研究重点,对数字鸿沟领域的理论探索具有一定的推动作用,实践上为数字鸿沟现实问题的解决提供思路参考。

  • 参与智库活动对中国图情学者学术成果的影响探析

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:中国图情学者是智库研究的主力军,探析参与智库活动对中国图情学者学术成果的影响,对于推动产学研合作、加强智库人才队伍建设具有重要意义。采用描述分析、多元回归分析和多期双重差分法,探析中国图情学者参与智库活动对其学术成果的影响。研究发现,中国图情学者参与智库活动的形式主要有任职学会委员、智库兼职、任职教育部专业委员、参与政府决策和参与智库发展论坛。其中,除了参与智库发展论坛,前两类形式的参与人数最多;智库兼职和任职教育部专业委员可以显著提高中国图情学者的学术成果数量,智库兼职可以显著增强其学术成果合作,任职教育部专业委员可以显著提升其学术成果质量;参与智库活动对中年组学者的学术成果有显著影响。

  • 情报理论探索中的几个基本问题

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:

    不确定性是情报工作面临的主要问题,应对不确定性的情报研究是情报理论与实践的基本议题。阐述针对不确定性的情报理论探索中必须解决的几个情报认知基本问题,包括:情报基本概念、情报任务场景、情报评估诉求、情报分析方法、情报理论研究、情报体系能力和情报学科建设。提出情报工作者针对不确定性问题进行研究分析的规范做法应当是“破除称谓困扰,兼顾发展安全,立足资源整序,重视感知刻画,突出线索发现,强化体系能力”

  • 50年来全球信息政策研究的阶段化演进历程、逻辑与展望

    分类: 图书馆学、情报学 >> 图书馆学 提交时间: 2022-11-26 合作期刊: 《图书情报工作》

    摘要:

  • A Journal for Human and Machine

    分类: 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能(英文)》

    摘要:It is with great pride to bring you this new journal of Data Intelligence. This journal has at least two major purposes that we hope embrace. First, it will embrace the traditional role of a journal in helping to facilitate the communication of research and best practices in scientific data sharing, especially across disciplines, an area that is continually growing in importance for the modern practice of science. Second, we will be experimenting with new methods of enhancing the sharing of this communication, and examples of the field, by utilizing the increasing power of intelligent computing systems to further facilitate the growth of the field. The journal’s title, combining “data,” the field we will support, and “intelligence,” a means to that end, is meant to connote this growing interaction.

  • AMiner: Search and Mining of Academic Social Networks

    分类: 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能(英文)》

    摘要:AMiner is a novel online academic search and mining system, and it aims to provide a systematic modeling approach to help researchers and scientists gain a deeper understanding of the large and heterogeneous networks formed by authors, papers, conferences, journals and organizations. The system is subsequently able to extract researchers’ profiles automatically from the Web and integrates them with published papers by a way of a process that first performs name disambiguation. Then a generative probabilistic model is devised to simultaneously model the different entities while providing a topic-level expertise search. In addition, AMiner offers a set of researcher-centered functions, including social influence analysis, relationship mining, collaboration recommendation, similarity analysis and community evolution. The system has been in operation since 2006 and has been accessed from more than 8 million independent IP addresses residing in more than 200 countries and regions.

  • The Sharamurunian rodent fauna in the Erlian Basin, Nei Mongol, China

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:

    New middle Eocene rodent fossils discovered from the lower part of the Shara Murun Formation of Ula Usu, Erlian Basin, Nei Mongol, China, the classical locality of Sharamurunian mammalian fauna, were identified as 9 separate species (the ctenodactyloids Yuomys cavioides, Gobiomys neimongolensis, G. exiguus, and G. asiaticus, the dipodids Allosminthus uniconjugatus and Primisminthus shanghenus, the cricetid Pappocricetodon rencunensis, the ischyromyid Hulgana cf. H. ertnia, and the cylindrodontid Proardynomys ulausuensis) belonging to 7 genera, 4 families, and 1 superfamily of Rodentia. The Ula Usu rodent assemblage shares a high degree of similarity with that from the “Lower Red” beds of the Erden Obo, and they both represent the typical Sharamurunian rodent assemblages found in northern China. The Sharamurunian rodent fauna in the Erlian Basin is analyzed by the minimum number of individuals based on the rodent materials from the lower part of the Shara Murun Formation in the Ula Usu and the “Lower Red” beds of the Erden Obo. In the Sharamurunian rodent fauna of the Erlian Basin, ctenodactyloids are the most dominant elements, and dipodids and cricetids follow next in prevalence. By analyzing the evolution of the rodent species richness in the Erlian Basin, the rodent faunas show a transformation from a ctenodactyloid dominant assemblage to a cricetid-dipodid dominant one in chronological order. The Sharamurunian rodent fauna from the Erlian Basin differs from that of the Yuanqu Basin and the differences in the rodent assemblages may be a response to the differences between the regional environments.

  • The pelvic morphology of Parayunnanolepis (Placodermi, Antiarcha) revealed by tomographic data

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:

    The pelvic morphology, and whether the pelvic fin is present or absent in the earliest jawed vertebrates are key in interpreting the origin of vertebrate paired fins. Parayunnanolepis xitunensis, an antiarch placoderm from the Early Devonian of Yunnan, South China, was previously described to possess the earliest evidence of both dermal and endoskeletal pelvic girdles, presumably for the attachment of the pelvic fins. Here, we redescribe the pelvic region of the holotype based on high-resolution computed tomographic data. Instead of having two large plates previously designated as dermal pelvic girdles, Parayunnanolepis possesses three pairs of lateral pelvic plates, and one large oval median pelvic plate. The paired pelvic plates are flat ventral plates, and differ from other dermal pelvic girdles in lacking a dorsal extension. There is no definitive evidence for the presence of an endoskeletal pelvic girdle in Parayunnanolepis, although the possibility cannot be ruled out. A comparison of the dermal pelvic plates in various jawed stem-gnathostomes suggests the presence of both paired and median pelvic plates is shared by different lineages and might be plesiomorphic. The jawed stem-gnathostomes may have recruited the ventral dermal skeleton of the post-thoracic body into different functional units.

  • Sustainability in Data and Food

    分类: 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能(英文)》

    摘要:As the world population continues to increase, world food production is not keeping up. This means that to continue to feed the world, we will need to optimize the production and utilization of food around the globe. Optimization of a process on a global scale requires massive data. Agriculture is no exception, but also brings its own unique issues, based on how wide spread agricultural data are, and the wide variety of data that is relevant to optimization of food production and supply. This suggests that we need a global data ecosystem for agriculture and nutrition. Such an ecosystem already exists to some extent, made up of data sets, metadata sets and even search engines that help to locate and utilize data sets. A key concept behind this is sustainability—how do we sustain our data sets, so that we can sustain our production and distribution of food? In order to make this vision a reality, we need to navigate the challenges for sustainable data management on a global scale. Starting from the current state of practice, how do we move forward to a practice in which we make use of global data to have an impact on world hunger? In particular, how do we find, collect and manage the data? How can this be effectively deployed to improve practice in the field? And how can we make sure that these practices are leading to the global goals of improving production, distribution and sustainability of the global food supply? These questions cannot be answered yet, but they are the focus of ongoing and future research to be published in this journal and elsewhere.

  • From Persistent Identifiers to Digital Objects to Make Data Science More Efficient

    分类: 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能(英文)》

    摘要:Data-intensive science is reality in large scientific organizations such as the Max Planck Society, but due to the inefficiency of our data practices when it comes to integrating data from different sources, many projects cannot be carried out and many researchers are excluded. Since about 80% of the time in data#2;intensive projects is wasted according to surveys we need to conclude that we are not fit for the challenges that will come with the billions of smart devices producing continuous streams of data—our methods do not scale. Therefore experts worldwide are looking for strategies and methods that have a potential for the future. The first steps have been made since there is now a wide agreement from the Research Data Alliance to the FAIR principles that data should be associated with persistent identifiers (PIDs) and metadata (MD). In fact after 20 years of experience we can claim that there are trustworthy PID systems already in broad use. It is argued, however, that assigning PIDs is just the first step. If we agree to assign PIDs and also use the PID to store important relationships such as pointing to locations where the bit sequences or different metadata can be accessed, we are close to defining Digital Objects (DOs) which could indeed indicate a solution to solve some of the basic problems in data management and processing. In addition to standardizing the way we assign PIDs, metadata and other state information we could also define a Digital Object Access Protocol as a universal exchange protocol for DOs stored in repositories using different data models and data organizations. We could also associate a type with each DO and a set of operations allowed working on its content which would facilitate the way to automatic processing which has been identified as the major step for scalability in data science and data industry. A globally connected group of experts is now working on establishing testbeds for a DO-based data infrastructure.

  • XLORE2: Large-Scale Cross-Lingual Knowledge Graph Construction and Application

    分类: 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能(英文)》

    摘要:Knowledge bases (KBs) are often greatly incomplete, necessitating a demand for KB completion. Although XLORE is an English-Chinese bilingual knowledge graph, there are only 423,974 cross-lingual links between English instances and Chinese instances. We present XLORE2, an extension of the XLORE that is built automatically from Wikipedia, Baidu Baike and Hudong Baike. We add more facts by making cross-lingual knowledge linking, cross-lingual property matching and fine-grained type inference. We also design an entity linking system to demonstrate the effectiveness and broad coverage of XLORE2.

  • FAIR Science for Social Machines: Let’s Share Metadata Knowlets in the Internet of FAIR Data and Services

    分类: 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间: 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能(英文)》

    摘要:In a world awash with fragmented data and tools, the notion of Open Science has been gaining a lot of momentum, but simultaneously, it caused a great deal of anxiety. Some of the anxiety may be related to crumbling kingdoms, but there are also very legitimate concerns, especially about the relative role of machines and algorithms as compared to humans and the combination of both (i.e., social machines). There are also grave concerns about the connotations of the term “open”, but also regarding the unwanted side effects as well as the scalability of the approaches advocated by early adopters of new methodological developments. Many of these concerns are associated with mind-machine interaction and the critical role that computers are now playing in our day to day scientific practice. Here we address a number of these concerns and provide some possible solutions. FAIR (machine-actionable) data and services are obviously at the core of Open Science (or rather FAIR science). The scalable and transparent routing of data, tools and compute (to run the tools on) is a key central feature of the envisioned Internet of FAIR Data and Services (IFDS). Both the European Commission in its Declaration on the European Open Science Cloud, the G7, and the USA data commons have identified the need to ensure a solid and sustainable infrastructure for Open Science. Here we first define the term FAIR science as opposed to Open Science. In FAIR science, data and the associated tools are all Findable, Accessible under well defined conditions, Interoperable and Reusable, but not necessarily “open”; without restrictions and certainly not always “gratis”. The ambiguous term “open” has already caused considerable confusion and also opt-out reactions from researchers and other data#2;intensive professionals who cannot make their data open for very good reasons, such as patient privacy or national security. Although Open Science is a definition for a way of working rather than explicitly requesting for all data to be available in full Open Access, the connotation of openness of the data involved in Open Science is very strong. In FAIR science, data and the associated services to run all processes in the data stewardship cycle from design of experiment to capture to curation, processing, linking and analytics all have minimally FAIR metadata, which specify the conditions under which the actual underlying research objects are reusable, first for machines and then also for humans. This effectively means that—properly conducted— Open Science is part of FAIR science. However, FAIR science can also be done with partly closed, sensitive and proprietary data. As has been emphasized before, FAIR is not identical to “open”. In FAIR/Open Science, data should be as open as possible and as closed as necessary. Where data are generated using public funding, the default will usually be that for the FAIR data resulting from the study the accessibility will be as high as possible, and that more restrictive access and licensing policies on these data will have to be explicitly justified and described. In all cases, however, even if the reuse is restricted, data and related services should be findable for their major uses, machines, which will make them also much better findable for human users. With a tendency to make good data stewardship the norm, a very significant new market for distributed data analytics and learning is opening and a plethora of tools and reusable data objects are being developed and released. These all need FAIR metadata to be routed to each other and to be effective.