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  • Biased tracer reconstruction with halo mass information

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Plenty of crucial information about our Universe is encoded in the cosmic large-scale structure (LSS). However, the extractions of these information are usually hindered by the nonlinearities of the LSS, which can be largely alleviated by various techniques known as the reconstruction. In realistic applications, the efficiencies of these methods are always degraded by many limiting factors, a quite important one being the shot noise induced by the finite number density of biased matter tracers (i.e., luminous galaxies or dark matter halos) in observations. In this work, we explore the gains of biased tracer reconstruction achieved from halo mass information, which can suppress shot noise component and dramatically improves the cross-correlation between tracer field and dark matter. To this end, we first closely study the clustering biases and the stochasticity properties of halo fields with various number densities under different weighting schemes, i.e., the uniform, mass and optimal weightings. Then, we apply the biased tracer reconstruction method to these different weighted halo fields and investigate how linear bias and observational mass scatter affect the reconstruction performance. Our results demonstrate that halo masses are critical information for significantly improving the performance of biased tracer reconstruction, indicating a great application potential for substantially promoting the precision of cosmological measurements [especially for baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO)] in the ambitious on-going and future galaxy surveys.

  • High-energy neutrinos and gamma rays from winds and tori in active galactic nuclei

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Powerful winds with wide opening angles, likely driven by accretion disks around black holes (BHs), are observed in the majority of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and can play a crucial role in AGN and galaxy evolution. If protons are accelerated in the wind near the BH via diffusive shock acceleration, $p\gamma$ processes with AGN photons generate neutrinos as well as pair cascade emission from the gamma-ray to radio bands. The TeV neutrinos detected by IceCube from the obscured Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 can be interpreted consistently if the shock velocity is appreciably lower than the local escape velocity, which may correspond to a failed, line-driven wind that is physically well motivated. Although the $p\gamma$-induced cascade is $\gamma\gamma$-attenuated above a few MeV, it can still contribute significantly to the sub-GeV gamma rays observed from NGC 1068. At higher energies, gamma rays can arise via $pp$ processes from a shock where an outgoing wind impacts the obscuring torus, along with some observable radio emission. Tests and implications of this model are discussed. Neutrinos and gamma rays may offer unique probes of AGN wind launching sites, particularly for objects obscured in other forms of radiation.

  • Preliminary Study of Photometric Redshifts Based on the Wide Field Survey Telescope

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-01-09 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The Wide Field Survey Telescope (WFST) is a dedicated time-domain multi-band (u, g, r, i, and z) photometric survey facility under construction. In this paper, we present a preliminary study that assesses the quality of photometric redshifts based on WFST by utilizing mock observations derived with the galaxy catalog in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. We apply the template fitting technique to estimate photometric redshifts by using the ZEBRA photometric-redshift code and adopting a modified set of adaptive templates. We evaluate the bias (median relative offset between the output photometric redshifts and input redshifts), normalized median absolute deviation (σNMAD) and outlier fraction (foutlier) of photometric redshifts in two typical WFST observational cases, the single 30 s exposure observations (hereafter shallow mode) and co-added 50 minutes exposure observations (hereafter deep mode). We find bias ≲0.006, σNMAD ≲ 0.03, and foutlier ≲ 5% in the shallow mode and bias ≈0.005, σNMAD ≈ 0.06, and foutlier ≈ 17%–27% in the deep mode, respectively, under various lunar phases. Combining the WFST mock observational data with that from the upcoming CSST and Euclid surveys, we demonstrate that the zphot results can be significantly improved, with foutlier ≈ 1% and σNMAD ≈ 0.02.

  • Particle acceleration in shearing flows: the case for large-scale jets

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: X-ray observations of kilo-parsec scale jets indicate that a synchrotron origin of the sustained non-thermal emission is likely. This requires distributed acceleration of electrons up to near PeV energies along the jet. The underlying acceleration mechanism is still unclear. Shear acceleration is a promising candidate, as velocity-shear stratification is a natural consequence of the collimated flow of a jet. We study the details of shear acceleration by solving the steady-state Fokker-Planck-type equation and provide a simple general solution for trans-relativistic jets for a range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent power-law spectra. In general, the accelerated particle population is a power-law spectrum with an exponential-like cut-off, where the power-law index is determined by the turbulence spectrum and the balance of escape and acceleration of particles. Adopting a simple linearly decreasing velocity profile in the boundary of large-scale jets, we find that the multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution of X-ray jets, such as Centaurus A and 3C 273, can be reproduced with electrons that are accelerated up to $\sim$ PeV. In kpc-scale jets, protons may be accelerated up to $\sim$ EeV, supporting the hypothesis that large-scale jets are strong candidates for ultra-high-energy-cosmic-ray sources within the framework of shear acceleration.

  • Tunable plasmonic devices by integrating graphene with ferroelectric nanocavity

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Graphene plasmons are able to become the fundermental of novel conceptual photonic devices, resulting from their unique characteristics containing excitation at room temperature and tunable spectral selectivity in different frequencies. The pursuit of efficiently exciting and manipulating graphene plasmons is necessary and significant for high-performance devices. Here, we investigate graphene plasmon wave propagating in ferroelectric nanocavity array. We experimentally show that the the periodic ferroelectric polarizations could be used for doping graphene into desired spatial carrier density patterns. Based on a theoretical model that considers periodic ununiform conductivity across graphene sheet, the simulation results show surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in graphene can be excited by an incident light in a similar way to the excitation of photonic crystal resonant modes. The graphene SPP resonance can be tuned from ~720 to ~1 000 cm-1 by rescaling the ferroelectric nanocavity array, and from ~540 to ~780 cm-1 by dynamically changing the applied gate voltage. Our strategy of graphene carrier engineering to excite SPP offers a promissing way for large-scale, non-destructive fabrication of novel graphene photonic devices.

  • Ground-state cooling of multiple near-degenerate mechanical modes

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We propose a general and experimentally feasible approach to realize simultaneous ground-state cooling of arbitrary number of near-degenerate, or even fully degenerate mechanical modes, overcoming the limit imposed by the formation of mechanical dark modes. Multiple optical modes are employed to provide different dissipation channels that prevent complete destructive interference of the cooling pathway, and thus eliminating the dark modes. The cooling rate and limit are explicitly specified, in which the distinguishability of the optical modes to the mechanical modes is found to be critical for an efficient cooling process. In a realistic multi-mode optomechanical system, ground-state cooling of all mechanical modes is demonstrated by sequentially introducing optical drives, proving the feasibility and scalability of the proposed scheme. The work may provide new insights in preparing and manipulating multiple quantum states in macroscopic systems.

  • Ferroelectric superdomain controlled graphene plasmon for tunable mid-infrared photodetector with dual-band spectral selectivity

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Dual-band infrared photodetectors (DBIPs) can discriminate desired signals from complex scenes and thus are highly expected for threat-warning, remote sensing, and astronomy applications. Conventional DBIPs with high-performances are, however, typically based on semiconductor thin films, but remain the challenges of complex spatial align, expensive growth and cooling requirement. Here, we report a tunable graphene plasmonic photodetector with dual-band infrared spectral selectivity driven by ferroelectric superdomain. The periodic ferroelectric polarization array with nanoscale ring shapes provides ultrahigh electrostatic field for spatially doping of monolayer graphene to desired patterns, and is further used to excite and confine intrinsic graphene plasmons. Our devices exhibit tunable resonance photoresponse in both two bands of 3.7-16.3 um and 15.1-52.1 um. The numerical calculations show that our devices own ultrahigh responsivities of 667-1080 A W-1 at room temperature in range of 5-50 um. Our devices make possible the applications of infrared imaging system and both stationary and motion state of objects detection. These investigations provide a novel approach for advanced infrared system construction by employing simple, low-cost, uncooling multispectral detectors array.

  • Cross section determination of 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction induced by 14 MeV neutrons uniting with D-T neutron activation and AMS techniques

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-11

    摘要: Aluminum is the primary structural material in nuclear engineering, and its cross-section induced by 14 MeV neutrons is of great significance. To address the issue of insufficient accuracy for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction cross-section, the activation method and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique were used to determine the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross-section, which could be used as a D-T plasma ion temperature monitor in fusion reactors. At the China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), neutron activation was performed using a K-400 neutron generator produced by the T(d,n)4He reaction. The 26Al/27Al isotope ratios were measured using the newly installed GYIG 1 MV AMS at the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The neutron flux was monitored by measuring the activity of 92mNb produced by the 93Nb(n,2n)92mNb reaction. The measured results were compared with available data in the experimental nuclear reaction database, and the measured values showed a reasonable degree of consistency with partially available literature data. Thenewly acquired cross-sectional data at 12 neutron energy points through systematic measurements clarified the divergence, which has two different growth trends from the existing experimental values. The obtained results are also compared with the corresponding evaluated database, and the newly calculated excitation functions with TALYS-1.95 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes, the agreement with CENDL-3.2, TENDL-2021 and EMPIRE-3.2 results are generally acceptable. A substantial improvement in the knowledge of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction excitation function was obtained in the present work, which will lay the foundation for the diagnosis of the fusion ion temperature, testing of the nuclear physics model, and evaluation of nuclear data, etc.

  • Sensitivity tests of cosmic velocity fields to massive neutrinos

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate impacts of massive neutrinos on the cosmic velocity fields, employing high-resolution cosmological $N$-body simulations provided by the information-optimized CUBE code, where cosmic neutrinos are evolved using collisionless hydrodynamics and their perturbations can be accurately resolved. In this study we focus, for the first time, on the analysis of massive-neutrino induced suppression effects in various cosmic velocity field components of velocity magnitude, divergence, vorticity and dispersion. By varying the neutrino mass sum $M_\nu$ from 0 -- 0.4 eV, the simulations show that, the power spectra of vorticity -- exclusively sourced by non-linear structure formation that is affected by massive neutrinos significantly -- is very sensitive to the mass sum, which potentially provide novel signatures in detecting massive neutrinos. Furthermore, using the chi-square statistic, we quantitatively test the sensitivity of the density and velocity power spectra to the neutrino mass sum. Indeed, we find that, the vorticity spectrum has the highest sensitivity, and the null hypothesis of massless neutrinos is incompatible with both vorticity and divergence spectra from $M_\nu=0.1$ eV at high significance ($p$-value $= 0.03$ and $0.07$, respectively). These results demonstrate clearly the importance of peculiar velocity field measurements, in particular of vorticity and divergence components, in determination of neutrino mass and mass hierarchy.

  • A power-free graphene mid-infrared photodetector array

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Graphene plasmons can resonantly enhance the incident light absorption and offer a potential for tunable spectral selectivity for mid-infrared (MIR) detection. High-performance tunable graphene plasmonic devices are, however, typically based on electrode-patterned graphene, which requires high power input and are technologically challenging in compact assembly. Here we demonstrate a tunable MIR photodetector array operating at zero input bias voltage. Our devices consist of integrating monolayer graphene with periodically "type-printed" ferroelectric superdomain. The spatial graphene carrier density patterns can be readily modulated by artificially defined ferroelectric superdomain with periodic nanoscale-wide stripe domains, achieving nonuniform pattering of conductivity and subsequently enabling graphene plasmons excitation and confinement for a selective transmission resonance in MIR regime. A high photoresponsivity of ~30 mA W-1 at room temperature is achieved in our device. We also observe that our device array features a tunable detection performance with spectral selectivity from 7.2 to 8.5 {\mu}m by directly reconfiguring the periodicity of ferroelectric superdomain. Our strategy could lead to the development of smart fabrication of on-chip MIR photodetector array for application of tunable spectral systems with low-energy consumption.

  • Reciprocal phase transition-enabled electro-optic modulation

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Electro-optic (EO) modulation is a well-known and essential topic in the field of communications and sensing. Its ultrahigh efficiency is unprecedentedly desired in the current green and data era. However, dramatically increasing the modulation efficiency is difficult due to the monotonic mapping relationship between the electrical signal and modulated optical signal. Here, a new mechanism termed phase-transition EO modulation is revealed from the reciprocal transition between two distinct phase planes arising from the bifurcation. Remarkably, a monolithically integrated mode-locked laser (MLL) is implemented as a prototype. A 24.8-GHz radio-frequency signal is generated and modulated, achieving a modulation energy efficiency of 3.06 fJ/bit improved by about four orders of magnitude and a contrast ratio exceeding 50 dB. Thus, MLL-based phase-transition EO modulation is characterised by ultrahigh modulation efficiency and ultrahigh contrast ratio, as experimentally proved in radio-over-fibre and underwater acoustic-sensing systems. This phase-transition EO modulation opens a new avenue for green communication and ubiquitous connections.