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  • Spectral evolution of an eruptive polar crown prominence with IRIS observations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Prominence eruption is closely related to coronal mass ejections and is an important topic in solar physics. Spectroscopic observation is an effective way to explore the plasma properties, but the spectral observations of eruptive prominences are rare. In this paper we will introduce an eruptive polar crown prominence with spectral observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), and try to explain some phenomena that are rarely reported in previous works. The eruptive prominence experiences a slow-rise and fast-rise phase, while the line-of-sight motions of the prominence plasma could be divided into three periods: two hours before the fast-rise phase, opposite Doppler shifts are found at the two sides of the prominence axis;then, red shifts dominate the prominence gradually; in the fast-rise phase, the prominence gets to be blue-shifted. During the second period, a faint component appears in Mg II k window with a narrow line width and a large red shift. A faint region is also found in AIA 304-angstrom images along the prominence spine, and the faint region gets darker during the expansion of the spine. We propose that the opposite Doppler shifts in the first period are a feature of the polar crown prominence that we studied. The red shifts in the second period are possibly due to mass drainage during the elevation of the prominence spine, which could accelerate the eruption in return. The blue shifts in the third period are due to that the prominence erupts toward the observer. We suggest that the faint component appears due to the decreasing of the plasma density, and the latter results from the expansion of the prominence spine.

  • Does the non-force-freeness matter for the extrapolation of solar magnetic field?

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Magnetic field extrapolation is a fundamental tool to reconstruct the three-dimensional solar coronal magnetic field. However, the prevalently used force-free field model might not be applicable in the lower atmosphere, where plasma \b{eta} is greater than 1. In this work, we perform extrapolation in active region 12158, based on an updated magnetohydrostatic (MHS) method. By comparing the results with those from the force-free field method of Current-Field Iteration in Spherical Coordinates (CFITS), we find that the overall properties, which are characterized by the magnetic free energy and helicity, are roughly the same after volume integral. The major differences lie in the magnetic configuration and the twist number of magnetic flux rope (MFR). A coherent MFR with twist around 1 is reproduced from CFITS. In another manner, two sets of MFR, which are highly twisted and slightly coupled, are derived by the MHS method. The latter one is better constrained by the high-resolution observations, such as the filament fibrils, pre-eruptive braiding characteristics and the eruptive double-J shaped hot channel. Overall, our work shows the MHS method is more promising to reproduce the magnetic fine structures that can well match the observations not only in the chromosphere but also in the corona. This initiates the necessity of reconsidering the simplification of low atmosphere for currently widely used nonlinear force-free extrapolation method, since such assumption will not only omit the magnetic structures at low atmosphere but also affect those obtained in the corona, and therefore bringing in ambiguity in interpreting the solar eruption.

  • Does the non-force-freeness matter for the extrapolation of solar magnetic field?

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Magnetic field extrapolation is a fundamental tool to reconstruct the three-dimensional solar coronal magnetic field. However, the prevalently used force-free field model might not be applicable in the lower atmosphere, where plasma \b{eta} is greater than 1. In this work, we perform extrapolation in active region 12158, based on an updated magnetohydrostatic (MHS) method. By comparing the results with those from the force-free field method of Current-Field Iteration in Spherical Coordinates (CFITS), we find that the overall properties, which are characterized by the magnetic free energy and helicity, are roughly the same after volume integral. The major differences lie in the magnetic configuration and the twist number of magnetic flux rope (MFR). A coherent MFR with twist around 1 is reproduced from CFITS. In another manner, two sets of MFR, which are highly twisted and slightly coupled, are derived by the MHS method. The latter one is better constrained by the high-resolution observations, such as the filament fibrils, pre-eruptive braiding characteristics and the eruptive double-J shaped hot channel. Overall, our work shows the MHS method is more promising to reproduce the magnetic fine structures that can well match the observations not only in the chromosphere but also in the corona. This initiates the necessity of reconsidering the simplification of low atmosphere for currently widely used nonlinear force-free extrapolation method, since such assumption will not only omit the magnetic structures at low atmosphere but also affect those obtained in the corona, and therefore bringing in ambiguity in interpreting the solar eruption.

  • Strong Magnetic Fields Play Important Role in the Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G11.11-0.12

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report on the near-infrared polarimetric observations of G11.11--0.12 with the 1.4 m IRSF telescope. The starlight polarization of the background stars reveals the magnetic fields in the envelope of G11.11--0.12, which are consistent in orientation with the magnetic fields obtained from submillimeter dust polarization. The magnetic fields in G11.11--0.12 are perpendicular to the filament in a large column density range, independent of the relative orientations of G11.11--0.12. The field strength on the plane of the sky in G11.11--0.12 has a typical value of $152\pm17\,\mu$G. The analyses of the magnetic fields and gas velocity dispersion indicate that the envelope of G11.11--0.12 is supersonic and sub-Alfv{\'e}nic to trans-Alfv{\'e}nic. The mass-to-flux ratio in the outer part of the envelope is $\lesssim 1$ and slightly increases to $\gtrsim 1$ closer to the filament. The weights on the relative importance of magnetic fields, turbulence and gravity indicate that gravity has been dominating the dynamical state of G11.11--0.12, with significant contribution from magnetic fields. The field strength increases slower than the gas density from the envelope to the spine of G11.11--0.12, characterized by the relation $B\propto n^{0.2}$. The observed strength and orientation of magnetic fields in G11.11--0.12 imply that supersonic gas flow is channelled by sub-Alfv{\'e}nic magnetic fields and is assembled into filaments perpendicular to the magnetic fields. The formation of low-mass stars is enhanced in the filaments with high column density, in agreement with the excess in numbers of low-mass protostars detected in one of the densest part of G11.11--0.12.

  • X-ray fine structure of a limb solar flare revealed by Insight-HXMT, RHESSI and Fermi

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We conduct a detailed analysis of an M1.3 limb flare occurring on 2017 July 3, which have the X-ray observations recorded by multiple hard X-ray telescopes, including Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (Insight-HXMT), Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FERMI). Joint analysis has also used the EUV imaging data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The hard X-ray spectral and imaging evolution suggest a lower corona source, and the non-thermal broken power law distribution has a rather low break energy $\sim$ 15 keV. The EUV imaging shows a rather stable plasma configuration before the hard X-ray peak phase, and accompanied by a filament eruption during the hard X-ray flare peak phase. Hard X-ray image reconstruction from RHESSI data only shows one foot point source. We also determined the DEM for the peak phase by SDO/AIA data. The integrated EM beyond 10 MK at foot point onset after the peak phase, while the $>$ 10 MK source around reconnection site began to fade. The evolution of EM and hard X-ray source supports lower corona plasma heating after non-thermal energy dissipation. The combination of hard X-ray spectra and images during the limb flare provides the understanding on the interchange of non-thermal and thermal energies, and relation between lower corona heating and the upper corona instability.

  • Plasma heating and nanoflare caused by slow-mode wave in a coronal loop

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present a detailed analysis of a reflecting intensity perturbation in a large coronal loop that appeared as sloshing oscillation and lasted for at least one and a half periods. The perturbation is initiated by a microflare at one footpoint of the loop, propagates along the loop and is eventually reflected at the remote footpoint where significant brightenings are observed in all the AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels. This unique observation provides us with the opportunity to better understand not only the thermal properties and damping mechanisms of the sloshing oscillation, but also the energy transfer at the remote footpoint. Based on differential emission measures (DEM) analysis and the technique of coronal seismology, we find that 1) the calculated local sound speed is consistent with the observed propagation speed of the perturbation during the oscillation, which is suggestive of a slow magnetoacoustic wave; 2) thermal conduction is the major damping mechanism of the wave but additional damping mechanism such as anomalous enhancement of compressive viscosity or wave leakage is also required to account for the rapid decay of the observed waves; 3) the wave produced a nanoflare at the remote footpoint, with a peak thermal energy of $\thicksim10^{24}-10^{25}$ erg. This work provides a consistent picture of the magnetoacoustic wave propagation and reflection in a coronal loop, and reports the first solid evidence of a wave-induced nanoflare. The results reveal new clues for further simulation studies and may help solving the coronal heating problem.

  • Improved Measurements of Molecular Cloud Distances Based on Global Search

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The principle of the background-eliminated extinction-parallax (BEEP) method is examining the extinction difference between on- and off-cloud regions to reveal the extinction jump caused by molecular clouds, thereby revealing the distance in complex dust environments. The BEEP method requires high-quality images of molecular clouds and high-precision stellar parallaxes and extinction data, which can be provided by the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) CO survey and the Gaia DR2 catalog, as well as supplementary AV extinction data. In this work, the BEEP method is further improved (BEEP-II) to measure molecular cloud distances in a global search manner. Applying the BEEP-II method to three regions mapped by the MWISP CO survey, we collectively measured 238 distances for 234 molecular clouds. Compared with previous BEEP results, the BEEP-II method measures distances efficiently, particularly for those molecular clouds with large angular size or in complicated environments, making it suitable for distance measurements of molecular clouds in large samples.

  • Sensitivity impacts owing to the variations in the type of zero-range pairing forces on the fission properties using the density functional theory

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-21

    摘要: By the Skyrme density functional theory (DFT), potential energy surfaces (PES) of $^{240}$Pu with constraints on the axial quadrupole and octupole deformations($q_{20}$ and $q_{30}$) are calculated.The volume-like, and the surface-like pairing forces, and the mixing between these two forces are used, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation. The variations of the least-energy fission path, fission barrier, paring energy, total kinetic energy, scission line, and mass distribution of fission fragments by the different forms of paring force are analyzed and discussed. The fission dynamics is studied based on the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) plus Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). The results show a sensitivity of the mass and charge distributions of fission fragments to the form of the pairing force. Based on the investigation of the neutron-induced fission of $^{239}$Pu, among the volume, mixed, and surface pairing forces, the mixed-type of pairing force can give a good reproduction of experimental data.

  • Dependence of Molecular Cloud Samples on Angular Resolution, Sensitivity, and Algorithms

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In this work, we investigate the observational and algorithmic effects on molecular cloud samples identified from position-position-velocity (PPV) space. By smoothing and cutting off the high quality data of the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) survey, we extract various molecular cloud samples from those altered data with the DBSCAN (density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise) algorithm. Those molecular cloud samples are subsequently used to gauge the significance of sensitivity, angular/velocity resolution, and DBSCAN parameters. Two additional surveys, the FCRAO Outer Galaxy Survey (OGS) and the CfA-Chile 1.2 m complete CO (CfA-Chile) survey, are used to verify the MWISP results. We found that molecular cloud catalogs are not unique and the boundary and therefore the number shows strong variation with angular resolution and sensitivity. At low angular resolution (large beam sizes), molecular clouds merge together in PPV space, while low sensitivity (high cutoffs) misses small faint molecular clouds and takes bright parts of large molecular clouds as single ones. At high angular resolution and sensitivity, giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are resolved into individual clouds, and their diffuse components are also revealed. Consequently, GMCs are more appropriately interpreted as clusters or aggregates of molecular clouds, i.e., GMCs represent molecular cloud samples themselves.

  • Molecular Gas Structures traced by $^{13}$CO Emission in the 18,190 $^{12}$CO Molecular Clouds from the MWISP Survey

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: After the morphological classification of the 18,190 $^{12}$CO molecular clouds, we further investigate the properties of their internal molecular gas structures traced by the $^{13}$CO($J=$ 1$-$0) line emissions. Using three different methods to extract the $^{13}$CO gas structures within each $^{12}$CO cloud, we find that $\sim$ 15$\%$ of $^{12}$CO clouds (2851) have $^{13}$CO gas structures and these $^{12}$CO clouds contribute about 93$\%$ of the total integrated flux of $^{12}$CO emission. In each of 2851 $^{12}$CO clouds with $^{13}$CO gas structures, the $^{13}$CO emission area generally does not exceed 70$\%$ of the $^{12}$CO emission area, and the $^{13}$CO integrated flux does not exceed 20$\%$ of the $^{12}$CO integrated flux. We reveal a strong correlation between the velocity-integrated intensities of $^{12}$CO lines and those of $^{13}$CO lines in both $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO emission regions. This indicates the H$_{2}$ column densities of molecular clouds are crucial for the $^{13}$CO lines emission. After linking the $^{13}$CO structure detection rates of the 18,190 $^{12}$CO molecular clouds to their morphologies, i.e. nonfilaments and filaments, we find that the $^{13}$CO gas structures are primarily detected in the $^{12}$CO clouds with filamentary morphologies. Moreover, these filaments tend to harbor more than one $^{13}$CO structure. That demonstrates filaments not only have larger spatial scales, but also have more molecular gas structures traced by $^{13}$CO lines, i.e. the local gas density enhancements. Our results favor the turbulent compression scenario for filament formation, in which dynamical compression of turbulent flows induces the local density enhancements. The nonfilaments tend to be in the low-pressure and quiescent turbulent environments of the diffuse interstellar medium.

  • Examinations of CO completeness based on three independent CO surveys

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report the global properties recovered by an ongoing CO survey of the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) toward the Galactic outskirts. %To better understand the observational biases, Our results are also compared to those extracted by a uniform decomposition method from the CfA 1.2 m CO survey and the FCRAO 14 m outer Galaxy survey (OGS). We find that more extended and unseen structures are present in the MWISP data. The total flux across the disk recovered by the MWISP survey is 1.6 times larger than those recovered by the CfA and OGS surveys in the case of the same resolution. The discrepancies are scaling with distance. For example, in the outermost OSC arm, the flux ratios for MWISP-to-CfA and MWISP-to-OGS increase up to 43.8 and 7.4, respectively. Nonetheless, the census of molecular gas in our Galaxy is still far from complete by the MWISP, with flux completeness of $<$58%. The total mass ratios of the tabulated molecular clouds between different surveys are similar to the CO flux ratio. The application of these ratios to the total H$_{\rm 2}$ mass of our Galaxy yields a correction factor of at least 1.4, meaning that the H$_{\rm 2}$ mass of our Galaxy should be at least 40% more massive than previously determined. Including the completeness correction, an even more significant fraction of the matter should be contributed by baryonic matter. The mass spectrum in the outer Galactic plane is better described by a non-truncating power-law with $\gamma$=$-$1.83$\pm$0.05, and an upper mass of $M_0$=(1.3$\pm$0.5)$\times$10$^{\rm 6}$ $M_\odot$.

  • On the Spatial Distribution of $^{13}$CO Structures within $^{12}$CO Molecular Clouds

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We look into the 2851 $^{12}$CO molecular clouds harboring $^{13}$CO structures to reveal the distribution of the projected angular separations and radial velocity separations between their internal $^{13}$CO structures. The projected angular separations are determined using the minimal spanning tree algorithm. We find that $\sim$ 50$\%$ of the angular separations fall in a narrow range of $\sim$ 3 - 7 arcmin with a median of $\sim$ 5 arcmin, and the corresponding radial velocity separations mainly range from $\sim$ 0.3 km s$^{-1}$ to 2.5 km s$^{-1}$. The mean and standard deviation of the angular separations of the internal $^{13}$CO structures within $^{12}$CO clouds appear to be universal, independent of the $^{12}$CO cloud angular areas and the counts of their internal $^{13}$CO structures. We also reveal a scaling relation between the $^{12}$CO cloud angular area and its harbored $^{13}$CO structure count. These results suggest there is a preferred angular separation between $^{13}$CO structures in these $^{12}$CO clouds, considering the distance effects. According to that, we propose an alternative picture for the assembly and destruction of molecular clouds: there is a fundamental separation for the internal structures of molecular clouds, the build-up and destruction of molecular clouds proceeds under this fundamental unit.

  • CO Emission Delineating the Interface between the Milky Way Nuclear Wind Cavity and the Gaseous Disk

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Based on the MWISP survey, we study high-z CO emission toward the tangent points, in which the distances of the molecular clouds (MCs) are well determined. In the region of l=12-26 deg and |b| 110 pc are identified, of which nearly 30 extreme high-z MCs (EHMCs at |z|> 260 pc) are concentrated in a narrow region of R_GC=2.6-3.1 kpc. The EHMC concentrations, together with other high-z MCs at R_GC=2.3-2.6 kpc, constitute molecular crater-wall structures surrounding the edges of the HI voids that are physically associated with the Fermi bubbles. Intriguingly, some large high-z MCs, which lie in the crater walls above and below the Galactic plane, show cometary structures with the head toward the plane, favouring the scenario that the entrained molecular gas moves with the multi-phase flows from the plane to the high-z regions. We suggest that the Milky Way nuclear wind has a significant impact on the Galactic gaseous disk. The powerful nuclear wind at ~3-6 Myr ago is likely responsible for the observational features, (1) the enhanced CO gas lying in the edges of the HI voids, (2) the deficiency of atomic and molecular gas within R_GC<3 kpc, (3) the possible connection between the EHMC concentrations and the 3-kpc arm, and (4) the elongated high-z MCs with the tail pointing away from the Galactic plane.

  • On the Spatial Distribution of $^{13}$CO Structures within $^{12}$CO Molecular Clouds

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We look into the 2851 $^{12}$CO molecular clouds harboring $^{13}$CO structures to reveal the distribution of the projected angular separations and radial velocity separations between their internal $^{13}$CO structures. The projected angular separations are determined using the minimal spanning tree algorithm. We find that $\sim$ 50$\%$ of the angular separations fall in a narrow range of $\sim$ 3 - 7 arcmin with a median of $\sim$ 5 arcmin, and the corresponding radial velocity separations mainly range from $\sim$ 0.3 km s$^{-1}$ to 2.5 km s$^{-1}$. The mean and standard deviation of the angular separations of the internal $^{13}$CO structures within $^{12}$CO clouds appear to be universal, independent of the $^{12}$CO cloud angular areas and the counts of their internal $^{13}$CO structures. We also reveal a scaling relation between the $^{12}$CO cloud angular area and its harbored $^{13}$CO structure count. These results suggest there is a preferred angular separation between $^{13}$CO structures in these $^{12}$CO clouds, considering the distance effects. According to that, we propose an alternative picture for the assembly and destruction of molecular clouds: there is a fundamental separation for the internal structures of molecular clouds, the build-up and destruction of molecular clouds proceeds under this fundamental unit.

  • A wide-field CO survey towards the California Molecular Filament

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present the survey of $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO/C$^{18}$O (J=1-0) toward the California Molecular Cloud (CMC) within the region of 161.75$^{\circ} \leqslant l \leqslant$ 167.75$^{\circ}$,-9.5$^{\circ} \leqslant b \leqslant $-7.5$^{\circ}$, using the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7 m millimeter telescope. Adopting a distance of 470 pc, the mass of the observed molecular cloud estimated from $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O is about 2.59$\times$10$^{4}$ M$_\odot$, 0.85$\times$10$^{4}$ M$_\odot$, and 0.09$\times$10$^{4}$ M$_\odot$, respectively. A large-scale continuous filament extending about 72 pc is revealed from the $^{13}$CO images. A systematic velocity gradient perpendicular to the major axis appears and is measured to be $\sim$ 0.82 km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{-1}$. The kinematics along the filament shows an oscillation pattern with a fragmentation wavelength of $\sim$ 2.3 pc and velocity amplitude of $\sim$ 0.92 km s$^{-1}$, which may be related with core-forming flows. Furthermore, assuming an inclination angle to the plane of the sky of 45$^{\circ}$, the estimated average accretion rate is $\sim$ 101 M$_\odot$ Myr$^{-1}$ for the cluster LkH$\alpha$ 101 and $\sim$ 21 M$_\odot$ Myr$^{-1}$ for the other regions. In the C$^{18}$O observations, the large-scale filament could be resolved into multiple substructures and their dynamics are consistent with the scenario of filament formation from converging flows. Approximately 225 C$^{18}$O cores are extracted, of which 181 are starless cores. Roughly 37$\%$ (67/181) of the starless cores have $\alpha_{\text{vir}}$ less than 1. Twenty outflow candidates are identified along the filament. Our results indicate active early-phase star formation along the large-scale filament in the CMC region.

  • Feedback from $\gamma$~Cassiopeiae: Large Expanding Cavity, Accelerating Cometary Globules, and Peculiar X-ray Emission

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present wide-field multi-wavelength observations of $\gamma$ Cassiopeiae (or $\gamma$~Cas for short) in order to study its feedback toward the interstellar environment. A large expanding cavity is discovered toward $\gamma$~Cas in the neutral hydrogen (HI) images at a systemic velocity of about -10 km/s. The measured dimension of the cavity is roughly 2.0 deg $\times$ 1.4 deg (or 6.0 pc $\times$ 4.2 pc at a distance of 168 pc), while the expansion velocity is about 5.0$\pm$0.5 km/s. The CO observations reveal systematic velocity gradients in IC63 (about 20 km/s/pc) and IC59 (about 30 km/s/pc), two cometary globules illuminated by $\gamma$~Cas, proving fast acceleration of the globules under stellar radiation pressure. The gas kinematics indicate that the cavity is opened by strong stellar wind, which has high potential to lead to the peculiar X-ray emission observed in $\gamma$~Cas. Our result favors a recent new scenario that emphasizes the roles of stellar wind and binarity in the X-ray emission of the $\gamma$~Cas stars.

  • Molecular gas distribution perpendicular to the Galactic plane

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We use the ~370 square degrees data from the MWISP CO survey to study the vertical distribution of the molecular clouds (MCs) toward the tangent points in the region of l=[16,52]deg and |b|100pc from the Galactic plane. However, only a few samples (i.e., 32 MCs) are located in the |z|>360pc region. Typically, the discrete MCs of the thick disk population have a median peak temperature of 2.1 K, a median velocity dispersion of 0.8km/s, and a median effective radius of 2.5pc. The median surface density of these MCs is 6.8 Msun/pc^2, indicating very faint CO emission for these high-z MCs. The cloud-cloud velocity dispersion is 4.9+-1.3 km/s and a linear variation with a slope of -0.4 km/s/kpc is obtained in the region of R_GC=2.2-6.4kpc. Assuming that these clouds are supported by their turbulent motions against the gravitational pull of the disk, a model of rho0(R) = 1.28exp(-R/3.2kpc) Msun/pc^3 can be used to describe the distribution of the total mass density in the Galactic midplane.

  • High-Resolution Observations of Prominence Plume Formation with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Prominence plumes are evacuated upflows that emerge from bubbles below prominences, whose formation mechanism is still unclear. Here we present a detailed study of plumes in a quiescent prominence using the high-resolution H-alpha filtergrams at the line center as well as line wing at +/-0.4 angstrom from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. Enhancements of brightening, blue shifts, and turbulence at the fronts of plumes are found during their formation. Some large plumes split at their heads and finger-shaped structures are formed between them. Blue-shifted flows along the bubble-prominence interface are found before and during the plume formation. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that prominence plumes are related to coupled Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH/RT) instabilities. Plume splittings and fingers are evidence of RT instability, and the flows may increase the growth rate of KH/RT instabilities. However, the significant turbulence at plume fronts may suggest that the RT instability is triggered by the plumes penetrating into the prominence. In this scenario, extra mechanisms are necessary to drive the plumes.

  • A Morphological Classification of 18190 Molecular Clouds Identified in $^{12}$CO Data from the MWISP Survey

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We attempt to visually classify the morphologies of 18190 molecular clouds, which are identified in the $^{12}$CO(1-0) spectral line data over $\sim$ 450 deg$^{2}$ of the second Galactic quadrant from the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting project (MWISP). Using the velocity-integrated intensity maps of the $^{12}$CO(1-0) emission, molecular clouds are first divided into unresolved and resolved ones. The resolved clouds are further classified as non-filaments or filaments. Among the 18190 molecular clouds, $\sim$ 25 $\%$ are unresolved, $\sim$ 64$\%$ are non-filaments, and $\sim$ 11$\%$ are filaments. In the terms of the integrated flux of $^{12}$CO(1-0) spectra of the whole 18190 molecular clouds, $\sim$ 90$\%$ are from filaments, $\sim$ 9$\%$ are from non-filaments, and the rest $\sim$ 1$\%$ are from unresolved sources. Although non-filaments are dominant in the number of the discrete molecular clouds, filaments are the main contributor of $^{12}$CO emission flux. We also present the number distributions of physical parameters of the molecular clouds in our catalog, including their angular sizes, velocity spans, peak intensities of $^{12}$CO(1-0) emission, and $^{12}$CO(1-0) total fluxes. We find that there is a systematic difference between the angular sizes of the non-filaments and filaments, with the filaments tending to have larger angular scales. The H$_{2}$ column densities of them are not significantly different. We also discuss the observational effects, such as those induced by the finite spatial resolution, beam dilution and line-of-sight projection, on the morphological classification of molecular clouds in our sample.

  • The Cassiopeia Filament: A Blown Spur of the Local Arm

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present wide-field and high-sensitivity CO(1-0) molecular line observations toward the Cassiopeia region, using the 13.7m millimeter telescope of the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO). The CO observations reveal a large-scale highly filamentary molecular cloud within the Galactic region of 132\fdg0\,$\geq$\,$l$\,$\geq$\,122\fdg0 and -1\fdg0\,$\leq$\,$b$\,$\leq$\,3\fdg0 and the velocity range from approximately +1 to +4 km/s. The measured length of the large-scale filament, referred to as the Cassiopeia Filament, is about 390 pc. The observed properties of the Cassiopeia Filament, such as length, column density, and velocity gradient, are consistent with those synthetic large-scale filaments in the inter-arm regions. Based on its observed properties and location on the Galactic plane, we suggest that the Cassiopeia Filament is a spur of the Local arm, which is formed due to the galactic shear. The western end of the Cassiopeia Filament shows a giant arc-like molecular gas shell, which is extending in the velocity range from roughly -1 to +7 km/s. Finger-like structures, with systematic velocity gradients, are detected in the shell. The CO kinematics suggest that the large shell is expanding at a velocity of ~6.5 km/s. Both the shell and finger-like structures outline a giant bubble with a radius of ~16 pc, which is likely produced by stellar wind from the progenitor star of a supernova remnant. The observed spectral linewidths suggest that the whole Cassiopeia Filament was quiescent initially until its west part was blown by stellar wind and became supersonically turbulent.