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  • Bayesian posterior repartitioning for nested sampling

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Priors in Bayesian analyses often encode informative domain knowledge that can be useful in making the inference process more efficient. Occasionally, however, priors may be unrepresentative of the parameter values for a given dataset, which can result in inefficient parameter space exploration, or even incorrect inferences, particularly for nested sampling (NS) algorithms. Simply broadening the prior in such cases may be inappropriate or impossible in some applications. Hence our previous solution to this problem, known as posterior repartitioning (PR), redefines the prior and likelihood while keeping their product fixed, so that the posterior inferences and evidence estimates remain unchanged, but the efficiency of the NS process is significantly increased. In its most practical form, PR raises the prior to some power beta, which is introduced as an auxiliary variable that must be determined on a case-by-case basis, usually by lowering beta from unity according to some pre-defined `annealing schedule' until the resulting inferences converge to a consistent solution. Here we present a very simple yet powerful alternative Bayesian approach, in which beta is instead treated as a hyperparameter that is inferred from the data alongside the original parameters of the problem, and then marginalised over to obtain the final inference. We show through numerical examples that this Bayesian PR (BPR) method provides a very robust, self-adapting and computationally efficient `hands-off' solution to the problem of unrepresentative priors in Bayesian inference using NS. Moreover, unlike the original PR method, we show that even for representative priors BPR has a negligible computational overhead relative to standard nesting sampling, which suggests that it should be used as the default in all NS analyses.

  • Confining photonic nanojet in a microwell on microsphere lens for highly efficient light focusing, signal amplification and quantitative detection

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Dielectric microspheres or microbeads can squeeze light into the subwavelength scale via photonic nanojet (PNJ) focusing. This enables strong light-matter interactions within its focus and induces extraordinary effects such as enhancements in light emission, signal collection and various other applications. However, critical challenges exist on how to efficiently and precisely loading the studied objects into the desired location of the PNJ focusing, and subsequently measure the field and signal of interests precisely and reliably. Such technique is currently missing. We present for the first time a unique microwell-decorated microsphere lens (u-well lens), with a semi-open microwell sample compartment directly fabricated on top of the microsphere lens. The u-well lens confines PNJ in a semi-open microwell and allows passive trapping of individual micro-object into the PNJ focusing area with high efficiency and spatial accuracy. We demonstrate that individual fluorescent microsphere of different sizes can be readily introduced to the designated location with loading efficiency >70% and generates reproducible enhanced fluorescence signals with standard deviation better than that can be quantitatively measured. A comprehensive analysis on the optical properties of the u-well lens reveals the synergistic effect of field enhancement and collection efficiency on the optical enhancement. We finally employ this special microsphere lens for fluorescent-bead-based biotin concentration analysis. The results suggest a greatly enhanced sensitivity and highly improved detection limit, opening the door for its application in highly sensitive and quantitative detection.

  • Metasurface-dressed two-dimensional on-chip waveguide for free-space light field manipulation

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We show that a metasurface-coated two-dimensional (2D) slab waveguide enables the generation of arbitrary complex light fields by combining the extreme versatility and freedom on wavefront control of optical metasurfaces with the compactness of photonic integrated circuits. We demonstrated off-chip 2D focusing and holographic projection with our metasurface-dressed photonic integrated devices. This technology holds the potential for many other optical applications requiring 2D light field manipulation with full on-chip integration, such as solid-state LiDAR and near-eye AR/VR displays.

  • High-efficiency, 80-mm aperture metalens telescope

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Metalenses, artificially engineered subwavelength nanostructures to focus light within ultrathin thickness, promise potential for a paradigm shift of conventional optical devices. However, the aperture sizes of metalenses are usually bound within hundreds of micrometers by the commonly-used scanning-based fabrication methods, limiting their usage on practical optical devices like telescopes. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a high-efficiency, single-lens, refractive metalens telescope. We developed a mass production-friendly workflow for fabricating wafer-scale (80-mm aperture) metalenses using deep-ultraviolet (DUV) photolithography and a multi-exposure process involving reticle rotation and pattern stitching to leverage the radial symmetry of metalenses. Our metalens works in the near-infrared region (1200 - 1600 nm) with diffraction-limited performance and a high peak focusing efficiency of 80.84% at 1450 nm experimentally. Based on the metalens, we built a single-lens telescope and acquired images of the lunar surface, revealing its geographical structures. We believe our demonstration of the metalens telescope proves the exciting potential lying in the metasurfaces and could bring new possibilities for areas involving large optical systems, including geosciences, planetary observation, and astrophysical science.

  • Broadband Polarization-Independent Achromatic Metalenses with Unintuitively-Designed Random-Shaped Meta-Atoms

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-22

    摘要: Metasurface lenses, namely metalenses, are ultrathin planar nanostructures that are capable of manipulating the properties of incoming light and imparting lens-like wavefront to the output. Although they have shown promising potentials for the future miniaturization of optics, the chromatic aberration inherited from their diffractive nature plagues them towards many practical applications. Current solutions for creating achromatic metalenses usually require searching through a large number of meta-atoms to find designs that fulfill not only phase but phase dispersion requirements, which leads to intensive design efforts. Besides, most designs are based on regular-shaped antennas driven by the designers' intuition and experience, hence only cover a limited design space. Here, we present an inverse design approach that efficiently produces meta-atoms with unintuitive geometries required for broadband achromatic metalenses. We restricted the generated shapes to hold four-fold reflectional symmetry so that the resulting metalenses are polarization insensitive. In addition, meta-atoms generated by our method inheritably have round edges and corners, which make them nanofabrication-friendly. Our experimental characterization shows that our metalenses exhibit superior performance over a broad bandwidth of 465 nm in the near-infrared regime. Our method offers a fast and efficient way of designing high-performance achromatic metalenses and sheds new insights for unintuitive design of other metaphotonic devices.

  • On-chip optical levitation with a metalens in vacuum

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Optical levitation of dielectric particles in vacuum is a powerful technique for precision measurements, testing fundamental physics, and quantum information science. Conventional optical tweezers require bulky optical components for trapping and detection. Here we design and fabricate an ultrathin dielectric metalens with a high numerical aperture of 0.88 at 1064 nm in vacuum. It consists of 500 nm-thick silicon nano-antennas, which are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum. We demonstrate optical levitation of nanoparticles in vacuum with a single metalens. The trapping frequency can be tuned by changing the laser power and polarization. We also transfer a levitated nanoparticle between two separated optical tweezers. Optical levitation with an ultrathin metalens in vacuum provides opportunities for a wide range of applications including on-chip sensing. Such metalenses will also be useful for trapping ultacold atoms and molecules.

  • Radio properties of the OH megamaser galaxy IIZw 096

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Based on the two epochs EVN archive data from OH line observations of IIZw 096, we confirm that the high-resolution OH emission in this source mainly comes from two spots (OH1 and OH2) of comp D1 of this merging system. We found no significant variations in the OH line emission. The OH 1665 MHz line emission is detected at about 6 $\sigma$ level in the OH1 region by combining two epoch EVN observations. We found that the comp D1 shows the brightest CO, HCO+ line emission, as well as multi-band radio continuum emission. The environment around D1 shows no clear velocity structure associated with circular motions, making it different from most other OHMs in the literature, which might have been caused by an effect during the merger stage. Meanwhile, we found that the CO emission shows three velocity structures around D1, including the central broad FWHM region, the double peak region where the CO line profile shows two separated peaks, and the region of the high-velocity clouds where the CO line peaks at a high velocity ($\sim$ 11000 \kms). \HI in absorption also show high-velocity clouds around the D1 region, which might be due to inflows caused by the merging of two or more galaxy components. Based on the high-resolution K-band VLA and L-band VLBA observations of the radio continuum emission, we derived the brightness temperature in the range $10^{5}$ K to $10^{6}$ K, which is consistent with other starburst dominant OHM sources in the literature. The multi-band VLA observations show that the radio continuum emission of comp D might also have contributions from free-free emission, besides synchrotron emission. As a concenquence, these results support a starburst origin for the OHMs, without the presence of an AGN.

  • A High-Mass Young Star-forming Core Escaping from Its Parental Filament

    分类: 天文学 >> 天体物理学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: We studied the unique kinematic properties in massive filament G352.63-1.07 at 1000-AU spatial scale with the dense molecular tracers observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We find the central massive core M1 (12 Msun) being separated from the surrounding filament with a velocity difference of v-v_sys=-2 km/s and a transverse separation within 3 arcsec. Meanwhile, as shown in multiple dense-gas tracers, M1 has a spatial extension closely aligned with the main filament and is connected to the filament towards its both ends. M1 thus represents a very beginning state for a massive young star-forming core escaping from the parental filament, within a time scale of ~4000 years. Based on its kinetic energy (3.5x10^44 erg), the core escape is unlikely solely due to the original filament motion or magnetic field, but requires more energetic events such as a rapid intense anisotropic collapse. The released energy also seems to noticeably increase the environmental turbulence. This may help the filament to become stabilized again.

  • ATOMS: ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions -- V. Hierarchical fragmentation and gas dynamics in IRDC G034.43+00.24

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present new 3-mm continuum and molecular lines observations from the ATOMS survey towards the massive protostellar clump, MM1, located in the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC), G034.43+00.24 (G34). The lines observed are the tracers of either dense gas (e.g. HCO+/H13CO+ J = 1-0) or outflows (e.g. CS J = 2-1). The most complete picture to date of seven cores in MM1 is revealed by dust continuum emission. These cores are found to be gravitationally bound, with virial parameter, $\alpha_{vir}<2$. At least four outflows are identified in MM1 with a total outflowing mass of $\sim 45 M_\odot$, and a total energy of $\sim 1\times 10^{47}$ erg, typical of outflows from a B0-type star. Evidence of hierarchical fragmentation, where turbulence dominates over thermal pressure, is observed at both the cloud and the clump scales. This could be linked to the scale-dependent, dynamical mass inflow/accretion on clump and core scales. We therefore suggest that the G34 cloud could be undergoing a dynamical mass inflow/accretion process linked to the multiscale fragmentation, which leads to the sequential formation of fragments of the initial cloud, clumps, and ultimately dense cores, the sites of star formation.

  • 113 km Free-Space Time-Frequency Dissemination at the 19th Decimal Instability

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Optical clock networks play important roles in various fields, such as precise navigation, redefinition of "second" unit, and gravitational tests. To establish a global-scale optical clock network, it is essential to disseminate time and frequency with a stability of $10^{-19}$ over a long-distance free-space link. However, such attempts were limited to dozens of kilometers in mirror-folded configuration. Here, we take a crucial step toward future satellite-based time-frequency disseminations. By developing the key technologies, including high-power frequency combs, high-stability and high-efficiency optical transceiver systems, and efficient linear optical sampling, we demonstrate free-space time-frequency dissemination over two independent links with femtosecond time deviation, $3\times10^{-19}$ at 10,000 s residual instability and $1.6\times10^{-20}\pm 4.3\times10^{-19}$ offset. This level of the stability retains for an increased channel loss up to 89 dB. Our work can not only be directly used in ground-based application, but also firmly laid the groundwork for future satellite time-frequency dissemination.