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  • Photonic corner skin modes

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Useful in the enhancement of light-matter interaction, localization of light is at the heart of photonics studies. Different approaches have been proposed to localize light, including those based on dynamical localization, topological trivial or nontrivial defects in the band gap of photonic crystals, and bound states in the continuum. Recent studies on non-Hermitian skin effect have provided us new means to localize waves. In this work, we propose a new method towards localized light, called photonic corner skin modes arising from second-order non-Hermitian skin effect and gain-loss symmetry on a lattice. Specifically, we propose to make use of small pseudo-inversion symmetric gain/loss, which does not close the band gap, to realize a photonic Chern insulator with chiral edge states. The chiral edge states then accumulate at certain corners of the system. Intriguing phenomena such as corner skin modes arising from an underlying bipolar second-order non-Hermitian skin effect and multiple-corner skin modes are predicted in continuous systems.

  • Hybrid skin-topological modes without asymmetric couplings

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) in non-Hermitian lattice systems, associated with a point gap on the complex energy plane, has attracted great theoretical and experimental interest. Much less is studied on the so-called second-order non-Hermitian skin effect, where the bulk does not support a point gap but localization at the corner still occurs. This work discovers a class of hybrid skin-topological modes as the second-order non-Hermitian skin effect without asymmetric couplings. Specifically, by only adding gain/loss to two-dimensional Chern insulators and so long as the gain/loss strength does not close the line gap, all the topological edge states are localized at one corner under the open boundary condition, with the bulk states extended. The resultant non-Hermitian Chern bands can be still topologically characterized by Chern numbers, whereas the hybrid skin-topological modes are understood via some auxiliary Hermitian systems that belong to either intrinsic or extrinsic second-order topological insulator phases. By proposing an innovative construction of auxiliary Hamiltonian, our generic route to hybrid skin-topological modes is further successfully extended to nonequilibrium topological systems with gain and loss, where the anomalous Floquet band topology is no longer captured by band Chern numbers. The extension thus leads to the intriguing finding of nonequilibrium hybrid skin-topological modes. In addition to offering a straightforward route to experimental realization of hybrid topological-skin effects, this study also opens up a promising perspective for the understanding of corner localization by revealing the synergy of three important concepts, namely, non-Hermitian topological insulator, second-order non-Hermitian skin effect, and second-order topological insulator.

  • Tunable two-dimensional laser arrays with zero-phase locking

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Two-dimensional (2D) laser arrays are shown to be achievable at a large scale by exploiting the interplay of higher-order topological insulator (HOTI) physics and the so-called non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE). The higher-order topology allows for the amplification and hence lasing of a single-mode protected by a band gap; whereas the NHSE, widely known to accumulate population in a biased direction in non-Hermitian systems, is introduced to compete with the topological localization of corner modes. By tuning the system parameters appropriately and pumping at one site only, a single topologically protected lasing mode delocalized across over two dimensions emerges, with its power widely tunable by adjusting the pump strength. Computational studies clearly indicate that the lasing mode thus engineered is stable, and the phase difference between nearest lasing sites is locked at zero, even after the disorder is accounted for. The total power of the lasing mode forming a 2D topological laser array is proportional to the area of the 2D lattice accommodating a HOTI phase. Based on existing experiments, we further propose to use coupled optical ring resonators as a promising platform to realize large-scale 2D laser arrays.

  • Pulsar discovery prospect of FASTA

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-12-18

    摘要: The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) has discovered more than 650 new pulsars, which account for 20% of our known Galactic pulsar population. In this paper, we estimate the prospect of a pulsar survey with a radio telescope array to be planned -- the FAST Array (FASTA), consists of six FAST-type telescopes. Such a sensitive radio telescope array would be a powerful instrument in probing the pulsar population deep into our Galaxy as well as in nearby galaxies. We simulate the FASTA pulsar discovery prospects with different Galactic pulsar population models and instrumental parameter combinations. We find that FASTA could detect tens of thousands of canonical pulsars and well-over thousands of millisecond pulsars. We also estimate the potential yield if the FASTA is used to search for pulsars from the nearby spiral galaxy M31, and find that it would probably discover around a hundred new radio pulsars.

  • Anomalous Floquet non-Hermitian skin effect in a ring resonator lattice

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present a one-dimensional coupled ring resonator lattice exhibiting a variant of the non- Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) that we call the anomalous Floquet NHSE. Unlike existing approaches to achieving the NHSE by engineering gain and loss on different ring segments, our design uses fixed on-site gain or loss in each ring. The anomalous Floquet NHSE is marked by the existence of skin modes at every value of the Floquet quasienergy, allowing for broadband asymmetric transmission. Varying the gain/loss induces a non-Hermitian topological phase transition, reversing the localization direction of the skin modes. An experimental implementation in an acoustic lattice yields good agreement with theoretical predictions, with a very broad relative bandwidth of around 40%.

  • Interstellar scintillation and polarization of PSR B0656+14 in the Monogem Ring

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: High sensitivity interstellar scintillation and polarization observations of PSR~B0656+14 made at three epochs over a year using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) show that the scattering is dominated by two different compact regions. We identify the one nearer to the pulsar with the shell of the Monogem Ring, thereby confirming the association. The other is probably associated with the Local Bubble. We find that the observed position angles of the pulsar spin axis and the space velocity are significantly different, with a separation of $19\fdg3\pm$0\fdg8, inconsistent with a previously published near-perfect alignment of $1\degr\pm 2\degr$. The two independent scattering regions are clearly defined in the secondary spectra which show two strong forward parabolic arcs. The arc curvatures imply that the scattering screens corresponding to the outer and inner arcs are located approximately 28~pc from PSR B0656+14 and 185~pc from the Earth, respectively. Comparison of the observed Doppler profiles with electromagnetic simulations shows that both scattering regions are mildly anisotropic. For the outer arc, we estimate the anisotropy $A_R$ to be approximately 1.3, with the scattering irregularities aligned parallel to the pulsar velocity. For the outer arc, we compare the observed delay profiles with delay profiles computed from a theoretical strong-scattering model. Our results suggest that the spatial spectrum of the scattering irregularities in the Monogem Ring is flatter than Kolmogorov, but further observations are required to confirm this.

  • Interstellar scintillation and polarization of PSR B0656+14 in the Monogem Ring

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: High sensitivity interstellar scintillation and polarization observations of PSR~B0656+14 made at three epochs over a year using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) show that the scattering is dominated by two different compact regions. We identify the one nearer to the pulsar with the shell of the Monogem Ring, thereby confirming the association. The other is probably associated with the Local Bubble. We find that the observed position angles of the pulsar spin axis and the space velocity are significantly different, with a separation of $19\fdg3\pm$0\fdg8, inconsistent with a previously published near-perfect alignment of $1\degr\pm 2\degr$. The two independent scattering regions are clearly defined in the secondary spectra which show two strong forward parabolic arcs. The arc curvatures imply that the scattering screens corresponding to the outer and inner arcs are located approximately 28~pc from PSR B0656+14 and 185~pc from the Earth, respectively. Comparison of the observed Doppler profiles with electromagnetic simulations shows that both scattering regions are mildly anisotropic. For the outer arc, we estimate the anisotropy $A_R$ to be approximately 1.3, with the scattering irregularities aligned parallel to the pulsar velocity. For the outer arc, we compare the observed delay profiles with delay profiles computed from a theoretical strong-scattering model. Our results suggest that the spatial spectrum of the scattering irregularities in the Monogem Ring is flatter than Kolmogorov, but further observations are required to confirm this.

  • Categorize Radio Interference using component and temporal analysis

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Radio frequency interference (RFI) is a significant challenge faced by today's radio astronomers. While most past efforts were devoted to cleaning the RFI from the data, we develop a novel method for categorizing and cataloguing RFI for forensic purpose. We present a classifier that categorizes RFI into different types based on features extracted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fourier analysis. The classifier can identify narrowband non-periodic RFI above 2 sigma, narrowband periodic RFI above 3 sigma, and wideband impulsive RFI above 5 sigma with F1 scores between 0.87 and 0.91 in simulation. This classifier could be used to identify the sources of RFI as well as to clean RFI contamination (particularly in pulsar search). In the long-term analysis of the categorized RFI, we found a special type of drifting periodic RFI that is detrimental to pulsar search. We also found evidences of an increased rate of impulsive RFI when the telescope is pointing toward the cities. These results demonstrate this classifier's potential as a forensic tool for RFI environment monitoring of radio telescopes.

  • Search for Ronin Pulsars in Globular Clusters Using FAST: Discovery of Two New Slow Pulsars in M15

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: Globular clusters harbor numerous millisecond pulsars; however, the detection of long-period pulsars within these clusters has been notably scarce. The search for long-period pulsars encounters significant challenges due to pronounced red noise interference, necessitating the crucial step of red noise removal in the data preprocessing. In this study, we use running median filtering to mitigate red noise in multiple globular cluster datasets obtained through observations with the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST). Additionally, we estimated the minimum detectable flux density of pulsars ($S_{ rm min}$) considering this processing step, resulting in a function depicting how $S_{ rm min}$ varies with different duty cycles and periods. Subsequently, a systematic search for long-period pulsars was conducted on the globular cluster datasets after red noise elimination. Ultimately, two isolated long-period pulsars were discovered in the M15 globular cluster, with periods of approximately 1.928451 seconds and 3.960716 seconds, both exhibiting remarkably low pulse duty cycles of around 1 %. Using archived data, we obtained timing solutions for these pulsars. Based on the timing results, their positions are found to be close to the center of the M15 cluster. On the $P- dot{P}$ diagram, they both lie below the spin-up line, suggesting that their recycling process was likely interrupted, leading them to become isolated pulsars. Moreover, in our current search, these very faint long-period pulsars are exclusively identified in M15, and one possible reason for this could be the relatively close proximity and extremely high stellar formation rate of M15. As observational data accumulate and search algorithms undergo iterative enhancements, the prospect of discovering additional long-period pulsars within globular clusters, such as M15, becomes increasingly promising.

  • Atypical radio pulsations from magnetar SGR 1935+2154

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: Magnetars are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields, frequently powering high-energy activity in X-rays. Pulsed radio emission following some X-ray outbursts have been detected, albeit its physical origin is unclear. It has long been speculated that the origin of magnetars' radio signals is different from those from canonical pulsars, although convincing evidence is still lacking. Five months after magnetar SGR 1935+2154's X-ray outburst and its associated Fast Radio Burst (FRB) 20200428, a radio pulsar phase was discovered. Here we report the discovery of X-ray spectral hardening associated with the emergence of periodic radio pulsations from SGR 1935+2154 and a detailed analysis of the properties of the radio pulses. The complex radio pulse morphology, which contains both narrow-band emission and frequency drifts, has not been seen before in other magnetars, but is similar to those of repeating FRBs - even though the luminosities are many orders of magnitude different. The observations suggest that radio emission originates from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar, and the surface heating due to the bombardment of inward-going particles from the radio emission region is responsible for the observed X-ray spectral hardening.

  • The NANOGrav 12.5-Year Data Set: Polarimetry and Faraday Rotation Measures from Observations of Millisecond Pulsars with the Green Bank Telescope

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In this work, we present polarization profiles for 23 millisecond pulsars observed at 820 MHz and 1500 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope as part of the NANOGrav pulsar timing array. We calibrate the data using Mueller matrix solutions calculated from observations of PSRs B1929+10 and J1022+1001. We discuss the polarization profiles, which can be used to constrain pulsar emission geometry, and present both the first published radio polarization profiles for nine pulsars and the discovery of very low intensity average profile components ("microcomponents") in four pulsars. Using the Faraday rotation measures, we measure for each pulsar and use it to calculate the Galactic magnetic field parallel to the line of sight for different lines of sight through the interstellar medium. We fit for linear and sinusoidal trends in time in the dispersion measure and Galactic magnetic field and detect magnetic field variations with a period of one year in some pulsars, but overall find that the variations in these parameters are more consistent with a stochastic origin.