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  • Probing massive neutrinos with the Minkowski functionals of the galaxy distribution

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The characteristic signatures of massive neutrinos on large-scale structure (LSS), if fully captured, can be used to put a stringent constraint on their mass sum, $M_{\nu}$. Previous work utilizing N-body simulations has shown the Minkowski functionals (MFs) of LSS can reveal the imprints of massive neutrinos on LSS, provide important complementary information to two-point statistics and significantly improve constraints on $M_{\nu}$. In this work, we take a step forward and apply the statistics to the biased tracers of LSS, i.e. the galaxies, and in redshift space. We perform a Fisher matrix analysis and quantify the constraining power of the MFs by using the Molino mock galaxy catalogs, which are constructed based on the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework with parameters for the SDSS $M_r < -21.5$ and -22 galaxy samples. We find the MFs give tighter constraints on all of the cosmological parameters that we consider than the power spectrum. The constraints on $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}, \Omega_{\mathrm{b}}, h, n_s, \sigma_8$, and $M_\nu$ from the MFs are better by a factor of 1.9, 2.9, 3.7, 4.2, 2.5, and 5.7, respectively, after marginalizing over the HOD parameters. Specifically, for $M_{\nu}$, we obtain a 1$\sigma$ constraint of 0.059 eV with the MFs alone for a volume of only $\left(1 h^{-1} \mathrm{Gpc}\right)^3$.

  • Probing massive neutrinos with the Minkowski functionals of large-scale structure

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Massive neutrinos suppress the growth of structure under their free-streaming scales. The effect is most prominent on small scales where the widely-used two-point statistics can no longer capture the full information. In this work, we study the signatures massive neutrinos leave on large-scale structure (LSS) as revealed by its morphological properties, which are fully described by $4$ Minkowski functionals (MFs), and quantify the constraints on the summed neutrino mass $M_{\nu}$ from the MFs, by using publicly available N-body simulations. We find the MFs provide important complementary information, and give tighter constraints on $M_{\nu}$ than the power spectrum. Specifically, depending on whether massive neutrinos are included in the density field (the `m' field) or not (the `cb' field), we find the constraint on $M_{\nu}$ from the MFs with a smoothing scale of $R_G=5 h^{-1}$Mpc is $48$ or $4$ times better than that from the power spectrum. When the MFs are combined with the power spectrum, they can improve the constraint on $M_{\nu}$ from the latter by a factor of 63 for the `m' field and 5 for the `cb' field. Notably, when the `m' field is used, the constraint on $M_{\nu}$ from the MFs can reach $0.0177$eV with a volume of $1(h^{-1}\rm Gpc)^3$, while the combination of the MFs and power spectrum can tighten this constraint to be $0.0133$eV, a $4.5\sigma$ significance on detecting the minimum sum of the neutrino masses. For the `m' field, we also find the $\sigma_8$ and $M_{\nu}$ degeneracy is broken with the MFs, leading to stronger constraints on all 6 cosmological parameters considered in this work than the power spectrum.

  • Probing massive neutrinos with the Minkowski functionals of the galaxy distribution

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The characteristic signatures of massive neutrinos on large-scale structure (LSS), if fully captured, can be used to put a stringent constraint on their mass sum, $M_{\nu}$. Previous work utilizing N-body simulations has shown the Minkowski functionals (MFs) of LSS can reveal the imprints of massive neutrinos on LSS, provide important complementary information to two-point statistics and significantly improve constraints on $M_{\nu}$. In this work, we take a step forward and apply the statistics to the biased tracers of LSS, i.e. the galaxies, and in redshift space. We perform a Fisher matrix analysis and quantify the constraining power of the MFs by using the Molino mock galaxy catalogs, which are constructed based on the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework with parameters for the SDSS $M_r < -21.5$ and -22 galaxy samples. We find the MFs give tighter constraints on all of the cosmological parameters that we consider than the power spectrum. The constraints on $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}, \Omega_{\mathrm{b}}, h, n_s, \sigma_8$, and $M_\nu$ from the MFs are better by a factor of 1.9, 2.9, 3.7, 4.2, 2.5, and 5.7, respectively, after marginalizing over the HOD parameters. Specifically, for $M_{\nu}$, we obtain a 1$\sigma$ constraint of 0.059 eV with the MFs alone for a volume of only $\left(1 h^{-1} \mathrm{Gpc}\right)^3$.

  • White-light Continuum Observation of the Off-limb Loops of the SOL2017-09-10 X8.2 Flare: Temporal and Spatial Variations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Observations of the Sun's off-limb white-light (WL) flares offer rare opportunities to study the energy release and transport mechanisms in flare loops. One of the best such events was SOL2017-09-10, an X8.2 flare that occurred near the Sun's west limb on 2017 September 10 and produced a WL loop system lasting more than 60 minutes and reaching an altitude higher than 30 Mm. The event was well observed by a suite of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) that captured its off-limb loops in WL continuum near Fe I 6173 A, and the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (SDO/AIA) that observed its ultraviolet (UV) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) counterparts. We found quasi-periodic pulsations in the WL and UV emissions at the flare loop-top with a period around 8.0 min. Each pulsation appears to have an EUV counterpart that occurs earlier in time and higher in altitude. Despite many similarities in the WL and UV images and light curves, the WL flux at the loop-top continues to grow for about 16 minutes while the UV fluxes gradually decay. We discuss the implication of these unprecedented observations on the understanding of the enigmatic off-limb WL flare emission mechanisms.

  • The effects of peculiar velocities on the morphological properties of large-scale structure

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: It is known that the large-scale structure (LSS) mapped by a galaxy redshift survey is subject to distortions by galaxies' peculiar velocities. Besides the signatures generated in common N-point statistics, such as the anisotropy in the galaxy 2-point correlation function, the peculiar velocities also induce distinct features in LSS's morphological properties, which are fully described by four Minkowski functionals (MFs), i.e., the volume, surface area, integrated mean curvature and Euler characteristic (or genus). In this work, by using large suite of N-body simulations, we present and analyze these important features in the MFs of LSS on both (quasi-)linear and non-linear scales, with a focus on the latter. We also find the MFs can give competitive constraints on cosmological parameters compared to the power spectrum, probablly due to the non-linear information contained. For galaxy number density similar to the DESI BGS galaxies, the constraint on $\sigma_8$ from the MFs with one smoothing scale can be better by $\sim 50\%$ than from the power spectrum. These findings are important for the cosmological applications of MFs of LSS, and probablly open up a new avenue for studying the peculiar velocity field itself.

  • Cherenkov Gravitational Radiation During the Radiation Era

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Cherenkov radiation may occur whenever the source is moving faster than the waves it generates. In a radiation dominated universe, with equation-of-state $w = 1/3$, we have recently shown that the Bardeen scalar-metric perturbations contribute to the linearized Weyl tensor in such a manner that its wavefront propagates at acoustic speed $\sqrt{w}=1/\sqrt{3}$. In this work, we explicitly compute the shape of the Bardeen Cherenkov cone and wedge generated respectively by a supersonic point mass (approximating a primordial black hole) and a straight Nambu-Goto wire (approximating a cosmic string) moving perpendicular to its length. When the black hole or cosmic string is moving at ultra-relativistic speeds, we also calculate explicitly the sudden surge of scalar-metric induced tidal forces on a pair of test particles due to the passing Cherenkov shock wave. These forces can stretch or compress, depending on the orientation of the masses relative to the shock front's normal.

  • Gravitational Tensor and Acoustic Waves in A Radiation Dominated Universe: Weyl Curvature and Polarization Patterns

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We provide evidence that gravitational radiation in a 4D radiation-dominated universe, with equation-of-state $w=1/3$, consists of two components: helicity-2 gravitons and massless scalar acoustic waves. On physical grounds, we would expect the homogeneous solution of the Weyl tensor components to be a good approximation to its inhomogeneous counterparts, whenever the observer is located well in the far zone of an isolated astrophysical source of cosmological gravitational radiation. We show explicitly that these homogeneous and inhomogeneous solutions both receive contributions from the gauge-invariant tensor {\it and} the two Bardeen (acoustic) scalars. Comparison of these Weyl tensor computations thus allows us to not only identify, in the high frequency limit, the corresponding gravitational tensor and scalar radiation; but also their oscillatory polarization patterns.

  • On the rotation properties of a post-explosion helium-star companion in Type Iax supernovae

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Recent studies have suggested that type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are likely to result from a weak deflagration explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf in a binary system with a helium (He)-star companion. Assuming that most SNe Iax are produced from this scenario, in this work we extend our previous work on the three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of ejecta-companion interaction by taking the orbital and spin velocities of the progenitor system into account. We then follow the post-impact evolution of a surviving He-star companion by using the one-dimensional stellar evolution code \textsc{MESA}. We aim to investigate the post-explosion rotation properties of a He-star companion in SNe Iax. We find that the He-star companion spins down after the impact due to the angular-momentum loss and expansion caused by the mass-stripping and shock heating during the interaction. This leads to the situation where the surface rotational speed of the surviving companion can drop to one-third of its pre-explosion value when it expands to a maximum radius a few years after the impact. Subsequently, the star shrinks and spins up again once the deposited energy is released. This spin-switching feature of the surviving He-star companions of SNe Iax may be useful for the identification of such objects in future observations.

  • On the Surface Helium Abundance of B-type Hot Subdwarf Stars from the WD+MS Channel of Type Ia Supernovae

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-05-24 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The origin of intermediate helium (He)-rich hot subdwarfs is still unclear. Previous studies have suggested that some surviving Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) companions from the white dwarf + main-sequence (WD+MS) channel may contribute to the intermediate He-rich hot subdwarfs. However, previous studies ignored the impact of atomic diffusion on the post-explosion evolution of surviving companion stars of SNe Ia, leading to the aspect that they could not explain the observed surface He abundance of intermediate He-rich hot subdwarfs. In this work, by taking the atomic diffusion and stellar wind into account, we trace the surviving companions of SNe Ia from the WD+MS channel using the one-dimensional stellar evolution code MESA until they evolve into hot subdwarfs. We find that the surface He-abundances of our surviving companion models during their core He-burning phases are in a range of , which are consistent with those observed in intermediate He-rich hot subdwarfs. This seems to further support the notion that it is possible for surviving companions of SNe Ia in the WD+MS channel to form some intermediate He-rich hot subdwarfs.

  • Development of an enhanced online tritium monitoring system using plastic scintillation fiber array

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-20

    摘要: Tritium, a radioactive nuclide discharged by nuclear power plants, poses challenges for removal. Continuous online monitoring of tritium in water is crucial for real-time radiation data, given its predominant existence in the environment as water. This paper presents the design, simulation, and development of a tritium monitoring device utilizing a plastic scintillation fiber (PSF) array. Experimental validation confirmed the device’s detection efficiency and minimum detectable activity. The recorded detection efficiency of the device is 1.6 × 10−3 , which exceeds the theoretically simulated value of 4 × 10−4 by four times. Without shielding, the device can achieve a minimum detectable activity of 3165 Bq L−1 over a 1600-second measurement duration. According to simulation and experimental results, enhancing detection efficiency is possible by increasing the number and length of PSFs and implementing rigorous shielding measures. Additionally, reducing the diameter of PSFs can also improve detection efficiency. The minimum detectable activity of the device can be further reduced using the aforementioned methods.

  • Signatures of a surviving helium-star companion in Type Ia supernovae and constraints on the progenitor companion of SN 2011fe

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Single-degenerate (SD) binary systems composed of a white dwarf and a non-degenerate helium (He)-star companion have been proposed as the potential progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The He-star companions are expected to survive the SN Ia explosion in this SD progenitor model. In the present work, we map the surviving He-star companion models computed from our previous three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta-companion interaction into the one-dimensional stellar evolution code MESA to follow their long-term evolution to make predictions on their post-impact observational properties, which can be helpful for searches of such surviving He-star companions in future observations. By comparing with the very late-epoch light curve of the best observed SN Ia, SN 2011fe, we find that our surviving He-star companions become significantly more luminous than SN 2011fe about 1000d after the maximum light. This suggests that a He star is very unlikely to be a companion to the progenitor of SN 2011fe.

  • Identifying hot subdwarf stars from photometric data using Gaussian mixture model and graph neural network

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Hot subdwarf stars are very important for understanding stellar evolution, stellar astrophysics, and binary star systems. Identifying more such stars can help us better understand their statistical distribution, properties, and evolution. In this paper, we present a new method to search for hot subdwarf stars in photometric data (b, y, g, r, i, z) using a machine learning algorithm, graph neural network, and Gaussian mixture model. We use a Gaussian mixture model and Markov distance to build the graph structure, and on the graph structure, we use a graph neural network to identify hot subdwarf stars from 86 084 stars, when the recall, precision, and f1 score are maximized on the original, weight and synthetic minority oversampling technique datasets. Finally, from 21 885 candidates, we selected approximately 6 000 stars that were the most similar to the hot subdwarf star.

  • A robust model for the origin of optical quasi-periodic variability in supersoft X-ray sources

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) are known as possible progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. The quasi-periodic variability has been detected in the optical light curves of SSSs. However, the exact origin of such quasi-periodic observable features remains a mystery. In this paper, we aim to reproduce the observed optical quasi-periodic variability of SSSs by proposing a white dwarf (WD) accretion model with a periodic mass transfer caused by the irradiation of supersoft X-ray onto the companion star. Methods. Assuming that a periodic mass transfer from the companion star to the WD can be caused while the supersoft X-ray irradiates the companion star, we used MESA to simulate the WD accretion process and the subsequent WD evolution by adopting a periodic jagged accretion rate. Comparing our results to the optical light curves of a well-observed SSS RX J0513.9-6951, we find that our models can reproduce the quasi-periodic transition between the optical high and low states of RX J0513.9-6951 because the periodic accretion rate can lead to the WD photosphere expands and contracts periodically in our models. In addition, we find that the transitional periods of the SSSs in our models strongly depend on the mass of the accreting WDs. The more massive the WD mass is, the shorter the transitional period. Based on our results, we suggest that the periodic mass transfer caused by the irradiation of supersoft X-ray onto the companion star may be the origin of the observed optical quasi-periodic variability in SSSs. In addition, our results indicate that the observed optical transition period of a SSS may be useful for the rough estimate of the mass of an accreting WD.

  • Identifying hot subdwarf stars from photometric data using Gaussian mixture model and graph neural network

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Hot subdwarf stars are very important for understanding stellar evolution, stellar astrophysics, and binary star systems. Identifying more such stars can help us better understand their statistical distribution, properties, and evolution. In this paper, we present a new method to search for hot subdwarf stars in photometric data (b, y, g, r, i, z) using a machine learning algorithm, graph neural network, and Gaussian mixture model. We use a Gaussian mixture model and Markov distance to build the graph structure, and on the graph structure, we use a graph neural network to identify hot subdwarf stars from 86 084 stars, when the recall, precision, and f1 score are maximized on the original, weight and synthetic minority oversampling technique datasets. Finally, from 21 885 candidates, we selected approximately 6 000 stars that were the most similar to the hot subdwarf star.

  • Observational signatures of the surviving donor star in the double detonation model of Type Ia supernovae

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The sub-Chandrasekhar mass double-detonation (DDet) scenario is a contemporary model for SNe Ia. The donor star in the DDet scenario is expected to survive the explosion and to be ejected at the high orbital velocity of a compact binary system. For the first time, we consistently perform 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of SN ejecta with a helium (He) star companion within the DDet scenario. We map the outcomes of 3D impact simulations into 1D stellar evolution codes and follow the long-term evolution of the surviving He-star companions. Our main goal is to provide the post-impact observable signatures of surviving He-star companions of DDet SNe Ia, which will support the search for such companions in future observations. We find that our surviving He-star companions become significantly overluminous for about 1e6 yr during the thermal re-equilibration phase. After the star re-establishes thermal equilibrium, its observational properties are not sensitive to the details of the ejecta-donor interaction. We apply our results to hypervelocity star US 708, which is the fastest unbound star in our Galaxy, travelling with a velocity of about 1200 km/s, making it natural candidate for an ejected donor remnant of a DDet SN Ia. We find that a He-star donor with an initial mass of >0.5 Msun is needed to explain the observed properties of US 708. Based on our detailed binary evolution calculations, however, the progenitor system with such a massive He-star donor cannot get close enough at the moment of SN explosion to explain the high velocity of US 708. Instead, if US 708 is indeed the surviving He-star donor of a DDet SN~Ia, it would require the entire pre-SN progenitor binary to travel at a velocity of about 400 km/s. It could, for example, have been ejected from a globular cluster in the direction of the current motion of the surviving donor star.

  • Single-shot Compressed 3D Imaging by Exploiting Random Scattering and Astigmatism

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Based on point spread function (PSF) engineering and astigmatism due to a pair of cylindrical lenses, a novel compressed imaging mechanism is proposed to achieve single-shot incoherent 3D imaging. The speckle-like PSF of the imaging system is sensitive to axial shift, which makes it feasible to reconstruct a 3D image by solving an optimization problem with sparsity constraint. With the experimentally calibrated PSFs, the proposed method is demonstrated by a synthetic 3D point object and real 3D object, and the images in different axial slices can be reconstructed faithfully. Moreover, 3D multispectral compressed imaging is explored with the same system, and the result is rather satisfactory with a synthetic point object. Because of the inherent compatibility between the compression in spectral and axial dimensions, the proposed mechanism has the potential to be a unified framework for multi-dimensional compressed imaging.

  • Topological near fields generated by topological structures

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The central idea of metamaterials and metaoptics is that, besides their base materials, the geometry of structures offers a broad extra dimension to explore for exotic functionalities. Here, we discover that the topology of structures fundamentally dictates the topological properties of optical near fields and offers a new dimension to exploit for optical functionalities that are irrelevant to specific material constituents or structural geometries. We find that the nontrivial topology of metal structures ensures the birth of polarization singularities (PSs) in the near field with rich morphologies and intriguing spatial evolutions including merging, bifurcation, and topological transition. By mapping the PSs to non-Hermitian exceptional points and employing homotopy theory, we extract the core invariant that governs the topological classification of the PSs and the conservation law that regulates their spatial evolutions. The results have effectively bridged three vibrant fields of singular optics, topological photonics, and non-Hermitian physics, with potential applications in chiral sensing, chiral quantum optics, and beyond photonics in other wave systems.

  • Detection Capability Evaluation of Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer: Results from Ground Experimental Data

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-01-09 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The Chang'E-6 mission will first land on the far side of the moon and bring lunar samples back. As a hyperspectral imager aboard the Chang'E-6 lander, the Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS), will achieve the goal of spectral detection and mineral composition analysis in the sampling area, and the data of LMS will also be compared with the results of the returned sample laboratory measurements. Visible and near-infrared hyperspectral remote sensing is an effective tool for lunar minerals identification and quantification. The ground validation experiment can be used to evaluate the detection ability of the LMS. According to the modal abundances of lunar minerals and glasses of APOLLO samples, binary mixed samples, ternary mixed samples, and seven-membered mixed samples were prepared. The samples were ground and stirred homogeneous to about 200 mesh (median particle size about 75 μm), to simulate the soil state of the lunar surface. Under the laboratory ambient condition, the 480–3200 nm spectral data of the samples were acquired using the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of Chang'E-5 LMS, the performance of which is consistent with the flight model of Chang'E-6 LMS. By fitting the mixed samples' spectral data of the EQM using the Modified Gaussian Methods, the following conclusions can be drawn: The subtle spectral changes of mixed samples can be detected. The modal abundance of low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase can be derived based on the spectral parameters such as absorption position, depth or width of the mixed samples, and the correlation coefficients R2 are better than 82%, indicating that the LMS has good quantitative detection capability.

  • Excesses of Cosmic Ray Spectra from A Single Nearby Source

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2017-11-10

    摘要: Growing evidence reveals universal hardening on various cosmic ray spectra, e.g. proton, positron, as well as antiproton fraction. Such universality may indicate they have a common origin. In this paper, we argue that these widespread excesses can be accounted for by a nearby supernova remnant surrounded by a giant molecular cloud. Secondary cosmic rays (p, e+) are produced through the collisions between the primary cosmic ray nuclei from this supernova remnant and the molecular gas. Different from the background, which is produced by the ensemble of large amount of sources in the Milky Way, the local injected spectrum can be harder. The time-dependent transport of particles would make the propagated spectrum even harder. Under this scenario, the anomalies of both primary (p, e−) and secondary (e+, ¯p/p) cosmic rays can be properly interpreted. We further show that the TeV to sub-PeV anisotropy of proton is consistent with the observations if the local source is relatively young and lying at the anti-Galactic center direction.

  • Genetic variation and bidirectional gene flow in the riparian plant Miscanthus lutarioriparius, across its endemic range: implications for adaptive potential

    分类: 生物学 >> 植物学 >> 植物细胞学与植物遗传学、植物形态学 提交时间: 2016-05-04

    摘要: Miscanthus lutarioriparius is an endemic species that grows along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and is a valuable source of germplasm for the development of second-generation energy crops. The plant that propagates via seeds, stem nodes, and rhizomes shows high phenotypic variation and strong local adaptation. Here, we examined the magnitude and spatial distribution of genetic variation in M. lutarioriparius across its entire distributional range and tested underlying factors that shaped its genetic variation. Population genetic analyses were conducted on 644 individuals from 25 populations using 16 microsatellite markers. M. lutarioriparius exhibited a high level of genetic variation (HE=0.6820.786; Ar=4.748.06) and a low differentiation (FST=0.063; Dest=0.153). Of the total genetic variation, 10% was attributed to the differences among populations (df=24, P0.0001), whereas 90% was attributed to the differences among individuals (df=619, P0.0001). Genetic diversity did not differ significantly across longitudes and did not increase in the populations growing downstream of the Yangtze River. However, significant associations were found between genetic differentiation and spatial distance. Six genetic discontinuities were identified, which mostly distributed among downstream populations. We conclude that anthropogenic factors and landscape features both contributed to shaping the pattern of gene flow in M. lutarioriparius, including long-distance bidirectional dispersal. Our results explain the genetic basis of the high degree of adaptability in M. lutarioriparius and identify potential sources of new germplasm for the domestication of this potential second-generation energy crop.