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  • Tether-cutting and Overlying Magnetic Reconnections in an MHD Simulation of Prominence-cavity System

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the magnetic reconnection in an MHD simulation of a coronal magnetic flux rope (MFR) confined by a helmet streamer, where a prominence-cavity system forms. This system includes a hot cavity surrounding a prominence with prominence horns and a central hot core above the prominence. The evolution of the system from quasi-equilibrium to eruption can be divided into four phases: quasi-static, slow rise, fast rise, and propagation phases. The emerged MFR initially stays quasi-static and magnetic reconnection occurs at the overlying high-Q (squashing factor) apex region, which gradually evolves into a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT). The decrease of the integrated magnetic tension force (above the location of the overlying reconnection) is due to the removal of overlying confinement by the enhanced overlying reconnection between the MFR and the overlying fields at the apex HFT, thus engines the slow rise of the MFR with a nearly constant velocity. Once the MFR reaches the regime of torus instability, another HFT immediately forms at the dip region under the MFR, followed by the explosive flare reconnection. The integrated resultant force (above the location of the flare reconnection) exponentially increases, which drives the exponential fast rise of the MFR. The system enters the propagation phase, once its apex reaches the height of about one solar radius above the photosphere. The simulation reproduces the main processes of one group of prominence eruptions especially those occurring on the quiet Sun.

  • Disk dissipation, giant planet formation and star-formation-rate fluctuations in the past three-million-year history of Gould's Belt

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Although episodic star formation (SF) had been suggested for nearby SF regions, a panoramic view to the latest episodic SF history in the solar neighborhood is still missing. By uniformly constraining the slope $\alpha$ of infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the 13 largest Gould's Belt (GB) protoclusters surveyed by Spitzer Space Telescope, we have constructed a cluster-averaged histogram of $\alpha$ representing YSO evolution lifetime as a function of the $\alpha$ value. Complementary to the traditional SED classification scheme (0, I, F, II, III) that is based on different $\alpha$ values, a staging scheme (A,B,C,D,E) of SED evolution is advised on the basis of the $\alpha$ statistical features that can be better matched to the physical stages of disk dissipation and giant planet formation. This has also allowed us to unravel the fluctuations of star formation rate (SFR) in the past three-million-year (3 Myr) history of these GB protoclusters. Diverse evolutionary patterns such as single peak, double peaks and on-going acceleration of SFR are revealed. The SFR fluctuations are between $20\%\sim60\%$ ($\sim40\%$ on average) and no dependence on the average SFR or the number of SFR episodes is found. However, spatially close protoclusters tend to share similar SFR fluctuation trends, indicating that the driving force of the fluctuations should be at size scales beyond the typical cluster sizes of several parsec.

  • Disk dissipation, giant planet formation and star-formation-rate fluctuations in the past three-million-year history of Gould's Belt

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Although episodic star formation (SF) had been suggested for nearby SF regions, a panoramic view to the latest episodic SF history in the solar neighborhood is still missing. By uniformly constraining the slope $\alpha$ of infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the 13 largest Gould's Belt (GB) protoclusters surveyed by Spitzer Space Telescope, we have constructed a cluster-averaged histogram of $\alpha$ representing YSO evolution lifetime as a function of the $\alpha$ value. Complementary to the traditional SED classification scheme (0, I, F, II, III) that is based on different $\alpha$ values, a staging scheme (A,B,C,D,E) of SED evolution is advised on the basis of the $\alpha$ statistical features that can be better matched to the physical stages of disk dissipation and giant planet formation. This has also allowed us to unravel the fluctuations of star formation rate (SFR) in the past three-million-year (3 Myr) history of these GB protoclusters. Diverse evolutionary patterns such as single peak, double peaks and on-going acceleration of SFR are revealed. The SFR fluctuations are between $20\%\sim60\%$ ($\sim40\%$ on average) and no dependence on the average SFR or the number of SFR episodes is found. However, spatially close protoclusters tend to share similar SFR fluctuation trends, indicating that the driving force of the fluctuations should be at size scales beyond the typical cluster sizes of several parsec.

  • Data-constrained MHD simulation for the eruption of a filament-sigmoid system in solar active region 11520

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The separation of a filament and sigmoid is observed during an X1.4 flare on July 12, 2012 in solar active region 11520, but the corresponding magnetic field change is not clear. We construct a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the filament-sigmoid system with the flux rope insertion method and magnetic flux eruption code, which produces the magnetic field evolution that may explain the separation of the low-lying filament and high-lying hot channel (sigmoid). The initial state of the magnetic model contains a magnetic flux rope with a hyperbolic flux tube, a null point structure and overlying confining magnetic fields. We find that the magnetic reconnections at the null point make the right footpoint of the sigmoid move from one positive magnetic polarity (P1) to another (P3). The tether-cutting reconnection at the hyperbolic flux tube occurs and quickly cuts off the connection of the low-lying filament and high-lying sigmoid. In the end, the high-lying sigmoid erupts and grows into a coronal mass ejection, while the low-lying filament stays stable. The observed double J-shaped flare ribbons, semi-circular ribbon, and brightenings of several loops are reproduced in the simulation, where the eruption of the magnetic flux rope includes the impulsive acceleration and propagation phases.

  • Formation and Eruption of Hot Channels during an M6.5 Class Solar Flare

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the formation and eruption of hot channels associated with the M6.5 class flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) occurring in NOAA AR 12371 on 2015 June 22. Two flare precursors are observed before the flare main phase. Observations in 94 {\AA} and 131 {\AA} by SDO/AIA have revealed the early morphology of the first hot channel as a group of hot loops, which is termed as seed hot channel. A few seed hot channels are formed above the polarity inversion line (PIL) and the formation is associated with footpoint brightenings' parallel motion along the PIL, which proceeds into the early stage of the flare main phase. During this process, seed hot channels build up and rise slowly, being accelerated at the peak of the second precursor. They merge in the process of acceleration forming a larger hot channel, which then forms an "inverted {\gamma}" shape kinking structure. Before the flare peak, the second kinking hot channel with negative crossing appears near the first kinking hot channel that has erupted. The eruption of these two hot channels produce two peaks on the main flare's GOES light curve. The footpoint brightenings' propagation along the PIL indicate that the first kinking hot channel may be formed due to zipper reconnection. The occurrence of merging between seed hot channels observed by AIA is supported by the extrapolated nonlinear force-free field models. The observed writhing motion of the first kinking hot channel may be driven by the Lorentz force.

  • Data-constrained MHD simulation for the eruption of a filament-sigmoid system in solar active region 11520

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The separation of a filament and sigmoid is observed during an X1.4 flare on July 12, 2012 in solar active region 11520, but the corresponding magnetic field change is not clear. We construct a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the filament-sigmoid system with the flux rope insertion method and magnetic flux eruption code, which produces the magnetic field evolution that may explain the separation of the low-lying filament and high-lying hot channel (sigmoid). The initial state of the magnetic model contains a magnetic flux rope with a hyperbolic flux tube, a null point structure and overlying confining magnetic fields. We find that the magnetic reconnections at the null point make the right footpoint of the sigmoid move from one positive magnetic polarity (P1) to another (P3). The tether-cutting reconnection at the hyperbolic flux tube occurs and quickly cuts off the connection of the low-lying filament and high-lying sigmoid. In the end, the high-lying sigmoid erupts and grows into a coronal mass ejection, while the low-lying filament stays stable. The observed double J-shaped flare ribbons, semi-circular ribbon, and brightenings of several loops are reproduced in the simulation, where the eruption of the magnetic flux rope includes the impulsive acceleration and propagation phases.

  • Formation and Eruption of Hot Channels during an M6.5 Class Solar Flare

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the formation and eruption of hot channels associated with the M6.5 class flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) occurring in NOAA AR 12371 on 2015 June 22. Two flare precursors are observed before the flare main phase. Observations in 94 {\AA} and 131 {\AA} by SDO/AIA have revealed the early morphology of the first hot channel as a group of hot loops, which is termed as seed hot channel. A few seed hot channels are formed above the polarity inversion line (PIL) and the formation is associated with footpoint brightenings' parallel motion along the PIL, which proceeds into the early stage of the flare main phase. During this process, seed hot channels build up and rise slowly, being accelerated at the peak of the second precursor. They merge in the process of acceleration forming a larger hot channel, which then forms an "inverted {\gamma}" shape kinking structure. Before the flare peak, the second kinking hot channel with negative crossing appears near the first kinking hot channel that has erupted. The eruption of these two hot channels produce two peaks on the main flare's GOES light curve. The footpoint brightenings' propagation along the PIL indicate that the first kinking hot channel may be formed due to zipper reconnection. The occurrence of merging between seed hot channels observed by AIA is supported by the extrapolated nonlinear force-free field models. The observed writhing motion of the first kinking hot channel may be driven by the Lorentz force.

  • Partial Eruption, Confinement, and Twist Buildup and Release of a Double-decker Filament

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the failed partial eruption of a filament system in NOAA AR 12104 on 2014 July 5, using multiwavelength EUV, magnetogram, and H$\alpha$ observations, as well as magnetic field modeling. The filament system consists of two almost co-spatial segments with different end points, both resembling a C shape. Following an ejection and a precursor flare related to flux cancellation, only the upper segment rises and then displays a prominent twisted structure, while rolling over toward its footpoints. The lower segment remains undisturbed, indicating that the system possesses a double-decker structure. The erupted segment ends up with a reverse-C shape, with material draining toward its footpoints, while losing its twist. Using the flux rope insertion method, we construct a model of the source region that qualitatively reproduces key elements of the observed evolution. At the eruption onset, the model consists of a flux rope atop a flux bundle with negligible twist, which is consistent with the observational interpretation that the filament possesses a double-decker structure. The flux rope reaches the critical height of the torus instability during its initial relaxation, while the lower flux bundle remains in stable equilibrium. The eruption terminates when the flux rope reaches a dome-shaped quasi-separatrix layer that is reminiscent of a magnetic fan surface, although no magnetic null is found. The flux rope is destroyed by reconnection with the confining overlying flux above the dome, transferring its twist in the process.

  • Chemical exploration of Galactic cold cores

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: A solar-type system starts from an initial molecular core that acquires organic complexity as it evolves. The so-called prestellar cores that can be studied are rare, which has hampered our understanding of how organic chemistry sets in and grows. Aims. We selected the best prestellar core targets from the cold core catalogue that represent a diversity in terms of their environment to explore their chemical complexity: 1390 (in the compressed shell of Lambda Ori), 869 (in the MBM12 cloud), and 4149 (in the California nebula). We obtained a spectral survey with the IRAM 30 m telescope in order to explore the molecular complexity of the cores. We carried out a radiative transfer analysis of the detected transitions in order to place some constraints on the physical conditions of the cores and on the molecular column densities. We also used the molecular ions in the survey to estimate the cosmic-ray ionisation rate and the S/H initial elemental abundance using a gas-phase chemical model to reproduce their abundances. We found large differences in the molecular complexity (deuteration, complex organic molecules, sulphur, carbon chains, and ions) and compared their chemical properties with a cold core and two prestellar cores. The chemical diversity we found in the three cores seems to be correlated with their chemical evolution: two of them are prestellar (1390 and 4149), and one is in an earlier stage (869). The influence of the environment is likely limited because cold cores are strongly shielded from their surroundings. The high extinction prevents interstellar UV radiation from penetrating deeply into the cores. Higher spatial resolution observations of the cores are therefore needed to constrain the physical structure of the cores, as well as a larger-scale distribution of molecular ions to understand the influence of the environment on their molecular complexity.

  • Formation of hub-filament structure triggered by cloud-cloud collision in W33 complex

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Hub-filament systems are suggested to be birth cradles of high-mass stars and clusters, but the formation of hub-filament structure is still unclear. Using the survey data FUGIN $^{13}$CO (1-0), C$^{18}$O (1-0), and SEDIGISM $^{13}$CO (2-1), we investigate formation of hub-filament structure in W33 complex. W33 complex consists of two colliding clouds, called W33-blue and W33-red. We decompose the velocity structures in W33-blue by fitting multiple velocity components, and find a continuous and monotonic velocity field. Virial parameters of Dendrogram structures suggest the dominance of gravity in W33-blue. The strong positive correlation between velocity dispersion and column density indicates the non-thermal motions in W33-blue may originate from gravitationally driven collapse. These signatures suggest that the filamentary structures in W33-blue result from the gravitational collapse of the compressed layer. However, the large scale velocity gradient in W33-blue may mainly originate from the cloud-cloud collision and feedback of active star formation, instead of the filament-rooted longitudinal inflow. From the above observed results, we argue that the cloud-cloud collision triggers formation of hub-filament structures in W33 complex. Meanwhile, the appearance of multiple-scale hub-filament structures in W33-blue is likely an imprint of the transition from the compressed layer to a hub-filament system.

  • The TMRT K Band Observations towards 26 Infrared Dark Clouds: NH$_{3}$, CCS, and HC$_{3}$N

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present one of the first Shanghai Tian Ma Radio Telescope (TMRT) K Band observations towards a sample of 26 infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). We observed the (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), and (4,4) transitions of NH$_{3}$ together with CCS (2$_{1}$-1$_{0}$) and HC$_{3}$N $J\,$=2-1, simultaneously. The survey dramatically increases the existing CCS-detected IRDC sample from 8 to 23, enabling a better statistical study of the ratios of carbon-chain molecules (CCM) to N-bearing molecules in IRDCs. With the newly developed hyperfine group ratio (HFGR) method of fitting NH$_{3}$ inversion lines, we found the gas temperature to be between 10 and 18 K. The column density ratios of CCS to NH$_{3}$ for most of the IRDCs are less than 10$^{-2}$, distinguishing IRDCs from low-mass star-forming regions. We carried out chemical evolution simulations based on a three-phase chemical model NAUTILUS. Our measurements of the column density ratios between CCM and NH$_{3}$ are consistent with chemical evolutionary ages of $\lesssim$10$^{5}$ yr in the models. Comparisons of the data and chemical models suggest that CCS, HC$_{3}$N, and NH$_{3}$ are sensitive to the chemical evolutionary stages of the sources.

  • Formation of hub-filament structure triggered by cloud-cloud collision in W33 complex

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Hub-filament systems are suggested to be birth cradles of high-mass stars and clusters, but the formation of hub-filament structure is still unclear. Using the survey data FUGIN $^{13}$CO (1-0), C$^{18}$O (1-0), and SEDIGISM $^{13}$CO (2-1), we investigate formation of hub-filament structure in W33 complex. W33 complex consists of two colliding clouds, called W33-blue and W33-red. We decompose the velocity structures in W33-blue by fitting multiple velocity components, and find a continuous and monotonic velocity field. Virial parameters of Dendrogram structures suggest the dominance of gravity in W33-blue. The strong positive correlation between velocity dispersion and column density indicates the non-thermal motions in W33-blue may originate from gravitationally driven collapse. These signatures suggest that the filamentary structures in W33-blue result from the gravitational collapse of the compressed layer. However, the large scale velocity gradient in W33-blue may mainly originate from the cloud-cloud collision and feedback of active star formation, instead of the filament-rooted longitudinal inflow. From the above observed results, we argue that the cloud-cloud collision triggers formation of hub-filament structures in W33 complex. Meanwhile, the appearance of multiple-scale hub-filament structures in W33-blue is likely an imprint of the transition from the compressed layer to a hub-filament system.

  • A FAST Survey of HINSA in PGCCs Guided by HC3N

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), we search for HI narrow-line self-absorption (HINSA) features in twelve Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs), one starless core L1521B and four star forming sources. Eight of the 12 PGCCs have emission of J=2-1 of cyanoacetylene (HC3N). With an improved HINSA extraction method more robust for weaker and blended features with high velocity resolution, the detection rates of HINSA in PGCCCs are high, at 92% overall (11/12) and 87% (7/8) among sources with HC3N J=2-1 emissions. Combining the data of molecular spectra and Planck continuum maps, we studied the morphologies, abundances and excitations of HI, CO and HC3N in PGCCs. The distribution of HINSA is similar to that of CO emission. HINSA tends to be not detected in regions associated with warm dust and background ionizing radiation, as well as regions associated with stellar objects. The abundances of HI in PGCCs are approximately 3E-4, and vary within a factor of ~3. The non-thermal velocity dispersions traced by C18O J=1-0 and HINSA are consistent with each other (0.1-0.4 km/s), larger than those of HC3N (~0.1 km/s). Carbon chain molecule abundant PGCCs provide a good sample to study HINSA.

  • The ALMA-QUARKS Survey. I. Survey Description and Data Reduction

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-02-28 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: This paper presents an overview of the QUARKS survey, which stands for "Querying Underlying mechanisms of massive star formation with ALMA-Resolved gas Kinematics and Structures." The QUARKS survey is observing 139 massive clumps covered by 156 pointings at Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 (λ ∼ 1.3 mm). In conjunction with data obtained from the ALMA-ATOMS survey at Band 3 (λ ∼ 3 mm), QUARKS aims to carry out an unbiased statistical investigation of massive star formation process within protoclusters down to a scale of 1000 au. This overview paper describes the observations and data reduction of the QUARKS survey, and gives a first look at an exemplar source, the mini-starburst Sgr B2(M). The wide-bandwidth (7.5 GHz) and high-angular-resolution (∼03) observations of the QUARKS survey allow for the resolution of much more compact cores than those could be done by the ATOMS survey, and to detect previously unrevealed fainter filamentary structures. The spectral windows cover transitions of species including CO, SO, N2D+, SiO, H30α, H2CO, CH3CN, and many other complex organic molecules, tracing gas components with different temperatures and spatial extents. QUARKS aims to deepen our understanding of several scientific topics of massive star formation, such as the mass transport within protoclusters by (hub-)filamentary structures, the existence of massive starless cores, the physical and chemical properties of dense cores within protoclusters, and the feedback from already formed high-mass young protostars.

  • The ALMA Survey of 70 $\mu \rm m$ Dark High-mass Clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). VII: Chemistry of Embedded Dense Cores

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present a study of chemistry toward 294 dense cores in 12 molecular clumps using the data obtained from the ALMA Survey of 70 $\mu \rm m$ dark High-mass clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). We identified 97 protostellar cores and 197 prestellar core candidates based on the detection of outflows and molecular transitions of high upper energy levels ($E_{u}/k > 45$ K). The detection rate of the N$_{2}$D$^{+}$ emission toward the protostellar cores is 38%, which is higher than 9% for the prestellar cores, indicating that N$_{2}$D$^{+}$ does not exclusively trace prestellar cores. The detection rates of the DCO$^{+}$ emission are 35% for the prestellar cores and 49% for the protostellar cores, which are higher than those of N$_{2}$D$^{+}$, implying that DCO$^{+}$ appears more frequently than N$_{2}$D$^{+}$ in both prestellar and protostellar cores. Both N$_{2}$D$^{+}$ and DCO$^{+}$ abundances appear to decrease from the prestellar to protostellar stage. The DCN, C$_{2}$D and $^{13}$CS emission lines are rarely seen in the dense cores of early evolutionary phases. The detection rate of the H$_{2}$CO emission toward dense cores is 52%, three times higher than that of CH$_{3}$OH (17%). In addition, the H$_{2}$CO detection rate, abundance, line intensities, and line widths increase with the core evolutionary status, suggesting that the H$_{2}$CO line emission is sensitive to protostellar activity.

  • A High-Mass Young Star-forming Core Escaping from Its Parental Filament

    分类: 天文学 >> 天体物理学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: We studied the unique kinematic properties in massive filament G352.63-1.07 at 1000-AU spatial scale with the dense molecular tracers observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We find the central massive core M1 (12 Msun) being separated from the surrounding filament with a velocity difference of v-v_sys=-2 km/s and a transverse separation within 3 arcsec. Meanwhile, as shown in multiple dense-gas tracers, M1 has a spatial extension closely aligned with the main filament and is connected to the filament towards its both ends. M1 thus represents a very beginning state for a massive young star-forming core escaping from the parental filament, within a time scale of ~4000 years. Based on its kinetic energy (3.5x10^44 erg), the core escape is unlikely solely due to the original filament motion or magnetic field, but requires more energetic events such as a rapid intense anisotropic collapse. The released energy also seems to noticeably increase the environmental turbulence. This may help the filament to become stabilized again.

  • An ALMA study of outflow parameters of protoclusters: outflow feedback to maintain the turbulence

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: With the aim of understanding the role of outflows in star formation, we performed a statistical study of the physical parameters of outflows in eleven massive protoclusters associated with ultra-compact HII regions. A total of 106 outflow lobes are identified in these protoclusters using the ALMA CO (3-2), HCN (4-3) and HCO+ (4-3) line observations. Although the position angles of outflow lobes do not differ in these three tracers, HCN and HCO+ tend to detect lower terminal velocity of the identified outflows compared to CO. The majority of the outflows in our targets are young with typical dynamical time-scales of 10^2-10^4 years, and are mostly composed of low-mass outflows along with at least one high-mass outflow in each target. An anti-correlation of outflow rate with dynamical time-scale indicates that the outflow rate possibly decreases with time. Also, a rising trend of dynamical time-scale with the mass of the associated core hints that the massive cores might have longer accretion histories than the low mass cores. Estimation of different energies in these protoclusters shows that outflows studied here cannot account for the generation of the observed turbulence, but can sustain the turbulence at the current epoch as the energy injection rate from the outflows is similar to the estimated dissipation rate.

  • ATOMS: ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions -- VI. On the formation of the "L" type filament in G286.21+0.17

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Filaments play an important role in star formation, but the formation process of filaments themselves is still unclear. The high-mass star forming clump G286.21+0.17 (G286 for short) that contains an "L" type filament was thought to undergo global collapse. Our high resolution ALMA band 3 observations resolve the gas kinematics of G286 and reveal two sub-clumps with very different velocities inside it. We find that the "blue profile" (an indicator of gas infall) of HCO+ lines in single dish observations of G286 is actually caused by gas emission from the two sub-clumps rather than gas infall. We advise great caution in interpreting gas kinematics (e.g., infall) from line profiles toward distant massive clumps in single dish observations. Energetic outflows are identified in G286 but the outflows are not strong enough to drive expansion of the two sub-clumps. The two parts of the "L" type filament ("NW-SE" and "NE-SW" filaments) show prominent velocity gradients perpendicular to their major axes, indicating that they are likely formed due to large-scale compression flows. We argue that the large-scale compression flows could be induced by the expansion of nearby giant HII regions. The "NW-SE" and "NE-SW" filaments seem to be in collision, and a large amount of gas has been accumulated in the junction region where the most massive core G286c1 forms.

  • ALMA observations of NGC 6334S. II. Subsonic and Transonic Narrow Filaments in a High-mass Star Formation Cloud

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present a study of narrow filaments toward a massive infrared dark cloud, NGC 6334S, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Thirteen gas filaments are identified using the H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ line, while a single continuum filament is revealed by the continuum emission. The filaments present a compact radial distribution with a median filament width of $\sim$0.04 pc narrower than the previously proposed `quasi-universal' 0.1~pc filament width. The higher spatial resolution observations and higher-density gas tracer tend to identify even narrower and lower mass filaments. The filament widths are roughly twice the size of embedded cores. The gas filaments are largely supported by thermal motions. The nonthermal motions are predominantly subsonic and transonic in both identified gas filaments and embedded cores, which may imply that stars are likely born in environments of low turbulence. A fraction of embedded objects show a narrower velocity dispersion compared with their corresponding natal filaments, which may indicate that the turbulent dissipation is taking place in these embedded cores. The physical properties (mass, mass per unit length, gas kinematics, and width) of gas filaments are analogous to those of narrow filaments found in low- to high-mass star-forming regions. The more evolved sources are found to be farther away from the filaments, a situation that may have resulted from the relative motions between the YSOs and their natal filaments.

  • ATOMS: ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions -XIV. Properties of resolved UC Hii regions

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Hydrogen recombination lines (RRLs) are one of the major diagnostics of the physical properties of H{\sc ii} regions. We use RRL H40$\alpha$, He40$\alpha$ and 3 mm continuum emission to investigate the properties of a large sample of resolved UC H{\sc ii} regions identified in the ATOMS survey. In total, we identify 94 UC H{\sc ii} regions from H40$\alpha$ emission. The basic parameters for these UC H{\sc ii} regions such as electron density, emission measure, electron temperature, ionic abundance ratio (n$_{\rm He^+}$/n$_{\rm H^+}$), and line width are derived. The median electron density and the median n$_{\rm He^+}$/n$_{\rm H^+}$ ratio of these UC H{\sc ii} regions derived from RRLs are $\sim$9000 cm$^{-3}$ and 0.11, respectively. Within UC H{\sc ii} regions, the n$_{\rm He^+}$/n$_{\rm H^+}$ ratios derived from the intensity ratio of the He40$\alpha$ and H40$\alpha$ lines seems to be higher in the boundary region than in the center. The H40$\alpha$ line width is mainly broadened by thermal motion and microturbulence. The electron temperature of these UC H{\sc ii} regions has a median value of $\sim$6700 K, and its dependence on galactocentric distance is weak.