摘要：Papain-like protease (PLpro) of coronaviruses (CoVs) carries out proteolytic maturation of non-structural proteins that play a role in replication of the virus and performs deubiquitination of host cell factors to scuttle antiviral responses. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the causative agent of bronchitis in chicken that results in huge economic losses every year in the poultry industry globally, encodes a PLpro. The substrate specificities of this PLpro are not clearly understood. Here, we show that IBV PLpro can degrade Lys(48)- and Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin but not linear polyubiquitin. To explain the substrate specificities, we have solved the crystal structure of PLpro from IBV at 2.15-angstrom resolution. The overall structure is reminiscent of the structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV PLpro. However, unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV PLpro that lacks blocking loop (BL) 1 of deubiquitinating enzymes, the IBV PLpro has a short BL1-like loop. Access to a conserved catalytic triad consisting of Cys(101), His(264), and Asp(275) is regulated by the flexible BL2. A model of ubiquitin-bound IBV CoV PLpro brings out key differences in substrate binding sites of PLpros. In particular, P3 and P4 subsites as well as residues interacting with the beta-barrel of ubiquitin are different, suggesting different catalytic efficiencies and substrate specificities. We show that IBV PLpro cleaves peptide substrates KKAG-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin and LRGG-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin with different catalytic efficiencies. These results demonstrate that substrate specificities of IBV PLpro are different from other PLpros and that IBV PLpro might target different ubiquitinated host factors to aid the propagation of the virus.
摘要：Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) of coronaviruses (CoV) is important for viral replication and transcription. The N-terminal exoribonuclease (ExoN) domain plays a proofreading role for prevention of lethal mutagenesis, and the C-terminal domain functions as a (guanine-N7) methyl transferase (N7-MTase) for mRNA capping. The molecular basis of both these functions is unknown. Here, we describe crystal structures of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV nsp14 in complex with its activator nonstructural protein10 (nsp10) and functional ligands. One molecule of nsp10 interacts with ExoN of nsp14 to stabilize it and stimulate its activity. Although the catalytic core of nsp14 ExoN is reminiscent of proofreading exonucleases, the presence of two zinc fingers sets it apart from homologs. Mutagenesis studies indicate that both these zinc fingers are essential for the function of nsp14. We show that a DEEDh (the five catalytic amino acids) motif drives nucleotide excision. The N7-MTase domain exhibits a noncanonical MTase fold with a rare beta-sheet insertion and a peripheral zinc finger. The cap-precursor guanosine-P3-adenosine-5', 5'-triphosphate and S-adenosyl methionine bind in proximity in a highly constricted pocket between two beta-sheets to accomplish methyl transfer. Our studies provide the first glimpses, to our knowledge, into the architecture of the nsp14-nsp10 complex involved in RNA viral proofreading.
摘要：In recent years, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by Enteroviruses, has emerged as a serious illness. It affects mainly children under the age of five and results in high fatality rates. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of HFMD in China and currently there are no effective anti-viral drugs available to treat HFMD. In the present study, we screened compounds for inhibition of proliferation of EV71. Compound YZ-LY-0 stalled the life cycle of EV71. The inhibitor exhibited EC50 value of 0.29 mu m against SK-EV006 strain of EV71. Notably, YZ-LY-0 had low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 mu M) and a high selectivity index (over 300) in Vero and RD cells. YZ-LY-0 in combination with an EV71 RdRp inhibitor or an entry inhibitor showed an antagonistic effect at very low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the inhibitors exhibited a synergistic effect in inhibiting viral replication. Preliminary results on investigation of the mechanism of inhibition indicate that YZ-LY-0 does not block the entry of the virus in the host cell, but instead inhibits an early stage of EV71 replication. Our studies provide a potential clinical therapeutic option against EV71 infections and suggest that a combined application of YZ-LY-0 with other inhibitors could be more effective in the treatment of HFMD.