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  • Spectroastrometric Reverberation Mapping of Broad-line Regions

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Spectroastrometry measures source astrometry as a function of wavelength/velocity. Reverberations of spectroastrometric signals naturally arise in broad-line regions (BLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as a result of the continuum variations that drive responses of the broad emission lines with time delays. Such signals provide a new diagnostic for mapping BLR kinematics and geometry, complementary to the traditional intensity reverberation mapping (RM) technique. We present the generic mathematical formalism for spectroastrometric RM and show that under realistic parameters of a phenomenological BLR model, the spectroastrometric reverberation signals vary on a level of several to tens of microarcseconds, depending on the BLR size, continuum variability, and angular-size distance. We also derive the analytical expressions of spectroastrometric RM for an inclined ring-like BLR. We develop a Bayesian framework with a sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling technique to analyze spectroastrometric data and infer the BLR properties, including the central black hole mass and angular-size distance. We demonstrate the potential of spectroastrometric RM in spatially resolving BLR kinematics and geometry through a suite of simulation tests. The application to realistic observation data of 3C~273 obtains tentative, but enlightening results, reinforcing the practical feasibility of conducting spectroastrometric RM experiments on bright AGNs with the operating Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as possibly with the planned next-generation 30 m class telescopes.

  • Spectroastrometric Reverberation Mapping of Broad-line Regions

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Spectroastrometry measures source astrometry as a function of wavelength/velocity. Reverberations of spectroastrometric signals naturally arise in broad-line regions (BLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as a result of the continuum variations that drive responses of the broad emission lines with time delays. Such signals provide a new diagnostic for mapping BLR kinematics and geometry, complementary to the traditional intensity reverberation mapping (RM) technique. We present the generic mathematical formalism for spectroastrometric RM and show that under realistic parameters of a phenomenological BLR model, the spectroastrometric reverberation signals vary on a level of several to tens of microarcseconds, depending on the BLR size, continuum variability, and angular-size distance. We also derive the analytical expressions of spectroastrometric RM for an inclined ring-like BLR. We develop a Bayesian framework with a sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling technique to analyze spectroastrometric data and infer the BLR properties, including the central black hole mass and angular-size distance. We demonstrate the potential of spectroastrometric RM in spatially resolving BLR kinematics and geometry through a suite of simulation tests. The application to realistic observation data of 3C~273 obtains tentative, but enlightening results, reinforcing the practical feasibility of conducting spectroastrometric RM experiments on bright AGNs with the operating Very Large Telescope Interferometer as well as possibly with the planned next-generation 30 m class telescopes.

  • A Pixon-Based Method for Reverberation-mapping Analysis in Active Galactic Nuclei

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present an alternative method for reconstructing a velocity-delay map in reverberation mapping (RM) based on the pixon algorithm initially proposed for image reconstruction by Pina & Puetter (1993). The pixon algorithm allows for a variable pixon basis to adjust resolution of each image pixel according the information content in that pixel, which therefore enables the algorithm to make the best possible use of measured data. The final optimal pixon basis functions would be those that minimize the number of pixons while still providing acceptable descriptions to data within the accuracy allowed by noises. We adapt the pixon algorithm to RM analysis and develop a generic framework to implement the algorithm. Simulation tests and comparisons with the widely used maximum entropy method demonstrate the feasibility and high performance of our pixon-based RM analysis. This paper serves as an introduction to the framework and the application to velocity-unresolved RM. An extension to velocity-resolved cases will be presented in a companion paper.

  • Final stage of merging binaries of supermassive black holes: observational signatures

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: There are increasing interests in binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs), but merging binaries with separations smaller than ~1 light days (~10^2 gravitational radii for 10^8 Msun), which are rapidly evolving under control of gravitational waves, are elusive in observations. In this paper, we discuss fates of mini-disks around component SMBHs for three regimes: 1) low rates (advection-dominated accretion flows: ADAFs); 2) intermediate rates; 3) super-Eddington accretion rates. Mini-disks with intermediate rates are undergoing evaporation through thermal conduction of hot corona forming a hybrid radial structure. When the binary orbital periods are shorter than sound propagation timescales of the evaporated mini-disks, a new instability, denoted as sound instability, arises because the disks will be highly twisted so that they are destroyed. We demonstrate a critical separation of A_{crit}~10^2 Rg from the sound instability of the mini-disks and the cavity is full of hot gas. For those binaries, component SMBHs are accreting with Bondi mode in the ADAF regime, showing periodic variations resulting from Doppler boosting effects in radio from the ADAFs due to orbital motion. In the mean while, the circumbinary disks (CBDs) are still not hot enough (ultraviolet deficit) to generate photons to ionize gas for broad emission lines. For slightly super-Eddington accretion of the CBDs, MgII line appears with decreases of UV deficit, and for intermediate super-Eddington Balmer lines appear, but CIV line never unless CBD accretion rates are extremely high. Moreover, if the CBDs are misaligned with the binary plane, it is then expected to have optical periodical variations with about ten times radio periods.

  • Final stage of merging binaries of supermassive black holes: observational signatures

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: There are increasing interests in binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs), but merging binaries with separations smaller than ~1 light days (~10^2 gravitational radii for 10^8 Msun), which are rapidly evolving under control of gravitational waves, are elusive in observations. In this paper, we discuss fates of mini-disks around component SMBHs for three regimes: 1) low rates (advection-dominated accretion flows: ADAFs); 2) intermediate rates; 3) super-Eddington accretion rates. Mini-disks with intermediate rates are undergoing evaporation through thermal conduction of hot corona forming a hybrid radial structure. When the binary orbital periods are shorter than sound propagation timescales of the evaporated mini-disks, a new instability, denoted as sound instability, arises because the disks will be highly twisted so that they are destroyed. We demonstrate a critical separation of A_{crit}~10^2 Rg from the sound instability of the mini-disks and the cavity is full of hot gas. For those binaries, component SMBHs are accreting with Bondi mode in the ADAF regime, showing periodic variations resulting from Doppler boosting effects in radio from the ADAFs due to orbital motion. In the mean while, the circumbinary disks (CBDs) are still not hot enough (ultraviolet deficit) to generate photons to ionize gas for broad emission lines. For slightly super-Eddington accretion of the CBDs, MgII line appears with decreases of UV deficit, and for intermediate super-Eddington Balmer lines appear, but CIV line never unless CBD accretion rates are extremely high. Moreover, if the CBDs are misaligned with the binary plane, it is then expected to have optical periodical variations with about ten times radio periods.

  • Alignments Of Black Holes With Their Warped Accretion Disks And Episodic Lifetimes Of Active Galactic Nuclei

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-13

    摘要: Warped accretion disks have attracted intensive attention because of their critical role on shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of AGNs that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a quite simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to the lifetimes. We therefore propose that spin distribution of SMBHs can place constraints on the episodic lifetimes of AGNs and vice versa. Applications of our results on the observed spin distributions of SMBHs and the observed episodic lifetimes of AGNs are discussed, although both the measurements at present are yet ambiguous to draw a firm conclusion. Our prescription can be easily incorporated into semi-analytic models for black hole growth and spin evolution.

  • Accretion-modified Stars in Accretion Disks of Active Galactic Nuclei: Gravitational Wave Bursts and Electromagnetic Counterparts from Merging Stellar Black Hole Binaries

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The recent advanced LIGO/Virgo detections of gravitational waves (GWs) from stellar binary black hole (BBH) mergers, in particular GW190521, which is potentially associated with a quasar, have stimulated renewed interest in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as factories of merging BBHs. Compact objects evolving from massive stars are unavoidably enshrouded by a massive envelope to form accretion-modified stars (AMSs) in the dense gaseous environment of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion disk. We show that most AMSs form binaries due to gravitational interaction with each other during radial migration in the SMBH disk, forming BBHs inside the AMS. When a BBH is born, its orbit is initially governed by the tidal torque of the SMBH. Bondi accretion onto BBH at a hyper-Eddington rate naturally develops and then controls the evolution of its orbits. We find that Bondi accretion leads to efficient removal of orbital angular momentum of the binary, whose final merger produces a GW burst. Meanwhile, the Blandford-Znajek mechanism pumps the spin energy of the merged BH to produce an electromagnetic counterpart (EMC). Moreover, hyper-Eddington accretion onto the BBH develops powerful outflows and triggers a Bondi explosion, which manifests itself as a EMC of the GW burst, depending on the viscosity of the accretion flow. Thermal emission from Bondi sphere appears as one of EMCs. BBHs radiate GWs with frequencies $\sim 10^{2}\,$Hz, which are accessible to LIGO.

  • Efficient and selective removal of Pb(II) from landfill leachate using L-serine-modified polyethylene/polypropylene nonwoven fabric synthesized via radiation grafting technique

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 核科学技术其他学科 提交时间: 2024-05-08

    摘要: In this study, to efficiently remove Pb(II) from aqueous environments, a novel L-serine-modified polyethylene/polypropylene nonwoven fabric sorbent (NWF-serine) was fabricated through the radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and subsequent L-serine modification. The effect of the absorbed dose was investigated in the range of 5–50 kGy. NWF-serine was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Batch adsorption tests were conducted to investigate the influences of pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial concentration, and sorbent dosage on the Pb(II) adsorption performance of NWF-serine. The results indicated that Pb(II) adsorption onto NWF-serine was an endothermic process, following the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. The saturated adsorption capacity was 198.1 mg/g. NWF-serine exhibited Pb(II) removal rates of 99.8% for aqueous solutions with initial concentrations of 100 mg/L and 82.1% for landfill leachate containing competitive metal ions such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Zn. Furthermore, NWF-serine maintained 86% of its Pb(II) uptake after five use cycles. The coordination of the carboxyl and amino groups with Pb(II) was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis.

  • Spectroastrometry and Reverberation Mapping: the Mass and Geometric Distance of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Quasar 3C 273

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The quasar 3C 273 has been observed with infrared spectroastrometry (SA) on broad Pa$\alpha$ line and optical reverberation mapping (RM) on broad H$\beta$ line. SA delivers information about the angular size and structure of the Pa$\alpha$ broad-line region (BLR), while RM delivers information about the physical size and structure of the H$\beta$ BLR. Based on the fact that the two BLRs share the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) and viewing inclination, a combination of SA and velocity-resolved RM (SARM) thereby allows us to simultaneously determine the SMBH mass and geometric distance through dynamically modeling the two BLRs. We construct a suite of dynamical models with different geometric configurations and apply a Bayesian approach to obtain the parameter inferences. Overall the obtained masses and distances are insensitive to specific BLR configurations but more or less depend on parameterizations of the vertical distributions. The most probable model, chosen in light of the Bayes factor, yields an angular-size distance of $\log\,(D_{\rm A}/{\rm Mpc}) = 2.83_{-0.28}^{+0.32}$ and SMBH mass of $\log\,(M_\bullet/M_\odot)=9.06_{-0.27}^{+0.21}$, which agrees with the relationships between SMBH masses and bulge properties. The BLRs have an inclination of $5_{-1}^{+1}$ degrees, consistent with that of the large-scale jet in 3C 273. Our approach reinforces the capability of SARM analysis to measure SMBH mass and distance of AGNs even though SA and RM observations are undertaken with different emission lines and/or in different periods.

  • DRC-Net Method for Two-dimensional Spectral Classification

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-01-09 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Spectral classification plays a crucial role in the analysis of astronomical data. Currently, stellar spectral classification primarily relies on one-dimensional (1D) spectra and necessitates a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). However, in cases where the S/N is low, obtaining valuable information becomes impractical. In this paper, we propose a novel model called DRC-Net (Double-branch celestial spectral classification network based on residual mechanisms) for stellar classification, which operates solely on two-dimensional (2D) spectra. The model consists of two branches that use 1D convolutions to reduce the dimensionality of the 2D spectral composed of both blue and red arms. In the following, the features extracted from both branches are fused, and the fused result undergoes further feature extraction before being fed into the classifier for final output generation. The data set is from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, comprising 15,680 spectra of F, G, and K types. The preprocessing process includes normalization and the early stopping mechanism. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DRC-Net achieved remarkable classification precision of 93.0%, 83.5%, and 86.9% for F, G, and K types, respectively, surpassing the performance of 1D spectral classification methods. Furthermore, different S/N intervals are tested to judge the classification ability of DRC-Net. The results reveal that DRC-Net, as a 2D spectral classification model, can deliver superior classification outcomes for the spectra with low S/Ns. These experimental findings not only validate the efficiency of DRC-Net but also confirm the enhanced noise resistance ability exhibited by 2D spectra.

  • Accretion Disk Size Measurements of Active Galactic Nuclei Monitored by the Zwicky Transient Facility

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We compile a sample of 92 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z<0.75 with $gri$ photometric light curves from the archival data of the Zwicky Transient Facility and measure the accretion disk sizes via continuum reverberation mapping. We employ Monte Carlo simulation tests to assess the influences of data sampling and broad emission lines and select out the sample with adequately high sampling cadences (3 days apart in average) and minimum contaminations of broad emission lines. The inter-band time delays of individual AGNs are calculated using the interpolated cross-correlation function and then these delays are fitted with a generalized accretion disk model, in which inter-band time delays are a power function of wavelength, black hole mass, and luminosity. A Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the best parameter values. Overall the inter-band time delays can be fitted with the $\tau \ \propto \lambda^{4/3}$ relation as predicted from a steady-state, optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk, however, the yielded disk size is systematically larger than expected, although the ratio of the measured to theoretical disk sizes depend on using the emissivity -- or responsivity -- weighted disk radius. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies, all together raising a puzzle about the "standard" accretion disk model.

  • Quasar candidates with periodic variations from the Zwicky Transient Facility. I. Sample

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We conduct a systematic search for quasars with periodic variations from the archival photometric data of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) by cross matching with the quasar catalogues of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and V\'eron-Cetty & V\'eron. We first select out primitive periodic candidates using the methods of the generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram and auto-correlation function, and then estimate the false-alarm probability of the periodicity and calculate the Bayesian information criterion to compare between periodic and purely stochastic models. As such, we finally identify a sample of 127 candidates with the most significant periodic variations out of 143,700 quasars. This is the largest periodic quasar sample so far, thus providing a useful guiding sample for studying origins of quasar periodicity considering the moderate sampling rate and high-quality photometry of the ZTF data. We summarize the basic properties of the sample and briefly discuss the implications.

  • Search for Continuous Gravitational Wave Signals in Pulsar Timing Residuals: A New Scalable Approach with Diffusive Nested Sampling

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Detecting continuous nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs) generated by individual close binaries of supermassive black holes (CB-SMBHs) is one of the primary objectives of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). The detection sensitivity is slated to increase significantly as the number of well-timed millisecond pulsars will increase by more than an order of magnitude with the advent of next-generation radio telescopes. Currently, the Bayesian analysis pipeline using parallel tempering Markov chain Monte Carlo has been applied in multiple studies for CB-SMBH searches, but it may be challenged by the high dimensionality of the parameter space for future large-scale PTAs. One solution is to reduce the dimensionality by maximizing or marginalizing over uninformative parameters semi-analytically, but it is not clear whether this approach can be extended to more complex signal models without making overly simplified assumptions. Recently, the method of diffusive nested (DNest) sampling shown the capability of coping with high dimensionality and multimodality effectively in Bayesian analysis. In this paper, we apply DNest to search for continuous GWs in simulated pulsar timing residuals and find that it performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and efficiency for a PTA including $\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ pulsars. DNest also allows a simultaneous search of multiple sources elegantly, which demonstrates its scalability and general applicability. Our results show that it is convenient and also high beneficial to include DNest in current toolboxes of PTA analysis.

  • Supermassive Black Hole and Broad-line Region in NGC~5548: Results from Five-season Reverberation Mapping

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: NGC 5548 is one of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected for our long-term spectroscopic monitoring with the Lijiang 2.4~m telescope, aiming at investigating the origin and evolution of the broad-line regions (BLRs), accurately measuring the mass of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and understanding structure and evolution of the AGN. We have performed five-season observations for NGC~5548 with the median sampling interval ranging from 1.25 to 3 days. The light curves of the 5100~\AA\ continuum and broad emission lines are measured after subtracting contamination of the host galaxy starlight. The time lags of the broad He~{\sc ii}, He~{\sc i}, H$\gamma$, and H$\beta$ lines with respect to the 5100~\AA\ continuum are obtained for each season and their mean time lags over the five seasons are 0.69, 4.66, 4.60, 8.43 days, respectively. The H$\gamma$ and H$\beta$ velocity-resolved lag profiles in the seasons of 2015, 2018, 2019, and 2021 are constructed, from which an ``M-shaped'' structure is found in 2015 but disappears after 2018. Our five-season reverberation mapping (RM) yields an averaged virial SMBH mass of $M_\bullet/10^7M_\odot=14.22$, with a small standard deviation of $1.89$. By combining the previous 18 RM campaigns and our five-season campaign for NGC~5548, we find that there exists a time lag of 3.5~years between the changes in the BLR size and optical luminosity. In addition, we also construct the BLR radius$-$luminosity relation and the virial relation for NGC~5548.

  • Supermassive Black Hole and Broad-line Region in NGC~5548: Results from Five-season Reverberation Mapping

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: NGC 5548 is one of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected for our long-term spectroscopic monitoring with the Lijiang 2.4~m telescope, aiming at investigating the origin and evolution of the broad-line regions (BLRs), accurately measuring the mass of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and understanding structure and evolution of the AGN. We have performed five-season observations for NGC~5548 with the median sampling interval ranging from 1.25 to 3 days. The light curves of the 5100~\AA\ continuum and broad emission lines are measured after subtracting contamination of the host galaxy starlight. The time lags of the broad He~{\sc ii}, He~{\sc i}, H$\gamma$, and H$\beta$ lines with respect to the 5100~\AA\ continuum are obtained for each season and their mean time lags over the five seasons are 0.69, 4.66, 4.60, 8.43 days, respectively. The H$\gamma$ and H$\beta$ velocity-resolved lag profiles in the seasons of 2015, 2018, 2019, and 2021 are constructed, from which an ``M-shaped'' structure is found in 2015 but disappears after 2018. Our five-season reverberation mapping (RM) yields an averaged virial SMBH mass of $M_\bullet/10^7M_\odot=14.22$, with a small standard deviation of $1.89$. By combining the previous 18 RM campaigns and our five-season campaign for NGC~5548, we find that there exists a time lag of 3.5~years between the changes in the BLR size and optical luminosity. In addition, we also construct the BLR radius$-$luminosity relation and the virial relation for NGC~5548.

  • Testing Super-Eddington Accretion onto a Supermassive Black Hole: Reverberation Mapping of PG 1119+120

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We measure the black hole mass and investigate the accretion flow around the local ($z=0.0502$) quasar PG 1119+120. Spectroscopic monitoring with Calar Alto provides H$\beta$ lags and linewidths from which we estimate a black hole mass of $\log \left(M_{\bullet}/\mathrm{M}_{\odot} \right) = 7.0$, uncertain by $\sim0.4$ dex. High cadence photometric monitoring over two years with the Las Cumbres Observatory provides lightcurves in 7 optical bands suitable for intensive continuum reverberation mapping. We identify variability on two timescales. Slower variations on a 100-day timescale exhibit excess flux and increased lag in the $u'$ band and are thus attributable to diffuse bound-free continuum emission from the broad line region. Faster variations that we attribute to accretion disc reprocessing lack a $u'$-band excess and have flux and delay spectra consistent with either $\tau \propto \lambda^{4/3}$, as expected for a temperature structure of $T(R) \propto R^{-3/4}$ for a thin accretion disc, or $\tau \propto \lambda^{2}$ expected for a slim disc. Decomposing the flux into variable (disc) and constant (host galaxy) components, we find the disc SED to be flatter than expected with $f_{\nu} \sim \rm{const}$. Modelling the SED predicts an Eddington ratio of $\lambda_{\rm Edd} > 1$, where the flat spectrum can be reproduced by a slim disc with little dust extinction or a thin disc which requires more dust extinction. While this accretion is super-Eddington, the geometry is still unclear, however a slim disc is expected due to the high radiation pressure at these accretion rates, and is entirely consistent with our observations.

  • Reverberation Mapping of Two Luminous Quasars: the Broad-line Region Structure and Black Hole Mass

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report the results of a multi-year spectroscopic and photometric monitoring campaign of two luminous quasars, PG~0923+201 and PG~1001+291, both located at the high-luminosity end of the broad-line region (BLR) size-luminosity relation with optical luminosities above $10^{45}~{\rm erg~s^{-1}}$. PG~0923+201 is for the first time monitored, and PG~1001+291 was previously monitored but our campaign has a much longer temporal baseline. We detect time lags of variations of the broad H$\beta$, H$\gamma$, Fe {\sc ii} lines with respect to those of the 5100~{\AA} continuum. The velocity-resolved delay map of H$\beta$ in PG~0923+201 indicates a complicated structure with a mix of Keplerian disk-like motion and outflow, and the map of H$\beta$ in PG~1001+291 shows a signature of Keplerian disk-like motion. Assuming a virial factor of $f_{\rm BLR}=1$ and FWHM line widths, we measure the black hole mass to be $118_{-16}^{+11}\times 10^7 M_{\odot}$ for PG~0923+201 and $3.33_{-0.54}^{+0.62}\times 10^7 M_{\odot}$ for PG~1001+291. Their respective accretion rates are estimated to be $0.21_{-0.07}^{+0.06} \times L_{\rm Edd}\,c^{-2}$ and $679_{-227}^{+259}\times L_{\rm Edd}\,c^{-2}$, indicating that PG~0923+201 is a sub-Eddington accretor and PG~1001+291 is a super-Eddington accretor. While the H$\beta$ time lag of PG~0923+201 agrees with the size-luminosity relation, the time lag of PG~1001+291 shows a significant deviation, confirming that in high-luminosity AGN the BLR size depends on both luminosity and Eddington ratio. Black hole mass estimates from single AGN spectra will be over-estimated at high luminosities and redshifts if this effect is not taken into account.

  • UV/Optical disk reverberation lags despite a faint X-ray corona in the AGN Mrk 335

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present the first results from a 100-day Swift, NICER and ground-based X-ray/UV/optical reverberation mapping campaign of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Mrk 335, when it was in an unprecedented low X-ray flux state. Despite dramatic suppression of the X-ray variability, we still observe UV/optical lags as expected from disk reverberation. Moreover, the UV/optical lags are consistent with archival observations when the X-ray luminosity was >10 times higher. Interestingly, both low- and high-flux states reveal UV/optical lags that are 6-11 times longer than expected from a thin disk. These long lags are often interpreted as due to contamination from the broad line region, however the u band excess lag (containing the Balmer jump from the diffuse continuum) is less prevalent than in other AGN. The Swift campaign showed a low X-ray-to-optical correlation (similar to previous campaigns), but NICER and ground-based monitoring continued for another two weeks, during which the optical rose to the highest level of the campaign, followed ~10 days later by a sharp rise in X-rays. While the low X-ray countrate and relatively large systematic uncertainties in the NICER background make this measurement challenging, if the optical does lead X-rays in this flare, this indicates a departure from the zeroth-order reprocessing picture. If the optical flare is due to an increase in mass accretion rate, this occurs on much shorter than the viscous timescale. Alternatively, the optical could be responding to an intrinsic rise in X-rays that is initially hidden from our line-of-sight.

  • Broad-line region in NGC 4151 monitored by two decades of reverberation mapping campaigns. I. Evolution of structure and kinematics

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report the results of long-term reverberation mapping (RM) campaigns of the nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4151, spanning from 1994 to 2022, based on archived observations of the FAST Spectrograph Publicly Archived Programs and our new observations with the 2.3m telescope at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory. We reduce and calibrate all the spectra in a consistent way, and derive light curves of the broad H$\beta$ line and 5100\,{\AA} continuum. Continuum light curves are also constructed using public archival photometric data to increase sampling cadences. We subtract the host galaxy contamination using {\it HST} imaging to correct fluxes of the calibrated light curves. Utilizing the long-term archival photometric data, we complete the absolute flux-calibration of the AGN continuum. We find that the H$\beta$ time delays are correlated with the 5100\,{\AA} luminosities as $\tau_{\rm H\beta}\propto L_{5100}^{0.46\pm0.16}$. This is remarkably consistent with Bentz et al. (2013)'s global size-luminosity relationship of AGNs. Moreover, the data sets for five of the seasons allow us to obtain the velocity-resolved delays of the H$\beta$ line, showing diverse structures (outflows, inflows and disks). Combining our results with previous independent measurements, we find the measured dynamics of the H$\beta$ broad-line region (BLR) are possibly related to the long-term trend of the luminosity. There is also a possible additional $\sim$1.86 years time lag between the variation in BLR radius and luminosity. These results suggest that dynamical changes in the BLR may be driven by the effects of radiation pressure.

  • Broad-line region in NGC 4151 monitored by two decades of reverberation mapping campaigns. I. Evolution of structure and kinematics

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report the results of long-term reverberation mapping (RM) campaigns of the nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4151, spanning from 1994 to 2022, based on archived observations of the FAST Spectrograph Publicly Archived Programs and our new observations with the 2.3m telescope at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory. We reduce and calibrate all the spectra in a consistent way, and derive light curves of the broad H$\beta$ line and 5100\,{\AA} continuum. Continuum light curves are also constructed using public archival photometric data to increase sampling cadences. We subtract the host galaxy contamination using {\it HST} imaging to correct fluxes of the calibrated light curves. Utilizing the long-term archival photometric data, we complete the absolute flux-calibration of the AGN continuum. We find that the H$\beta$ time delays are correlated with the 5100\,{\AA} luminosities as $\tau_{\rm H\beta}\propto L_{5100}^{0.46\pm0.16}$. This is remarkably consistent with Bentz et al. (2013)'s global size-luminosity relationship of AGNs. Moreover, the data sets for five of the seasons allow us to obtain the velocity-resolved delays of the H$\beta$ line, showing diverse structures (outflows, inflows and disks). Combining our results with previous independent measurements, we find the measured dynamics of the H$\beta$ broad-line region (BLR) are possibly related to the long-term trend of the luminosity. There is also a possible additional $\sim$1.86 years time lag between the variation in BLR radius and luminosity. These results suggest that dynamical changes in the BLR may be driven by the effects of radiation pressure.