• Centrally Concentrated H I Distribution Enhances Star Formation in Galaxies

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We use a sample of 13,511 nearby galaxies from the ALFALFA and SDSS spectroscopic surveys to study the relation between the spatial distribution of H I 21 cm emission and star formation rate (SFR). We introduce a new non-parametric quantity $K$, measured from the curve-of-growth of the line, to describe the shape of the integrated H I profile. The value of $K$ increases from double-horned to single-peaked profiles, depending on projection effects and the spatial and velocity distribution of the gas. Using carefully chosen samples to control for the competing factors that influence the integrated line profile, we argue that useful inferences can be made on the spatial distribution of the gas. We find that galaxies with a high value of $K$ tend to have more centrally concentrated H I distribution within the optical disk of the galaxy at fixed conditions, and that larger values of $K$ are associated with higher levels of total and central SFR. The results suggest that the global concentration of H I plays an important role in facilitating the conversion of neutral atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen gas, which, in turn, affects the star formation activity throughout the optical disk. Our sample is biased against quiescent galaxies, and thus the conclusions may not hold for galaxies with low SFR or low H I content.

  • Statistical Analysis of H I Profile Asymmetry and Shape for Nearby Galaxies

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present a uniform analysis of the integrated profile of the H I emission line of 29,958 nearby ($z < 0.06$) galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA 21 cm survey. We apply the curve-of-growth technique to derive a database of spectral parameters and robust estimates of their associated uncertainties. Besides the central velocity and total flux, the main catalog provides new measures of line width, profile asymmetry, and profile shape. For a subsample of 13,511 galaxies with optical properties available from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we compute inclination angle-corrected line widths, rotation velocities empirically calibrated from spatially resolved observations, and dynamical masses based on H I sizes estimated from the H I mass. To facilitate subsequent scientific applications of the database, we also compile a number of ancillary physical properties of the galaxies, including their optical morphology, stellar mass, and various diagnostics of star formation activity. We use the homogeneous catalog of H I parameters to examine the statistical properties of profile asymmetry and shape. Across the full sample, which covers a wide range of stellar masses and environments, statistically significant H I profile asymmetry is detected in $\sim 20\%$ of the galaxy population. The global H I profiles are $35.2 \pm 0.3\%$ single-peaked, $26.9 \pm 0.3\%$ flat-topped, and $37.9 \pm 0.3\%$ double-horned. At a given inclination angle, double-horned profiles are preferentially associated with galaxies of higher stellar mass or optical concentration, while galaxies of lower mass or concentration tend to have single-peaked profiles.

  • Massive Galaxy Mergers Have Distinctive Global HI Profiles

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The global 21 cm HI emission-line profile of a galaxy encodes valuable information on the spatial distribution and kinematics of the neutral atomic gas. Galaxy interactions significantly influence the HI disk and imprint observable features on the integrated HI line profile. In this work, we study the neutral atomic gas properties of galaxy mergers selected from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. The HI spectra come from new observations with the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope and from a collection of archival data. We quantify the HI profile of the mergers with a newly developed method that uses the curve-of-growth of the line profile. Using a control sample of non-merger galaxies carefully selected to match the stellar mass of the merger sample, we show that mergers have a larger proportion of single-peaked HI profiles, as well as a greater tendency for the HI central velocity to deviate from the systemic optical velocity of the galaxy. By contrast, the HI profiles of mergers are not significantly more asymmetric than those of non-mergers.

  • The ALMaQUEST Survey XV: The Dependence of the Molecular-to-Atomic Gas Ratios on Resolved Optical Diagnostics

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-03-30

    摘要: The atomic-to-molecular gas conversion is a critical step in the baryon cycle of galaxies, which sets the initial conditions for subsequent star formation and influences the multi-phase interstellar medium. We compiled a sample of 94 nearby galaxies with observations of multi-phase gas contents by utilizing public H I, CO, and optical IFU data from the MaNGA survey together with new FAST H I observations. In agreement with previous results, our sample shows that the global molecular-to-atomic gas ratio ($R_{\rm mol} \equiv$ log $M_{\rm H_2}/M_{\rm H\ I}$) is correlated with the global stellar mass surface density $\mu_*$ with a Kendall's $\tau$ coefficient of 0.25 and $p < 10^{-3}$, less tightly but still correlated with stellar mass and NUV$-$ r color, and not related to the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The cold gas distribution and kinematics inferred from the H I and CO global profile asymmetry and shape do not significantly rely on $R_{\rm mol}$. Thanks to the availability of kpc-scale observations of MaNGA, we decompose galaxies into H II, composite, and AGN-dominated regions by using the BPT diagrams. With increasing $R_{\rm mol}$, the fraction of H II regions within 1.5 effective radius decreases slightly; the density distribution in the spatially resolved BPT diagram also changes significantly, suggesting changes in metallicity and ionization states. Galaxies with high $R_{\rm mol}$ tend to have high oxygen abundance, both at one effective radius with a Kendall's $\tau$ coefficient of 0.37 ($p < 10^{-3}$) and their central regions. Among all parameters investigated here, the oxygen abundance at one effective radius has the strongest relation with global $R_{\rm mol}$, but the dependence of gas conversion on gas distribution and galaxy ionization states is weak.