• Importance of Mock Observations in Validating Galaxy Properties for Cosmological Simulations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The galaxy luminosity function and galaxy stellar mass function are fundamental statistics in the testing of galaxy formation models. Theoretical predictions based on cosmological simulations can deviate from observations, especially at the bright and faint ends. In this case, the mismatch may come from missing physics, oversimplified or inaccurate model recipes, or inappropriate methods of extracting basic astrophysical quantities from simulations. The latter is a crucial aspect to consider to avoid misleading conclusions when comparing simulations with observations. In this paper, we have applied a new method to produce `observed' galaxies identified in mock imaging of hydrodynamical simulations. We generate low-redshift mock galaxies from the TNG100-1 simulation of IllustrisTNG and analyse them using standard `observational' techniques to extract their main structural parameters. We show that our technique can produce realistic surface-brightness distributions of the simulated galaxies, including classical morphological substructures, such as spiral arms and bars. In particular, we find a very good agreement of the total luminosity and stellar mass versus halo mass relationships, and the galaxy stellar mass versus size relationship between mock observations and real galaxies. We also compare the luminosity function and the mass function of the mock galaxy sample with literature data and find a good agreement at all luminosity and mass scales. In particular, we find no significant tension at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function, as reported in many analyses using simplified recipes to identify galaxy haloes, which in fact miscount the contribution of the extended galaxy haloes around large galaxies. This demonstrates the critical impact of using observational driven approaches to the simulation analyses to produce realistic predictions to compare to observations.

  • Application of a neural network model with multimodel fusion for fluorescence spectroscopy

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-06-19

    摘要: In energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the estimation of the pulse amplitude determines the accuracy of the spectrum measurement. The error generated by the amplitude estimation of the pulse output distorted by the measurement system leads to false peaks in the measured spectrum. To eliminate these false peaks and achieve an accurate estimation of the distorted pulse amplitude, a composite neural network model is proposed, which embeds long and short-term memory (LSTM) into the UNet structure. The UNet network realizes the fusion of pulse sequence features and the LSTM model realizes pulse amplitude estimation. The model is trained using simulated pulse datasets with different amplitudes and distortion times. For the pulse height estimation, the average relative error of the trained model on the test set was approximately 0.64%, which is 27.37% lower than that of the traditional trapezoidal shaping algorithm. Offline processing of a standard iron source further validated the pulse height estimation performance of the UNet-LSTM model. After estimating the amplitude of the distorted pulses using the model, the false-peak area was reduced by approximately 91% over the full spectrum and was corrected to the characteristic peak region of interest (ROI). The corrected peak area accounted for approximately 1.32% of the characteristic peak ROI area. The results indicate that the model can accurately estimate the height of distorted pulses and has substantial corrective effects on false peaks.

  • The dispersion measure of Fast Radio Bursts host galaxies: estimation from cosmological simulations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The dispersion measure(DM) of fast radio burst encodes important information such as its distance, properties of intervening medium. Based on simulations in the Illustris and IllustrisTNG projects, we analyze the DM of FRBs contributed by the interstellar medium and circumgalactic medium in the hosts, $\rm{DM_{host}}$. We explore two population models - tracing the star formation rate (SFR), and the stellar mass, i.e. young and old progenitors respectively. The distribution of $\rm{DM_{host}}$ shows significant differences at $z=0$ between two populations: the stellar mass model exhibits an excess at the low DM end with respect to the SFR model. The SFR (stellar mass) model has a median value of $\rm{DM_{host}}$=179 (63) $\rm{pc\, cm^{-3}}$ for galaxies with $M_*=10^{8-13}\,M_{\odot}$ in the TNG100-1. Galaxies in the Illustris-1 have a much smaller $\rm{DM_{host}}$. The distributions of $\rm{DM_{host}}$ deviate from log-normal function for both models. Furthermore, two populations differ moderately in the spatial offset from host galaxy's center, in the stellar mass function of hosts. $\rm{DM_{host}}$ increases with the stellar mass of hosts when $M_*<10^{10.5}\,M_{\odot}$, and fluctuate at higher mass. At $0展开 -->

  • The dispersion measure of Fast Radio Bursts host galaxies: estimation from cosmological simulations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The dispersion measure(DM) of fast radio burst encodes important information such as its distance, properties of intervening medium. Based on simulations in the Illustris and IllustrisTNG projects, we analyze the DM of FRBs contributed by the interstellar medium and circumgalactic medium in the hosts, $\rm{DM_{host}}$. We explore two population models - tracing the star formation rate (SFR), and the stellar mass, i.e. young and old progenitors respectively. The distribution of $\rm{DM_{host}}$ shows significant differences at $z=0$ between two populations: the stellar mass model exhibits an excess at the low DM end with respect to the SFR model. The SFR (stellar mass) model has a median value of $\rm{DM_{host}}$=179 (63) $\rm{pc\, cm^{-3}}$ for galaxies with $M_*=10^{8-13}\,M_{\odot}$ in the TNG100-1. Galaxies in the Illustris-1 have a much smaller $\rm{DM_{host}}$. The distributions of $\rm{DM_{host}}$ deviate from log-normal function for both models. Furthermore, two populations differ moderately in the spatial offset from host galaxy's center, in the stellar mass function of hosts. $\rm{DM_{host}}$ increases with the stellar mass of hosts when $M_*<10^{10.5}\,M_{\odot}$, and fluctuate at higher mass. At $0展开 -->

  • A stochastic model to reproduce the star-formation history of individual galaxies in hydrodynamic simulations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The star formation history (SFH) of galaxies is critical for understanding galaxy evolution. Hydrodynamical simulations enable us to precisely reconstruct the SFH of galaxies and establish a link to the underlying physical processes. In this work, we present a model to describe individual galaxies' SFHs from three simulations: TheThreeHundred, Illustris-1 and TNG100-1. This model divides the galaxy SFH into two distinct components: the "main sequence" and the "variation". The "main sequence" part is generated by tracing the history of the $SFR-M_*$ main sequence of galaxies across time. The "variation" part consists of the scatter around the main sequence, which is reproduced by fractional Brownian motions. We find that: 1) The evolution of the main sequence varies between simulations; 2) fractional Brownian motions can reproduce many features of SFHs, however, discrepancies still exist; 3) The variations and mass-loss rate are crucial for reconstructing the SFHs of the simulations. This model provides a fair description of the SFHs in simulations. On the other hand, by correlating the fractional Brownian motion model to simulation data, we provide a 'standard' against which to compare simulations.