• Structural Study on Two Tandem Helix Bundles of The ROD Domain of Talin, an Integrin Activator

    分类: 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 生物物理、生物化学与分子生物学 提交时间: 2016-05-12

    摘要: Talin, as the activator of integrin and the adaptor between the cytoskeleton and integrin, plays a key role in a series of processes such as cell adhesion and migration. The activation of integrin involves F3 subdomain of Talin-FERM domain binding the cytoplasmic tail of integrin beta-subunit. Talin has two states: auto-inhibited and activated. We previously reported the auto-inhibition complex structure of Talin F2F3/R9, in which the integrin binding site F3 interacts with R9(1654 similar to 1822 a.a.) of Talin-ROD, such that integrin cannot be activated. However, besides F3 and R9, it remains unclear what structural or functional roles the other domains of the 270 ku Talin play in the regulation of its activation. Here we solved the crystal structures of Talin R9-R10 (1654 similar to 1973 a.a.) and R10-R11 (1815 similar to 2140 a.a.), respectively. R9, R10 and R11 are all 5-helix bundles. R9 and R10 is joined together by a long alpha-helix instead of a flexible loop, and the two bundles are located at the opposite sides of the long helix with an angle of about 150 degrees. The linker between R10 and R11 is stabilized by neighboring hydrogen bonds, forming an angle of about 120 between the two bundles. These angles observed in our crystal structures are consistent with the previously reported SAXS and EM results. After superimposition of R9-10, R10-11 with previously reported structures of R7-8 and R11-12, a model of R7-12 was acquired, which adopts an elongated linear conformation, except that R8 protrudes from the ROD. According to this model, R10-12 does not intrude the interaction between F3 and R9, whereas R8 not only masks the F3 binding site of R9, but also might electrostatically hinders F2F3 approaching via its unique positively charged surface. This hypothesis was further verified by the results of size exclusion chromatography. Our work provides a new structural basis for studying the mechanism of Talin auto-inhibition.

  • Higgs boson mass in NMSSM with right-handed neutrino

    分类: 物理学 >> 基本粒子与场物理学 提交时间: 2016-05-14

    摘要: In order to have massive neutrinos, the right-handed neutrino/sneutrino superfield (N) need to be introduced in supersymmetry. In the framework of NMSSM (the MSSM with a singlet S) such an extension will dynamically lead to a TeNT-scale Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino through the S N N coupling when S develops a vev (the free Majorana mass term is forbidden by the assumed Z(3) symmetry). Also, through the couplings S N N and SHuHd the SM-like Higgs boson (a mixture of H-u, H-d and S) can naturally couple with the right-handed neutrino/sneutrino. As a result, the TeV-scale right-handed neutrino/sneutrino may significantly contribute to the Higgs boson mass. Through an explicit calculation, we find that the Higgs boson mass can indeed be sizably altered by the right-handed neutrino/sneutrino. Such new contribution can help to push up the SM-like Higgs boson mass and thus make the NMSSM more natural.

  • Star Formation and Quenching of Central Galaxies from Stacked HI Measurements

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We quantitatively investigate the dependence of central galaxy HI mass ($M_{\rm HI}$) on the stellar mass ($M_\ast$), halo mass ($M_{\rm h}$), star formation rate (SFR), and central stellar surface density within 1 kpc ($\Sigma_1$), taking advantage of the HI spectra stacking technique using both the Arecibo Fast Legacy ALFA Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the shapes of $M_{\rm HI}$-$M_{\rm h}$ and $M_{\rm HI}$-$M_\ast$ relations are remarkably similar for both star-forming and quenched galaxies, with massive quenched galaxies having constantly lower HI masses of around 0.6 dex. This similarity strongly suggests that neither halo mass nor stellar mass is the direct cause of quenching, but rather the depletion of HI reservoir. While the HI reservoir for low-mass galaxies of $M_\ast<10^{10.5}M_\odot$ strongly increases with $M_{\rm h}$, more massive galaxies show no significant dependence of $M_{\rm HI}$ on $M_{\rm h}$, indicating the effect of halo to determine the smooth cold gas accretion. We find that the star formation and quenching of central galaxies are directly regulated by the available HI reservoir, with an average relation of ${\rm SFR}\propto M_{\rm HI}^{2.75}/M_\ast^{0.40}$, implying a quasi-steady state of star formation. We further confirm that galaxies are depleted of their HI reservoir once they drop off the star-formation main sequence and there is a very tight and consistent correlation between $M_{\rm HI}$ and $\Sigma_1$ in this phase, with $M_{\rm HI}\propto\Sigma_1^{-2}$. This result is in consistent with the compaction-triggered quenching scenario, with galaxies going through three evolutionary phases of cold gas accretion, compaction and post-compaction, and quenching.

  • Taking Neutrino Pictures via Electrons

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In this paper we discuss the prospects to take a picture of an extended neutrino source, i.e., resolving its angular neutrino luminosity distribution. This is challenging since neutrino directions cannot be directly measured but only estimated from the directions of charged particles they interact with in the detector material. This leads to an intrinsic blurring effect. We first discuss the problem in general terms and then apply our insights to solar neutrinos scattering elastically with electrons. Despite the aforementioned blurring we show how with high statistics and precision the original neutrino distributions could be reconstructed.

  • Tunable plasmonic devices by integrating graphene with ferroelectric nanocavity

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Graphene plasmons are able to become the fundermental of novel conceptual photonic devices, resulting from their unique characteristics containing excitation at room temperature and tunable spectral selectivity in different frequencies. The pursuit of efficiently exciting and manipulating graphene plasmons is necessary and significant for high-performance devices. Here, we investigate graphene plasmon wave propagating in ferroelectric nanocavity array. We experimentally show that the the periodic ferroelectric polarizations could be used for doping graphene into desired spatial carrier density patterns. Based on a theoretical model that considers periodic ununiform conductivity across graphene sheet, the simulation results show surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in graphene can be excited by an incident light in a similar way to the excitation of photonic crystal resonant modes. The graphene SPP resonance can be tuned from ~720 to ~1 000 cm-1 by rescaling the ferroelectric nanocavity array, and from ~540 to ~780 cm-1 by dynamically changing the applied gate voltage. Our strategy of graphene carrier engineering to excite SPP offers a promissing way for large-scale, non-destructive fabrication of novel graphene photonic devices.

  • Superhydrophobic melamine sponge prepared by radiation induced grafting technology for efficient oil-water separation

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-26

    摘要: 本文介绍了一种超疏水性三聚氰胺(ME)海绵(ME-g-PLMA),该海绵通过高能辐射诱导的原位共价接枝长烷基十二烷基甲基丙烯酸酯(LMA)到ME海绵上,以实现高效的油水分离。所得的ME-g-PLMA海绵具有优良的孔隙结构,具有超疏水性(水接触角为154°)和超亲油性,可吸收高达自身重量66-168倍的各类油脂。所得到的ME-g-PLMA海绵可以通过连接泵连续分离水面上的浮油,或者通过重力驱动装置分离水下的浮油。ME-g-PLMA海绵在长期浸泡在不同的腐蚀性溶液中,多次反复吸油后,也能保持其高疏水性。所得改性ME-g-PLMA海绵具有优异的分离性能,在溢油清理方面具有巨大的潜力。

  • Ferroelectric superdomain controlled graphene plasmon for tunable mid-infrared photodetector with dual-band spectral selectivity

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Dual-band infrared photodetectors (DBIPs) can discriminate desired signals from complex scenes and thus are highly expected for threat-warning, remote sensing, and astronomy applications. Conventional DBIPs with high-performances are, however, typically based on semiconductor thin films, but remain the challenges of complex spatial align, expensive growth and cooling requirement. Here, we report a tunable graphene plasmonic photodetector with dual-band infrared spectral selectivity driven by ferroelectric superdomain. The periodic ferroelectric polarization array with nanoscale ring shapes provides ultrahigh electrostatic field for spatially doping of monolayer graphene to desired patterns, and is further used to excite and confine intrinsic graphene plasmons. Our devices exhibit tunable resonance photoresponse in both two bands of 3.7-16.3 um and 15.1-52.1 um. The numerical calculations show that our devices own ultrahigh responsivities of 667-1080 A W-1 at room temperature in range of 5-50 um. Our devices make possible the applications of infrared imaging system and both stationary and motion state of objects detection. These investigations provide a novel approach for advanced infrared system construction by employing simple, low-cost, uncooling multispectral detectors array.

  • A power-free graphene mid-infrared photodetector array

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Graphene plasmons can resonantly enhance the incident light absorption and offer a potential for tunable spectral selectivity for mid-infrared (MIR) detection. High-performance tunable graphene plasmonic devices are, however, typically based on electrode-patterned graphene, which requires high power input and are technologically challenging in compact assembly. Here we demonstrate a tunable MIR photodetector array operating at zero input bias voltage. Our devices consist of integrating monolayer graphene with periodically "type-printed" ferroelectric superdomain. The spatial graphene carrier density patterns can be readily modulated by artificially defined ferroelectric superdomain with periodic nanoscale-wide stripe domains, achieving nonuniform pattering of conductivity and subsequently enabling graphene plasmons excitation and confinement for a selective transmission resonance in MIR regime. A high photoresponsivity of ~30 mA W-1 at room temperature is achieved in our device. We also observe that our device array features a tunable detection performance with spectral selectivity from 7.2 to 8.5 {\mu}m by directly reconfiguring the periodicity of ferroelectric superdomain. Our strategy could lead to the development of smart fabrication of on-chip MIR photodetector array for application of tunable spectral systems with low-energy consumption.

  • Atypical radio pulsations from magnetar SGR 1935+2154

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: Magnetars are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields, frequently powering high-energy activity in X-rays. Pulsed radio emission following some X-ray outbursts have been detected, albeit its physical origin is unclear. It has long been speculated that the origin of magnetars' radio signals is different from those from canonical pulsars, although convincing evidence is still lacking. Five months after magnetar SGR 1935+2154's X-ray outburst and its associated Fast Radio Burst (FRB) 20200428, a radio pulsar phase was discovered. Here we report the discovery of X-ray spectral hardening associated with the emergence of periodic radio pulsations from SGR 1935+2154 and a detailed analysis of the properties of the radio pulses. The complex radio pulse morphology, which contains both narrow-band emission and frequency drifts, has not been seen before in other magnetars, but is similar to those of repeating FRBs - even though the luminosities are many orders of magnitude different. The observations suggest that radio emission originates from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar, and the surface heating due to the bombardment of inward-going particles from the radio emission region is responsible for the observed X-ray spectral hardening.

  • Model Independent Approach of the JUNO $^8$B Solar Neutrino Program

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The physics potential of detecting $^8$B solar neutrinos is exploited at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), in a model independent manner by using three distinct channels of the charged-current (CC), neutral-current (NC) and elastic scattering (ES) interactions. Due to the largest-ever mass of $^{13}$C nuclei in the liquid-scintillator detectors and the potential low background level, $^8$B solar neutrinos would be observable in the CC and NC interactions on $^{13}$C for the first time. By virtue of optimized event selections and muon veto strategies, backgrounds from the accidental coincidence, muon-induced isotopes, and external backgrounds can be greatly suppressed. Excellent signal-to-background ratios can be achieved in the CC, NC and ES channels to guarantee the $^8$B solar neutrino observation. From the sensitivity studies performed in this work, we show that one can reach the precision levels of 5%, 8% and 20% for the $^8$B neutrino flux, $\sin^2\theta_{12}$, and $\Delta m^2_{21}$, respectively, using ten years of JUNO data. It would be unique and helpful to probe the details of both solar physics and neutrino physics. In addition, when combined with SNO, the world-best precision of 3% is expected for the $^8$B neutrino flux measurement.