• A Random Integration Algorithm for High-dimensional Function Spaces

    分类: 数学 >> 数值分析 提交时间: 2024-06-16

    摘要: We introduce a novel random integration algorithm that boasts both high convergence order and polynomial tractability for functions characterized by sparse frequencies or rapidly decaying Fourier coefficients. Specifically, for integration in periodic isotropic Sobolev space and the isotropic Sobolev space with compact support, our approach attains a near-optimal root mean square error. In contrast to previous nearly optimal algorithms, our method exhibits polynomial tractability,ensuring that the number of samples does not scale exponentially with increasing dimensions. Our integration algorithm also enjoys near-optimal bound for weighted Korobov space. Furthermore, the algorithm can be applied without the need for prior knowledge of weights, distinguishing it from component-by-component algorithms. For integration in the Wiener algebra, the sample complexity of our algorithm is independent of the decay rate of Fourier coefficients. The effectiveness of the integration is confirmed through numerical experiments.

  • Evolution of AM CVn binaries with WD donors

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The evolution and stability of mass transfer of CO+He WD binaries are not well understood. Observationally they may emerge as AM CVn binaries and are important gravitational wave (GW) emitters. In this work, we have modeled the evolution of double WD binaries with accretor masses of $0.50 - 1.30\;M_{\odot}$ and donor masses of $0.17\; - 0.45\;M_{\odot}$ using the detailed stellar evolution code MESA. We find that the evolution of binaries with same donor masses but different accretor masses is very similar and binaries with same accretor masses but larger He donor masses have larger maximum mass transfer rates and smaller minimum orbital periods. We also demonstrate that the GW signal from AM CVn binaries can be detected by space-borne GW observatories, such as LISA, TianQin. And there is a linear relation between the donor mass and gravitational wave frequency during mass transfer phase. In our calculation, all binaries can have dynamically stable mass transfer, which is very different from previous studies. The threshold donor mass of Eddington-limited mass transfer for a given accretor WD mass is lower than previous studies. Assuming that a binary may enter common envelope if the mass transfer rate exceeds the maximum stable burning rate of He, we provide a new criterion for double WDs surviving mass transfer, which is below the threshold of Eddington-limit. Finally, we find that some systems with ONe WDs in our calculation may evolve into detached binaries consisting of neutron stars (NSs) and extremely low mass He WDs and further ultra-compact X-ray binaries.

  • Image enhancement in acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy enabled by a novel directional algorithm

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM) is a promising tool for microvascular imaging. In the focal region, resolution of AR-PAM is determined by the ultrasound transducer and ultimately limited by acoustic diffraction. In the out-of-focus region, resolution deteriorates with increasing distance from the focal plane, which restricts depth of focus (DOF). Besides, a trade-off exists between resolution and DOF. Previously, synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and/or deconvolution methods have been demonstrated to enhance AR-PAM images. However, they suffer from issues in low resolution, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and/or poor image fidelity. Here, we propose a novel algorithm for AR-PAM to enhance image resolution, SNR, and fidelity. The algorithm consists of a Fourier accumulation SAFT (FA-SAFT) and a directional model-based (D-MB) deconvolution method. Inspired from Fourier denoising technique and directional SAFT, FA-SAFT mainly compensates for the defocusing effect. Besides, D-MB deconvolution enhances the resolution as well as preserves the image fidelity, especially for the objects with line patterns such as microvasculature. Full width at half maximum of 26-31 um over DOF of 1.8 mm and minimum resolvable distance of 46-49 um are experimentally achieved by imaging tungsten wire phantom. Moreover, imaging of leaf skeleton phantom and in vivo imaging of mouse blood vessels also prove that our algorithm is capable of providing high-resolution, high-SNR, and good-fidelity results for complex structures and for in vivo applications.

  • The maximum accreted mass of recycled pulsars

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The maximum mass of neutron stars (NSs) is of great importance for constraining equations of state of NSs and understanding the mass gap between NSs and stellar-mass black holes. NSs in X-ray binaries would increase in mass by accreting material from their companions (known as recycling process), and the uncertainties in the accretion process give challenge to study the NS mass at birth. {In this work, we investigate the NS accreted mass with considering the effect of NS spin evolution and give the maximum accreted mass for NSs in the recycling process. By exploring a series of binary evolution calculations, we obtain the final NS mass and the maximum accreted mass for a given birth mass of NS and a mass transfer efficiency. Our results show that the NSs can accrete relatively more material for binary systems with the donor masses in the range of $1.8\sim 2.4M_\odot$, the NSs accrete relatively more mass when the remnant WD mass is in the range of $\sim 0.25-0.30M_\odot$, and the maximum accreted mass is positively correlated with the initial NS mass. For a $1.4M_\odot$ NS at birth with a moderate mass transfer efficiency of 0.3, the maximum accreted mass could be $0.27M_\odot$. The results can be used to estimate the minimum birth mass for systems with massive NSs in observations.

  • Formation of the double white dwarf binary PTF J0533+0209 through stable mass transfer?

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Double white dwarf (DWD) binaries are important for studies of common-envelope (CE) evolution, Type Ia supernova progenitors and Galactic sources of low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs). PTF J0533+0209 is a DWD system with a short orbital period of Porb ~ 20 min and thus a so-called LISA verification source. The formation of this system and other DWDs is still under debate. In this paper, we discuss the possible formation scenarios of this binary and argue that it is not likely to have formed through CE evolution. Applying a new magnetic braking prescription, we use the MESA code to model the formation of this system through stable mass transfer. We find a model which can well reproduce the observed WD masses and orbital period but not the effective temperature and hydrogen abundance of the low-mass He WD component. We discuss the possibility of using H flashes to mitigate this discrepancy. Finally, we discuss the future evolution of this system into a AM CVn binary such as those that will be detected by space-borne GW observatories like LISA, TianQin and Taiji.

  • Influence of a mass transfer stability criterion on double white dwarf populations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Mass transfer stability is an essential issue in binary evolution. Ge et al. studied critical mass ratios for dynamically stable mass transfer by establishing adiabatic mass loss model and found that the donor stars on the giant branches tend to be more stable than that based on the composite polytropic stellar model. We would investigate the influence of mass transfer stability on the formation and properties of DWD populations. We performed a series of binary population synthesis, where the critical mass ratios from adiabatic mass loss model (Ge's model) and that from the composite polytropic model are adopted, respectively. For Ge's model, most of the DWDs are produced from the stable non-conservative Roche lobe overflow plus common envelope (CE) ejection channel (RL+CE channel) regardless of the CE ejection efficiency $\alpha_{CE}$. While the results of the polytropic model strongly depend on the adopted value of $\alpha_{ CE}$. We find DWDs produced from the RL+CE channel have comparable WD masses and the mass ratio distribution peaks at around 1. Based on the magnitude-limited sample of DWDs, the space densities for the detectable DWDs and those with extremely low-mass WD (ELM WD) companions in Ge's model is $1347$ and $473 kpc^{-3}$, respectively, close to observations. While the polytropic model overpredicts space density of DWDs by a factor of about $2-3$. We also find that the results of DWD merger rate distribution in Ge's model reproduce the observations better than that of the polytropic model, and the merger rate of DWDs with ELM WD companions in the Galaxy is about $1.8\times 10^{-3} yr^{-1}$ in Ge's model, which is comparable to the observation estimation. We confirm that the mass transfer stability plays important roles in the formation and properties of DWD populations, and then in the progenitors of SNe Ia and detectable GW sources.

  • Investigating the stability of mass transfer in neutron star-helium white dwarf binaries

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Neutron star-helium white dwarf (NS+He WD) binaries are important evolutionary products of close-orbit binary star systems. They are often observed as millisecond pulsars and may continue evolving into ultra-compact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) and continuous gravitational wave (GW) sources that will be detected by space-borne GW observatories, such as LISA, TianQin and Taiji. Nevertheless, the stability of NS+He WD binaries undergoing mass transfer is not well studied and still under debate. In this paper, we model the evolution of NS+He WD binaries with WD masses ranging from 0.17-0.45 $M_{\odot}$, applying the detailed stellar evolution code mesa. Contrary to previous studies based on hydrodynamics, we find that apparently all NS+He WD binaries undergo stable mass transfer. We find for such UCXBs that the larger the WD mass, the larger the maximum mass-transfer rate and the smaller the minimum orbital period during their evolution. Finally, we demonstrate numerically and analytically that there is a tight correlation between WD mass and GW frequency for UCXBs, independent of NS mass.

  • WD mass and orbital period relation of sdB + He WD binaries

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Most subdwarf B (sdB) + Helium white dwarf (He WD) binaries are believed to be formed from a particular channel. In this channel, the He WDs are produced first from red giants (RGs) with degenerate cores via stable mass transfer and sdB stars are produced from RGs with degenerate cores via common envelope (CE) ejection. They are important for the studies of CE evolution, binary evolution, and binary population synthesis. However, the relation between WD mass and orbital period of sdB + He WD binaries has not been specifically studied. In this paper, we first use a semi-analytic method to follow their formation and find a WD mass and orbital period relation. Then we use a detailed stellar evolution code to model their formation from main-sequence binaries. We find a similar relation between the WD mass and orbital period, which is in broad agreement with observations. For most sdB + He WD systems, if the WD mass (orbital period) can be determined, the orbital period (WD mass) can be inferred with this relation and then the inclination angle can be constrained with the binary mass function. In addition, we can also use this relation to constrain the CE ejection efficiency and find that a relative large CE ejection efficiency is favoured. If both the WD and sdB star masses can be determined, the critical mass ratios of dynamically unstable mass transfer for RG binaries can also be constrained.

  • Influence of a mass transfer stability criterion on double white dwarf populations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Mass transfer stability is an essential issue in binary evolution. Ge et al. studied critical mass ratios for dynamically stable mass transfer by establishing adiabatic mass loss model and found that the donor stars on the giant branches tend to be more stable than that based on the composite polytropic stellar model. We would investigate the influence of mass transfer stability on the formation and properties of DWD populations. We performed a series of binary population synthesis, where the critical mass ratios from adiabatic mass loss model (Ge's model) and that from the composite polytropic model are adopted, respectively. For Ge's model, most of the DWDs are produced from the stable non-conservative Roche lobe overflow plus common envelope (CE) ejection channel (RL+CE channel) regardless of the CE ejection efficiency $\alpha_{CE}$. While the results of the polytropic model strongly depend on the adopted value of $\alpha_{ CE}$. We find DWDs produced from the RL+CE channel have comparable WD masses and the mass ratio distribution peaks at around 1. Based on the magnitude-limited sample of DWDs, the space densities for the detectable DWDs and those with extremely low-mass WD (ELM WD) companions in Ge's model is $1347$ and $473 kpc^{-3}$, respectively, close to observations. While the polytropic model overpredicts space density of DWDs by a factor of about $2-3$. We also find that the results of DWD merger rate distribution in Ge's model reproduce the observations better than that of the polytropic model, and the merger rate of DWDs with ELM WD companions in the Galaxy is about $1.8\times 10^{-3} yr^{-1}$ in Ge's model, which is comparable to the observation estimation. We confirm that the mass transfer stability plays important roles in the formation and properties of DWD populations, and then in the progenitors of SNe Ia and detectable GW sources.

  • Scattering-assisted and logic-controllable WGM laser in liquid crystal micropillar

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-22

    摘要: Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities can efficiently store and manipulate light with strong light confinement and long photon lifetime, while coupling light into and from WGMs is intrinsically hindered by their unique feature of rotational symmetry. Here, a scattering-assisted liquid crystal (LC) micropillar WGM laser is proposed. WGM lasing at the surface of the micropillar is obviously enhanced by fluorescence scattering in the core of the micropillar. Besides, weak scattering of LC molecules also builds efficient coupling channels between the laser modes and the axial transmission modes of the micropillar-based waveguide, providing an all-in-one liquid WGM laser with functions of self-seeding and self-guiding. Furthermore, based on the hysteresis characteristics of the electrically anchored LC molecules under the interaction of thermal force, an erasable read-write liquid memory device is proposed, paving the way for the application of logic-controllable WGM lasers in optical storage and optical control.

  • Planar Integrated Magneto Optical Trap

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Abstract The magneto-optical trap (MOT) is an essential tool for collecting and preparing cold atoms with a wide range of applications. We demonstrate a planar-integrated MOT by combining an optical grating chip with a magnetic coil chip. The flat grating chip simplifies the conventional six-beam configuration down to a single laser beam; the flat coil chip replaces the conventional anti-Helmholtz coils of a cylindrical geometry. We trap 10^{4} cold ^{87}\text{Rb} atoms in the planar-integrated MOT, at a point 3-9 mm above the chip surface. This novel configuration effectively reduces the volume, weight, and complexity of the MOT, bringing benefits to applications including gravimeter, clock and quantum memory devices.

  • A small molecule compound IMB-LA inhibits HIV-1 infection by preventing viral Vpu from antagonizing the host restriction factor BST-2

    分类: 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间: 2016-05-11

    摘要: Human BST-2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by tethering nascent virions to the cell surface. HIV-1 codes Vpu that counteracts BST-2 by down-regulating this restriction factor from the cell surface. This important function makes Vpu a potential therapeutic target. Yet, no agents have been reported to block Vpu from antagonizing BST-2. In this study, we report a small molecule compound IMB-LA that abrogates the function of Vpu and thereby strongly suppresses HIV-1 replication by sensitizing the virus to BST-2 restriction. Further studies revealed that IMB-LA specifically inhibits Vpu-mediated degradation of BST-2 and restores the expression of BST-2 at the cell surface. Although IMB-LA does not prevent Vpu from interacting with BST-2 or beta-TrCP2-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, sorting of BST-2 into lysosomes in Vpu-expressing cells is blocked by IMB-LA. Most importantly, HIV-1 release and infection is inhibited by IMB-LA only in BST-2-expressing cells. In summary, results herein demonstrated that IMB-LA could specifically inhibit the degradation of BST-2 induced by Vpu, and impair HIV-1 replication in a BST-2 dependent manner, suggesting the feasibility of utilizing small molecule compounds to disable the antagonist function of Vpu and thereby expose HIV-1 to the restriction by BST-2.