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  • Gaussian Process Modeling Blazar Multiwavelength Variability: Indirectly Resolving Jet Structure

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Blazar jet structure can be indirectly resolved by analyzing the multiwavelength variability. In this work, we analyze the long-term variability of blazars in radio, optical and X-ray energies with the Gaussian process (GP) method. The multiwavelength variability can be successfully characterized by the damped-random walk (DRW) model. The nonthermal optical characteristic timescales of 38 blazars are statistically consistent with the $\gamma$-ray characteristic timescales of 22 blazars. For three individuals (3C 273, PKS 1510-089, and BL Lac), the nonthermal optical, X-ray, and $\gamma$-ray characteristic timescales are also consistent within the measured 95$\%$ errors, but the radio timescale of 3C 273 is too large to be constrained by the decade-long light curve. The synchrotron and inverse-Compton emissions have the same power spectral density, suggesting that the long-term jet variability is irrelevant to the emission mechanism. In the plot of the rest-frame timescale versus black hole mass, the optical-$\gamma$-ray timescales of the jet variability occupy almost the same space with the timescales of accretion disk emission from normal quasars, which may imply that the long-term variabilities of the jet and accretion disk are driven by the same physical process. It is suggested that the nonthermal optical-X-ray and $\gamma$-ray emissions are produced in the same region, while the radio core which can be resolved by very-long-baseline interferometry locates at a far more distant region from the black hole. Our study suggests a new methodology for comparing thermal and nonthermal emissions, which is achieved by using the standard GP method.

  • Gaussian Process Modeling Blazar Multiwavelength Variability: Indirectly Resolving Jet Structure

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Blazar jet structure can be indirectly resolved by analyzing the multiwavelength variability. In this work, we analyze the long-term variability of blazars in radio, optical and X-ray energies with the Gaussian process (GP) method. The multiwavelength variability can be successfully characterized by the damped-random walk (DRW) model. The nonthermal optical characteristic timescales of 38 blazars are statistically consistent with the $\gamma$-ray characteristic timescales of 22 blazars. For three individuals (3C 273, PKS 1510-089, and BL Lac), the nonthermal optical, X-ray, and $\gamma$-ray characteristic timescales are also consistent within the measured 95$\%$ errors, but the radio timescale of 3C 273 is too large to be constrained by the decade-long light curve. The synchrotron and inverse-Compton emissions have the same power spectral density, suggesting that the long-term jet variability is irrelevant to the emission mechanism. In the plot of the rest-frame timescale versus black hole mass, the optical-$\gamma$-ray timescales of the jet variability occupy almost the same space with the timescales of accretion disk emission from normal quasars, which may imply that the long-term variabilities of the jet and accretion disk are driven by the same physical process. It is suggested that the nonthermal optical-X-ray and $\gamma$-ray emissions are produced in the same region, while the radio core which can be resolved by very-long-baseline interferometry locates at a far more distant region from the black hole. Our study suggests a new methodology for comparing thermal and nonthermal emissions, which is achieved by using the standard GP method.

  • A Possible γ-Ray Pulsation from PSR J1740−5340B in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Recently, a new radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) J1740−5340B, hosted in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, was reported with a 5.78 ms spin period in an eclipsing binary system with a 1.97 days orbital period. Based on a modified radio ephemeris updated by tool tempo2, we analyze the ∼15 yr γ-ray data obtained from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detect PSR J1740−5340B's γ-ray pulsation at a confidence level of ∼4σ with a weighted H-test value of ∼26. By performing a phase-resolved analysis, the γ-ray luminosity in on-pulse interval of PSR J1740−5340B is Lγ ∼ 3.8 × 1033 erg s−1 using NGC 6397's distance of 2.48 kpc. And γ-rays from the on-pulse part of PSR J1740−5340B contribute ∼90% of the total observed γ-ray emissions from NGC 6397. No significant γ-ray pulsation of another MSP J1740−5340A in the GC is detected. Considering that the previous four cases of MSPs in GCs, more data in γ-ray, X-ray, and radio are encouraged to finally confirm the γ-ray emissions from MSP J1740−5340B, especially starving for a precise ephemeris.

  • Parameter constraints in a near-equipartition model with multifrequency NuSTAR, Swift, and Fermi-LAT data from 3C 279

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要: Precise spectra of 3C 279 in the 0.5-70 keV range, obtained during two epochs of \emph{Swift} and \emph{NuSTAR} observations, are analyzed using a near-equipartition model. We apply a one-zone leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED) to fit the \emph{Swift} and \emph{NuSTAR} X-ray data, as well as simultaneous optical and \emph{Fermi}-LAT γ-ray data. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is used to search the high-dimensional parameter space and evaluate the uncertainties on model parameters. We show that the two spectra can be successfully fit in near-equipartition conditions, defined by the ratio of the energy density of relativistic electrons to magnetic field ζe being close to unity. In both spectra, the observed X-rays are dominated by synchrotron-self Compton photons, and the observed γ rays are dominated by Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. Model parameters are well constrained. From the low state to the high state, both the curvature of the log-parabola width parameter and the synchrotron peak frequency significantly increase. The derived magnetic fields in the two states are nearly identical (∼1\ G), but the Doppler factor in the high state is larger than that in the low state (∼28 versus ∼18). We derive that the gamma-ray emission site takes place outside the broad-line region, at ≳ 0.1 pc from the black hole, but within the dusty torus. Implications for 3C 279 as a source of high-energy cosmic-rays are discussed.

  • Scattering-assisted and logic-controllable WGM laser in liquid crystal micropillar

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-22

    摘要: Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities can efficiently store and manipulate light with strong light confinement and long photon lifetime, while coupling light into and from WGMs is intrinsically hindered by their unique feature of rotational symmetry. Here, a scattering-assisted liquid crystal (LC) micropillar WGM laser is proposed. WGM lasing at the surface of the micropillar is obviously enhanced by fluorescence scattering in the core of the micropillar. Besides, weak scattering of LC molecules also builds efficient coupling channels between the laser modes and the axial transmission modes of the micropillar-based waveguide, providing an all-in-one liquid WGM laser with functions of self-seeding and self-guiding. Furthermore, based on the hysteresis characteristics of the electrically anchored LC molecules under the interaction of thermal force, an erasable read-write liquid memory device is proposed, paving the way for the application of logic-controllable WGM lasers in optical storage and optical control.

  • Unconventional Weyl exceptional contours in non-Hermitian photonic continua

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Unconventional Weyl points with topological charges higher than 1 can transform into various complex unconventional Weyl exceptional contours under non-Hermitian perturbations. However, theoretical studies of these exceptional contours have been limited to tight-binding models. Here, we propose to realize unconventional Weyl exceptional contours in photonic continua -- non-Hermitian anisotropic chiral plasma, based on ab initio calculation by Maxwell's equations. By perturbing in-plane permittivity, an unconventional Weyl point can transform into a quadratic Weyl exceptional circle, a Type-I Weyl exceptional chain with one chain point, a Type-II Weyl exceptional chain with two chain points, or other forms. Realistic metamaterials with effective constitutive parameters are proposed to implement these unconventional Weyl exceptional contours. Our work paves a way toward exploration of exotic physics of unconventional Weyl exceptional contours in non-Hermitian topological photonic continua.

  • Real stabilization method for nuclear single particle resonances

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2017-08-22

    摘要: We develop the real stabilization method within the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) model. With the self-consistent nuclear potentials from the RMF model, the real stabilization method is used to study single-particle resonant states in spherical nuclei. As examples, the energies, widths and wave functions of low-lying neutron resonant states in 120Sn are obtained. These results are compared with those from the scattering phase shift method and the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach and satisfactory agreements are found.

  • Dynamic changes of emitting electron distribution in the jet of 3C 279: signatures of acceleration and cooling

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要: We study the dynamic changes of electron energy distribution (EED) through systematically analysing the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 in different states. With Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique we model fourteen SEDs of 3C 279 using a leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED). The 14 SEDs can be satisfactorily fitted with the one-zone leptonic model. The observed γ rays in 13 states are attributed to Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. The curved γ-ray spectrum observed during 2-8 April 2014 is well explained by the external Compton of dust radiation. It is found that there is a clear positive correlation between the curvature parameter b of the EED and the electron peak energy γ′pk. No clear correlation between b and the synchrotron peak frequency νs is found, due to the varied product of Doppler factor and fluid magnetic field from state to state. We interpret the correlation of b−γ′pk in a stochastic acceleration scenario. This positive correlation is in agreement with the prediction in the stage when the balance between acceleration and radiative cooling of the electrons is nearly established in the case of the turbulence spectral index q=2.

  • Redshift Dependence of the Low-energy Spectral Index of Gamma-Ray Bursts Revisited

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-01-09 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: A negative correlation was found to exist between the low-energy spectral index and the redshift of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by Amati et al. It was later confirmed by Geng & Huang and Gruber et al., but the correlation was also found to be quite dispersive when the sample size was significantly expanded. In this study, we have established two even larger samples of GRBs to further examine the correlation. One of our samples consists of 316 GRBs detected by the Swift satellite, and the other one consists of 80 GRBs detected by the Fermi satellite. It is found that there is no correlation between the two parameters for the Swift sample, but there does exist a weak negative correlation for the Fermi sample. The correlation becomes even more significant when the spectral index at the peak flux is considered. It is argued that the absence of the correlation in the Swift sample may be due to the fact that Swift has a very narrow energy response so that it could not measure the low-energy spectral index accurately enough. Further studies based on even larger GRB samples are solicited.

  • Near-Equipartition Jets with Log-Parabola Electron Energy Distribution and the Blazar Spectral-Index Diagrams

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-13

    摘要: Fermi-LAT analyses show that the gamma-ray photon spectral indices Gamma_gamma of a large sample of blazars correlate with the vFv peak synchrotron frequency v_s according to the relation Gamma_gamma = d - k log v_s. The same function, with different constants d and k, also describes the relationship between Gamma_gamma and peak Compton frequency v_C. This behavior is derived analytically using an equipartition blazar model with a log-parabola description of the electron energy distribution (EED). In the Thomson regime, k = k_EC = 3b/4 for external Compton processes and k = k_SSC = 9b/16 for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, where b is the log-parabola width parameter of the EED. The BL Lac object Mrk 501 is fit with a synchrotron/SSC model given by the log-parabola EED, and is best fit away from equipartition. Corrections are made to the spectral-index diagrams for a low-energy power-law EED and departures from equipartition, as constrained by absolute jet power. Analytic expressions are compared with numerical values derived from self-Compton and external Compton scattered gamma-ray spectra from Ly alpha broad-line region and IR target photons. The Gamma_gamma vs. v_s behavior in the model depends strongly on b, with progressively and predictably weaker dependences on gamma-ray detection range, variability time, and isotropic gamma-ray luminosity. Implications for blazar unification and blazars as ultra-high energy cosmic-ray sources are presented. Arguments by Ghisellini et al. (2014) that the jet power exceeds the accretion luminosity depend on the doubtful assumption that we are viewing at the Doppler angle.

  • Second harmonic and cascaded third harmonic generation in generalized quasi-periodic poled lithium niobate waveguides

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Lithium niobate (LN) thin film has recently emerged as an important platform for nonlinear optical investigations for its large $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear coefficients and ability of light localization. In this paper, we report the first fabrication of LN on insulator (LNOI) ridge waveguides with generalized quasi-periodic poled superlattices using the electric field polarization technique and microfabrication techniques. Benefiting from the abundant reciprocal vectors, we observed efficient second-harmonic and cascaded third-harmonic signals in the same device, with the normalized conversion efficiency 1735% W$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$ and 0.41% W$^{-2}$cm$^{-4}$, respectively. This work opens a new direction of nonlinear integrated photonics based on LN thin film.

  • Topological chiral edge states in deep-subwavelength valley photonic metamaterials

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Topological valley photonics has emerged as a new frontier in photonics with many promising applications. Previous valley boundary transport relies on kink states at internal boundaries between two topologically distinct domains. However, recent studies have revealed a novel class of topological chiral edge states (CESs) at external boundaries of valley materials, which have remained elusive in photonics. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the topological CESs in valley photonic metamaterials (VPMMs) by accurately tuning on-site edge potentials. Moreover, the VPMMs work at deep-subwavelength scales. Thus, the supported CESs are highly confined and self-guiding without relying on a cladding layer to prevent leakage radiation. Via direct near-field measurements, we observe the bulk bandgap, the edge dispersions, and the robust edge transport passing through sharp corners, which are hallmarks of the CESs. Our work paves a way to explore novel topological edge states in valley photonics and sheds light on robust and miniaturized photonic devices.

  • Vortex solitons in quasi-phase-matched photonic crystals

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report solutions for stable compound solitons supported by a three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase-matched (QPM) photonic crystal in a medium with the quadratic ($\chi ^{(2)}$) nonlinearity. The photonic crystals are introduced with a checkerboard structure, which can be realized by means of the available technology. The solitons are built as four-peak vortex modes of two types, rhombuses and squares. Their stability areas are identified in the system's parametric space, while all bright vortex solitons are subject to strong azimuthal instability in uniform $\chi ^{(2)}$ media. Possibilities for experimental realization of the solitons are outlined too.

  • A comparative study on different background estimation methods for extensive air shower arrays

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Background estimation is essential when studying TeV gamma-ray astronomy for extensive air shower arrays. In this work, by applying four applying four different methods including equi-zenith angle method, surrounding window method, direct integration method, and time-swapping method, the number of the background events is calculated. Based on simulation samples, the statistical significance of the excess signal from different background estimation methods is determined. Following this, we discuss the limits and the applicability of the four methods under different conditions. Under the detector stability assumption with signal, the results from the above four methods are consistent at the 1 sigma level. In the no signal condition, when the acceptance of the detector changes with both space and time, the surrounding window method is most stable and hardly affected. In this acceptance assumption, we find that the background estimation in the direct integration and time-swapping methods are sensitive to the selection of time window, and the shorter time window can reduce the impact on the background estimation to some extent.

  • A comparative study on different background estimation methods for extensive air shower arrays

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Background estimation is essential when studying TeV gamma-ray astronomy for extensive air shower arrays. In this work, by applying four applying four different methods including equi-zenith angle method, surrounding window method, direct integration method, and time-swapping method, the number of the background events is calculated. Based on simulation samples, the statistical significance of the excess signal from different background estimation methods is determined. Following this, we discuss the limits and the applicability of the four methods under different conditions. Under the detector stability assumption with signal, the results from the above four methods are consistent at the 1 sigma level. In the no signal condition, when the acceptance of the detector changes with both space and time, the surrounding window method is most stable and hardly affected. In this acceptance assumption, we find that the background estimation in the direct integration and time-swapping methods are sensitive to the selection of time window, and the shorter time window can reduce the impact on the background estimation to some extent.

  • Large evanescently-induced Brillouin scattering at the surrounding of a nanofibre

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Brillouin scattering has been widely exploited for advanced photonics functionalities such as microwave photonics, signal processing, sensing, lasing, and more recently in micro- and nano-photonic waveguides. So far, all the works have focused on the opto-acoustic interaction driven from the core region of micro- and nano-waveguides. Here we observe, for the first time, an efficient Brillouin scattering generated by an evanescent field nearby a sub-wavelength waveguide embedded in a pressurised gas cell, with a maximum gain coefficient of $18.90 \pm 0.17$ m$^{-1}$W$^{-1}$. This gain is 11 times larger than the highest Brillouin gain obtained in a hollow-core fibre and 79 times larger than in a standard single-mode fibre. The realisation of strong free-space Brillouin scattering from a waveguide benefits from the flexibility of confined light while providing a direct access to the opto-acoustic interaction, as required in free-space optoacoustics such as Brillouin spectroscopy and microscopy. Therefore, our work creates an important bridge between Brillouin scattering in waveguides, Brillouin spectroscopy and microscopy, and opens new avenues in light-sound interactions, optomechanics, sensing, lasing and imaging.

  • Observation of topologically enabled complete polarization conversion

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Exploiting topological ideas has been a major theme in modern photonics, which provides unprecedented opportunities to design photonic devices with robustness against defects and flaws. While most previous works in topological photonics have focused on band theory, recent theoretical advances extend the topological concepts to the analysis of scattering matrices and suggest a topological route to complete polarization conversion (CPC), a unique photonic phenomenon without an electronic counterpart. Here, we report on the experimental observation of the topological effect in reflection matrices of a photonic crystal slab, enabling CPC between two linear polarizations over a wide range of frequencies. Using angle-resolved reflection measurements, we observe CPC occurring at vortex singularities of reflection coefficients in momentum space, verifying the topological nature of CPC. In addition, the topological effect also guarantees the spin-preserved reflection of a circularly polarized wave. Remarkably, we experimentally establish a connection between two seemingly unrelated topological phenomena--CPC and bound states in the continuum (BICs): BICs lie on the critical coupling curves that define the condition for CPC. Our work paves the way to exploring the topological properties in scattering matrices for controlling light polarization and spin and creating robust photonic devices.

  • Surface density-of-states on semi-infinite topological photonic and acoustic crystals

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Iterative Green's function, based on cyclic reduction of block tridiagonal matrices, has been the ideal algorithm, through tight-binding models, to compute the surface density-of-states of semi-infinite topological electronic materials. In this paper, we apply this method to photonic and acoustic crystals, using finite-element discretizations and a generalized eigenvalue formulation, to calculate the local density-of-states on a single surface of semi-infinite lattices. The three-dimensional (3D) examples of gapless helicoidal surface states in Weyl and Dirac crystals are shown and the computational cost, convergence and accuracy are analyzed.

  • Demonstration of broadband topological slow light

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Slow-light devices are able to significantly enhance light-matter interaction due to the reduced group velocity of light, but a very low group velocity is usually achieved in a narrow bandwidth, accompanied by extreme sensitivity to imperfections that causes increased disorder-induced attenuation. Recent theories have suggested an ideal solution to this problem - unidirectional chiral photonic states, previously discovered in structures known as photonic topological insulators, not only resist backscattering from imperfections but can also be slowed down in the entire topological bandgap with multiple windings in the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of broadband topological slow light in a photonic topological insulator. When coupled with periodic resonators that form flat bands, the chiral photonic states can wind many times around the Brillouin zone, achieving an ultra-low group velocity in the entire topological bandgap. This demonstration extends the scope of topological photonics into slow light engineering and opens a unique avenue in the dispersion manipulation of chiral photonic states.

  • Applying Hybrid Clustering in Pulsar Candidate Sifting with Multi-modality for FAST Survey

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-03-29 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Pulsar search is always the basis of pulsar navigation, gravitational wave detection and other research topics. Currently, the volume of pulsar candidates collected by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) shows an explosive growth rate that has brought challenges for its pulsar candidate filtering system. Particularly, the multi-view heterogeneous data and class imbalance between true pulsars and non-pulsar candidates have negative effects on traditional single-modal supervised classification methods. In this study, a multi-modal and semi-supervised learning based on a pulsar candidate sifting algorithm is presented, which adopts a hybrid ensemble clustering scheme of density-based and partition-based methods combined with a feature-level fusion strategy for input data and a data partition strategy for parallelization. Experiments on both High Time Resolution Universe Survey II (HTRU2) and actual FAST observation data demonstrate that the proposed algorithm could excellently identify pulsars: On HTRU2, the precision and recall rates of its parallel mode reach 0.981 and 0.988 respectively. On FAST data, those of its parallel mode reach 0.891 and 0.961, meanwhile, the running time also significantly decreases with the increment of parallel nodes within limits. Thus, we can conclude that our algorithm could be a feasible idea for large scale pulsar candidate sifting for FAST drift scan observation.