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  • Dynamical structures of retrograde resonances: analytical and numerical studies

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In this work, retrograde mean motion resonances (MMRs) are investigated by means of analytical and numerical approaches. Initially, we define a new resonant angle to describe the retrograde MMRs and then perform a series of canonical transformations to formulate the resonant model, in which the phase portrait, resonant centre and resonant width can be analytically determined. To validate the analytical developments, the non-perturbative analysis is made by taking advantage of Poincar\'e surfaces of section. Some modifications are introduced in the production of Poincar\'e sections and, in particular, it becomes possible to make direct comparisons between the analytical and numerical results. It is found that there exists an excellent correspondence between the phase portraits and the associated Poincar\'e sections, and the analytical results agree well with the numerical results in terms of the resonant width and the location of resonant centre. Finally, the numerical approach is utilized to determine the resonant widths and resonant centres over the full range of eccentricity. In particular, seven known examples of retrograde asteroids including 2015 BZ509, 2008 SO218, 1999 LE31, 2000 DG8, 2014 AT28, 2016 LS and 2016 JK24 are found inside the libration zones of retrograde MMRs with Jupiter. The results obtained in this work may be helpful for understanding the dynamical evolution for asteroids inside retrograde MMRs.

  • The evolution of the chiral symmetry in cesium isotopes

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-07-03

    摘要: Following the reports of candidate chiral doublet bands observed in cesium isotopes, the possible chiral candidates and the evolution of three-dimensional rotation in $^{120-134}{ textrm{Cs}}$ are investigated within the microscopic three-dimensional tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory (3DTAC-CDFT). By investigating the evolution of the polar angle $ theta$ and azimuth angle $ varphi$ as a function of rotational frequency $ hbar omega$, the transition from the planar rotation to the chiral rotation has been found in $^{121-133}{ textrm{Cs}}$. The corresponding critical rotational frequency $ omega_{ textrm{crit}}$ of the appearance of chiral aplanar rotation decreases as neutron number increases, which can be attributed to the neutrons in $(gd)$ and $(sd)$ shells having smaller angular momentum components along both the short and long axes, and larger components along medium axis, respectively. In comparison, only planar rotation has been obtained in $^{120,134}{ textrm{Cs}}$. With these interpretations, the obtained $I sim hbar omega$ and energy spectra as well as $B(M1)/B(E2)$ values show reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the evolution of quadrupole deformation $ beta$ and triaxial deformation $ gamma$ are also discussed.

  • Leap-frog neural network for learning the symplectic evolution from partitioned data

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: For the Hamiltonian system, this work considers the learning and prediction of the position (q) and momentum (p) variables generated by a symplectic evolution map. Similar to Chen & Tao (2021), the symplectic map is represented by the generating function. In addition, we develop a new learning scheme by splitting the time series (q_i, p_i) into several partitions, and then train a leap-frog neural network (LFNN) to approximate the generating function between the first (i.e. initial condition) and one of the rest partitions. For predicting the system evolution in a short timescale, the LFNN could effectively avoid the issue of accumulative error. Then the LFNN is applied to learn the behavior of the 2:3 resonant Kuiper belt objects, in a much longer time period, and there are two significant improvements on the neural network constructed in our previous work (Li et al. 2022): (1) conservation of the Jacobi integral ; (2) highly accurate prediction of the orbital evolution. We propose that the LFNN may be useful to make the prediction of the long time evolution of the Hamiltonian system.

  • The von Zeipel-Lidov-Kozai effect inside mean motion resonances with applications to trans-Neptunian objects

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Secular dynamics inside MMRs plays an essential role in governing the dynamical structure of the trans-Neptunian region and sculpting the orbital distribution of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). In this study, semi-analytical developments are made to explore the von Zeipel-Lidov-Kozai (ZLK) resonance inside mean motion resonances (MMRs). To this end, a semi-secular model is formulated by averaging theory and then a single-degree-of-freedom integrable model is achieved based on the adiabatic invariance approximation. In particular, we introduce a modified adiabatic invariant, which is continuous around the separatrices of MMRs. During the long-term evolution, both the resonant Hamiltonian and the adiabatic invariant remain unchanged, thus phase portraits can be produced by plotting level curves of the adiabatic invariant with given Hamiltonian. The phase portraits provide global pictures to predict long-term behaviors of the eccentricity, inclination and argument of pericenter. Applications to some representative TNOs inside MMRs (2018 VO137, 2005 SD278, 2015 PD312, Pluto, 2004 HA79, 1996 TR66 and 2014 SR373) show good agreements between the numerically propagated trajectories under the full N-body model and the level curves arising in phase portraits. Interestingly, 2018 VO137 and 2005 SD278 exhibit switching behaviors during the long-term evolution and currently they are inside 2:5 MMR with Neptune.

  • Apsidal asymmetric-alignment of Jupiter Trojans

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The most distant Kuiper belt objects exhibit the clustering in their orbits, and this anomalous architecture could be caused by Planet 9 with large eccentricity and high inclination. We then suppose that the orbital clustering of minor planets may be observed somewhere else in the solar system. In this paper, we consider the over 7000 Jupiter Trojans from the Minor Planet Center, and find that they are clustered in the longitude of perihelion $\varpi$, around the locations $\varpi_{\mbox{{J}}}+60^{\circ}$ and $\varpi_{\mbox{{J}}}-60^{\circ}$ ($\varpi_{\mbox{{J}}}$ is the longitude of perihelion of Jupiter) for the L4 and L5 swarms, respectively. Then we build a Hamiltonian system to describe the associated dynamical aspects for the co-orbital motion. The phase space displays the existence of the apsidally aligned islands of libration centered on $\Delta\varpi=\varpi-\varpi_{\mbox{{J}}}\approx\pm60^{\circ}$, for the Trojan-like orbits with eccentricities $e0.1$ are too few to affect the orbital clustering within this $\Delta\varpi$ range for the entire Trojan population. Our numerical results further prove that, even starting from a uniform $\Delta\varpi$ distribution, the apsidal alignment of simulated Trojans similar to the observation can appear on the order of the age of the solar system. We conclude that the apsidal asymmetric-alignment of Jupiter Trojans is robust, and this new finding can be helpful to design the survey strategy in the future.

  • Revisiting the extraction of charge radii of $^{40}$Ca and $^{208}$Pb with muonic atom spectroscopy

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 分类: 物理学 >> 原子与分子物理学 提交时间: 2023-06-21

    摘要: The extractions of nuclear charge radii from muonic atom spectroscopy for $^{40}$Ca and $^{208}$Pb are revisited to analyze the model dependencies induced by employing a Fermi-type charge distribution. For that, the charge densities, together with the corresponding muonic transition energies, calculated by the covariant density functional theory are used as a benchmark. The root-mean-square deviation of transition energies is calculated to quantitatively investigate the sensitivities of transition energies to the details of the two-parameter Fermi distribution. It is found that the second and fourth moments of the charge distribution can be extracted accurately from the muonic atom spectroscopy without much model dependencies, whereas the obtained two-parameter Fermi distributions cannot reproduce the details of the benchmarking charge densities and, in particular, its surface-diffuseness parameter cannot be determined accurately with the present experimental uncertainties on the muonic transition energies.

  • Machine learning prediction for mean motion resonance behaviour -- The planar case

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Most recently, machine learning has been used to study the dynamics of integrable Hamiltonian systems and the chaotic 3-body problem. In this work, we consider an intermediate case of regular motion in a non-integrable system: the behaviour of objects in the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. We show that, given initial data from a short 6250 yr numerical integration, the best-trained artificial neural network (ANN) can predict the trajectories of the 2:3 resonators over the subsequent 18750 yr evolution, covering a full libration cycle over the combined time period. By comparing our ANN's prediction of the resonant angle to the outcome of numerical integrations, the former can predict the resonant angle with an accuracy as small as of a few degrees only, while it has the advantage of considerably saving computational time. More specifically, the trained ANN can effectively measure the resonant amplitudes of the 2:3 resonators, and thus provides a fast approach that can identify the resonant candidates. This may be helpful in classifying a huge population of KBOs to be discovered in future surveys.

  • Simulation of RFI Cancellation Using Subspace Projection Algorithm for PAF Receiver

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The simulation of radio frequency interference (RFI) cancellation by applying a spatial filtering technique for phased array feed (PAF) is presented. In order to better reflect the characteristics of PAF, a new signal model is to add the coupling coefficient among elements of PAF to the conventional array signal model. Then the subspace projection (SP) algorithm is used to cancel RFI from the correlation matrix of the signal, and finally, the 2D power image is drawn. The power variation of signal-of-interest direction and RFI direction before and after using the SP algorithm is analyzed. The new signal model and simulation strategy can be used to test and verify the beamformer.

  • Asymmetry in the number of L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans driven by jumping Jupiter

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Context. More than 10000 Jupiter Trojans have been detected so far. They are moving around the L4 and L5 triangular Lagrangian points of the Sun-Jupiter system and their distributions can provide important clues to the early evolution of the Solar System. Aims. The number asymmetry of the L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans is a longstanding problem. We aim to test a new mechanism in order to explain this anomalous feature by invoking the jumping-Jupiter scenario. Methods. First, we introduce the orbital evolution of Jupiter caused by the giant planet instability in the early Solar System. In this scenario, Jupiter could undergo an outward migration at a very high speed. We then investigate how such a jump changes the numbers of the L4 (N4) and L5 (N5) Trojans. Results. The outward migration of Jupiter can distort the co-orbital orbits near the Lagrangian points, resulting in L4 Trojans being more stable than the L5 ones. We find that, this mechanism could potentially explain the unbiased number asymmetry of N4/N5~1.6 for the known Jupiter Trojans. The uncertainties of the system parameters, e.g. Jupiter's eccentricity and inclination, the inclination distribution of Jupiter Trojans, are also taken into account and our results about the L4/L5 asymmetry have been further validated. However, the resonant amplitudes of the simulated Trojans are excited to higher values compared to the current population. A possible solution is that collisions among the Trojans may reduce their resonant amplitudes.

  • Asymmetry in the number of L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans driven by jumping Jupiter

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Context. More than 10000 Jupiter Trojans have been detected so far. They are moving around the L4 and L5 triangular Lagrangian points of the Sun-Jupiter system and their distributions can provide important clues to the early evolution of the Solar System. Aims. The number asymmetry of the L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans is a longstanding problem. We aim to test a new mechanism in order to explain this anomalous feature by invoking the jumping-Jupiter scenario. Methods. First, we introduce the orbital evolution of Jupiter caused by the giant planet instability in the early Solar System. In this scenario, Jupiter could undergo an outward migration at a very high speed. We then investigate how such a jump changes the numbers of the L4 (N4) and L5 (N5) Trojans. Results. The outward migration of Jupiter can distort the co-orbital orbits near the Lagrangian points, resulting in L4 Trojans being more stable than the L5 ones. We find that, this mechanism could potentially explain the unbiased number asymmetry of N4/N5~1.6 for the known Jupiter Trojans. The uncertainties of the system parameters, e.g. Jupiter's eccentricity and inclination, the inclination distribution of Jupiter Trojans, are also taken into account and our results about the L4/L5 asymmetry have been further validated. However, the resonant amplitudes of the simulated Trojans are excited to higher values compared to the current population. A possible solution is that collisions among the Trojans may reduce their resonant amplitudes.

  • Calculation of microscopic nuclear level densities based on covariant density functional theory

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-12

    摘要: A microscopic method for calculating nuclear level density (NLD) based on the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) is developed. The particle-hole state density is calculated by combinatorial method using the single-particle levels schemes obtained from the CDFT, and then the level densities are obtained by taking into account collective effects such as vibration and rotation. Our results are compared with those from other NLD models, including phenomenological, microstatistical and non-relativistic HFB combinatorial models. The comparison suggests that the general trends among these models are basically the same, except for some deviations from different NLD models. In addition, the NLDs of the CDFT combinatorial method with normalization are compared with experimental data, including the observed cumulative number of levels at low excitation energy and the measured NLDs. Compared with the existing experimental data, the CDFT combinatorial method can give reasonable results.

  • Imprints of cosmological tensions in reconstructed gravity

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: There has been a significant interest in modifications of the standard $\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter ($\Lambda$CDM) cosmological model prompted by tensions between certain datasets, most notably the Hubble tension. The late-time modifications of the $\Lambda$CDM model can be parametrized by three time-dependent functions describing the expansion history of the Universe and gravitational effects on light and matter in the Large Scale Structure. We perform the first joint Bayesian reconstruction of these three functions from a combination of recent cosmological observations, utilizing a theory-informed prior built on the general Horndeski class of scalar-tensor theories. This reconstruction is interpreted in light of the well-known $H_0$, the $S_8$ and the $A_L$ tensions. We identify the phenomenological features that alternative theories would need to have in order to ease some of the tensions, and deduce important constraints on broad classes of modified gravity models. Among other things, our findings suggest that late-time dynamical dark energy and modifications of gravity are not likely to offer a solution to the Hubble tension, or simultaneously solve the $A_L$ and $S_8$ tensions.

  • Antenna enhanced infrared photoinduced force imaging in aqueous environment with super-resolution and hypersensitivity

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Tip enhanced IR spectra and imaging have been widely used in cutting-edge studies for the in-depth understanding of the composition, structure and function of interfaces at the nanoscale. However, molecular monolayer sensitivity has only been demonstrated on solid/gas interfaces. In aqueous environment, the reduced sensitivity due to strong damping of the cantilever oscillation and background IR absorption extremely limits the practical applications of tip enhanced IR nanospectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate hypersensitive nanoscale IR spectra and imaging in aqueous environment with the combination of photoinduced force (PiF) microscopy and resonant antennas. The highly confined electromagnetic field inbetween the tip end and antenna extremely amplifies the photoinduced force to the detectable level, while the excitation via plasmon internal reflection mode minimizes the environmental absorption. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer (~1-2 nm thickness) functionalized on the AFM tip has been successfully identified in water with antennas of different sizes. Sampling volume of ~604 chemical bonds from PDMS was demonstrated with sub-10 nm spatial resolution confirmed by electric (E) field distribution mapping on antennas, which strongly suggests the desired requirements for interfacial spectroscopy. This platform demonstrates for the first time the application of photoinduced force microscopy in aqueous environments, providing a brand-new configuration to achieve highly enhanced nanoscale IR signals, which is extremely promising for future research of interfaces and nanosystems in aqueous environments.

  • Research on Ultra-wide Bandwidth Low-frequency Signal Channelization for Xinjiang 110 m Radio Telescope

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-01-09 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Aiming at the subband division of ultra-wide bandwidth low-frequency (UWL) signal (frequency coverage range: 704–4032 MHz) of the Xinjiang 110 m QiTai radio Telescope (QTT), a scheme of ultra-wide bandwidth signal is designed. First, we analyze the effect of different window functions such as the Hanning window, Hamming window, and Kaiser window on the performance of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters, and implement a critical sampling polyphase filter bank (CS-PFB) based on the Hamming window FIR digital filter. Second, we generate 3328 MHz simulation data of ultra-wideband pulsar baseband in the frequency range of 704–4032 MHz using the ultra-wide bandwidth pulsar baseband data generation algorithm based on the 400 MHz bandwidth pulsar baseband data obtained from Parkes CASPSR observations. Third, we obtain 26 subbands of 128 MHz based on CS-PFB and the simulation data, and the pulse profile of each subband by coherent dispersion, integration, and folding. Finally, the phase of each subband pulse profile is aligned by non-coherent dedispersion, and to generate a broadband pulse profile, which is basically the same as the pulse profile obtained from the original data using DSPSR. The experimental results show that the scheme for the QTT UWL receiving system is feasible, and the proposed channel algorithm in this paper is effective.

  • Milestone progress of the HEPS booster commissioning

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-12-28

    摘要: The High Energy Photon Source (HEPS) is the first fourth-generation synchrotron light source building in China. Its injector consists of a Linac and a full energy booster. The booster captures the electron beam from the Linac and further increases its energy to the same as that required by the storage ring. The full-energy beam could be injected to the storage ring directly or after high-energy accumulation. On November 17, 2023, it was demonstrated that key parameters of the booster successfully reached corresponding target values. These milestone results were accomplished based on many contributions, including nearly a decade of physics design, years of development and installation of equipment, as well as months of beam commissioning. As measured at the extraction energy of 6 GeV, the averaged beam current and emittance reached 8.57 mA with 5 bunches and 30.37 nm.rad with a single-bunch charge of 5.58 nC, compared with the corresponding target values of 6.6 mA and 35 nm.rad, respectively. This paper presents the physics design, equipment development and installation, and commissioning process of the HEPS booster.

  • A superconducting nanowire photon number resolving four-quadrant detector-based Gigabit deep-space laser communication receiver prototype

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Deep space explorations require transferring huge amounts of data quickly from very distant targets. Laser communication is a promising technology that can offer a data rate of magnitude faster than conventional microwave communication due to the fundamentally narrow divergence of light. This study demonstrated a photon-sensitive receiver prototype with over Gigabit data rate, immunity to strong background photon noise, and simultaneous tracking ability. The advantages are inherited from a joint-optimized superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) array, designed into a four-quadrant structure with each quadrant capable of resolving six photons. Installed in a free-space coupled and low-vibration cryostat, the system detection efficiency reached 72.7%, the detector efficiency was 97.5%, and the total photon counting rate was 1.6 Gcps. Additionally, communication performance was tested for pulse position modulation (PPM) format. A series of signal processing methods were introduced to maximize the performance of the forward error correction (FEC) code. Consequently, the receiver exhibits a faster data rate and better sensitivity by about twofold (1.76 photons/bit at 800 Mbps and 3.40 photons/bit at 1.2 Gbps) compared to previously reported results (3.18 photon/bit at 622 Mbps for the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration). Furthermore, communications in strong background noise and with simultaneous tracking ability were demonstrated aimed at the challenges of daylight operation and accurate tracking of dim beacon light in deep space scenarios.

  • A superconducting nanowire photon number resolving four-quadrant detector-based Gigabit deep-space laser communication receiver prototype

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Deep space explorations require transferring huge amounts of data quickly from very distant targets. Laser communication is a promising technology that can offer a data rate of magnitude faster than conventional microwave communication due to the fundamentally narrow divergence of light. This study demonstrated a photon-sensitive receiver prototype with over Gigabit data rate, immunity to strong background photon noise, and simultaneous tracking ability. The advantages are inherited from a joint-optimized superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) array, designed into a four-quadrant structure with each quadrant capable of resolving six photons. Installed in a free-space coupled and low-vibration cryostat, the system detection efficiency reached 72.7%, the detector efficiency was 97.5%, and the total photon counting rate was 1.6 Gcps. Additionally, communication performance was tested for pulse position modulation (PPM) format. A series of signal processing methods were introduced to maximize the performance of the forward error correction (FEC) code. Consequently, the receiver exhibits a faster data rate and better sensitivity by about twofold (1.76 photons/bit at 800 Mbps and 3.40 photons/bit at 1.2 Gbps) compared to previously reported results (3.18 photon/bit at 622 Mbps for the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration). Furthermore, communications in strong background noise and with simultaneous tracking ability were demonstrated aimed at the challenges of daylight operation and accurate tracking of dim beacon light in deep space scenarios.

  • A superconducting nanowire photon number resolving four-quadrant detector-based Gigabit deep-space laser communication receiver prototype

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Deep space explorations require transferring huge amounts of data quickly from very distant targets. Laser communication is a promising technology that can offer a data rate of magnitude faster than conventional microwave communication due to the fundamentally narrow divergence of light. This study demonstrated a photon-sensitive receiver prototype with over Gigabit data rate, immunity to strong background photon noise, and simultaneous tracking ability. The advantages are inherited from a joint-optimized superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) array, designed into a four-quadrant structure with each quadrant capable of resolving six photons. Installed in a free-space coupled and low-vibration cryostat, the system detection efficiency reached 72.7%, the detector efficiency was 97.5%, and the total photon counting rate was 1.6 Gcps. Additionally, communication performance was tested for pulse position modulation (PPM) format. A series of signal processing methods were introduced to maximize the performance of the forward error correction (FEC) code. Consequently, the receiver exhibits a faster data rate and better sensitivity by about twofold (1.76 photons/bit at 800 Mbps and 3.40 photons/bit at 1.2 Gbps) compared to previously reported results (3.18 photon/bit at 622 Mbps for the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration). Furthermore, communications in strong background noise and with simultaneous tracking ability were demonstrated aimed at the challenges of daylight operation and accurate tracking of dim beacon light in deep space scenarios.

  • Atypical radio pulsations from magnetar SGR 1935+2154

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: Magnetars are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields, frequently powering high-energy activity in X-rays. Pulsed radio emission following some X-ray outbursts have been detected, albeit its physical origin is unclear. It has long been speculated that the origin of magnetars' radio signals is different from those from canonical pulsars, although convincing evidence is still lacking. Five months after magnetar SGR 1935+2154's X-ray outburst and its associated Fast Radio Burst (FRB) 20200428, a radio pulsar phase was discovered. Here we report the discovery of X-ray spectral hardening associated with the emergence of periodic radio pulsations from SGR 1935+2154 and a detailed analysis of the properties of the radio pulses. The complex radio pulse morphology, which contains both narrow-band emission and frequency drifts, has not been seen before in other magnetars, but is similar to those of repeating FRBs - even though the luminosities are many orders of magnitude different. The observations suggest that radio emission originates from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar, and the surface heating due to the bombardment of inward-going particles from the radio emission region is responsible for the observed X-ray spectral hardening.

  • FOSSIL: I. The Spin Rate Limit of Jupiter Trojans

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Rotation periods of 53 small (diameters $2 < D < 40$ km) Jupiter Trojans (JTs) were derived using the high-cadence light curves obtained by the FOSSIL phase I survey, a Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam intensive program. These are the first reported periods measured for JTs with $D < 10$ km. We found a lower limit of the rotation period near 4 hr, instead of the previously published result of 5 hr (Ryan et al. 2017; Szabo et al. 2017, 2020) found for larger JTs. Assuming a rubble-pile structure for JTs, a bulk density of 0.9 gcm$^{-3}$ is required to withstand this spin rate limit, consistent with the value $0.8-1.0$ gcm$^{-3}$ (Marchis et al. 2006; Mueller et al. 2010; Buie et al. 2015; Berthier et al. 2020) derived from the binary JT system, (617) Patroclus-Menoetius system.