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  • Vector dark matter production from catalyzed annihilation

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We provide a simple model of vector dark matter (DM) which can realize the recently proposed freeze-out mechanism with catalyzed annihilation. In our setup, a vector DM field $X_\mu$ and a catalyst field $C_\mu$ is unified by an SU(2)$_D$ gauge symmetry. These gauge fields acquire their masses via spontaneously symmetry breaking triggered by a doublet and a real triplet scalar fields. The catalyst particle is automatically lighter than the DM since it only acquires mass from the vacuum expectation value of the doublet scalar. We also introduce a dimension-5 operator to generate a kinetic mixing term between $C_\mu$ and the U(1)$_Y$ gauge field $B_\mu$. This mixing term is naturally small due to a suppression with a high UV completion scale, and thus it allows the catalyst to decay after the DM freeze-out. We derive the annihilation cross sections of processes $X^\ast+X\to 2C$ and $3C\to X^\ast+X$ and solve the Boltzmann equations for both the DM and the catalyst. We develop the analytical approximate solutions of the equations and find them matching the numerical solutions well. Constraints from relic abundance and indirect detection of DM are considered. We find that the DM with a mass $m_X\gtrsim4.5$~TeV survives in the case of a long-living catalyst. On the other hand, if the catalyst decays during the catalyzed annihilation era, then the bound can be released. We also discuss two paradigms which can maintain the kinetic equilibrium of DM until the DM freeze-out. In both cases, the freeze-out temperature of DM is an order of magnitude higher than the original model.

  • Revisiting the constraints on primordial black hole abundance with the isotropic gamma ray background

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We revisit the constraints on primordial black holes (PBHs) in the mass range $10^{13}-10^{18}$ g by comparing the 100\,keV-5\,GeV gamma-ray background with isotropic flux from PBH Hawking radiation (HR). We investigate three effects that may update the constraints on the PBH abundance; i) reliably calculating the secondary spectra of HR for energy below 5\,GeV, ii) the contributions to the measured isotropic flux from the Galactic PBH HR and that from annihilation radiation due to evaporated positrons, iii) inclusion of astrophysical background from gamma-ray sources. The conservative constraint is significantly improved by more than an order of magnitude at $2\times10^{16}$g$\lesssim M\lesssim 10^{17}$g over the past relevant work, where the effect ii is dominant. After further accounting for the astrophysical background, more than a tenfold improvement extends to a much wider mass range $10^{15}$g$\lesssim M\lesssim 2\times 10^{17}$g.

  • The radiation emitted from axion dark matter in a homogeneous magnetic field, and possibilities for detection

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We study the direct radiation excited by oscillating axion (or axion-like particle) dark matter in a homogenous magnetic field and its detection scheme. We concretely derive the analytical expression of the axion-induced radiated power for a cylindrical uniform magnetic field. In the long wave limit, the radiation power is proportional to the square of the B-field volume and the axion mass $m_a$, whereas it oscillate as approaching the short wave limit and the peak powers are proportional to the side area of the cylindrical magnetic field and $m_a^{-2}$. The maximum power locates at mass $m_a\sim\frac{3\pi}{4R}$ for fixed radius $R$. Based on this characteristic of the power, we discuss a scheme to detect the axions in the mass range $1-10^4$\,neV, where four detectors of different bandwidths surround the B-field. The expected sensitivity for $m_a\lesssim1\,\mu$eV under typical-parameter values can far exceed the existing constraints.

  • Performance of different correction maps in the extended phase-space method for spinning compact binaries

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Since the first detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO/VIRGO team, the related research field has attracted more attention. The spinning compact binaries system, as one of the gravitational-wave sources for broadband laser interferometers, has been widely studied by related researchers. In order to analyze the gravitational wave signals using matched filtering techniques, reliable numerical algorithms are needed. Spinning compact binaries systems in Post-Newtonian (PN) celestial mechanics have an inseparable Hamiltonian. The extended phase-space algorithm is an effective solution for the problem of this system. We have developed correction maps for the extended phase-space method in our previous work, which significantly improves the accuracy and stability of the method with only a momentum scale factor. In this paper, we will add more scale factors to modify the numerical solution in order to minimize the errors in the constants of motion. However, we find that these correction maps will result in a large energy bias in the subterms of the Hamiltonian in chaotic orbits, whose potential and kinetic energy, etc. are calculated inaccurately. We develop new correction maps to reduce the energy bias of the subterms of the Hamiltonian, which can instead improve the accuracy of the numerical solution and also provides a new idea for the application of the manifold correction in other algorithms.

  • Probing $\mu$eV ALPs with future LHAASO observation of AGN $\gamma$-ray spectra

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Axion-like particles (ALPs) are predicted in some well-motivated theories beyond the Standard Model. The TeV gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei (AGN) suffer attenuation by the pair production interactions with the cosmic background light (EBL/CMB) during its travel to the earth. The attenuation can be circumvented through photon-ALP conversions in the AGN and Galaxy magnetic-field, and a flux enhancement is expected to arise in the observed spectrum. In this work, we study the potential of the AGN gamma-ray spectrum for energy up to above 100\,TeV to probe ALP-parameter space at around $\mu$eV, where the coupling $g_{a\gamma}$ is so far relatively weakly constrained. We find the nearby and bright sources, Mrk\,501, IC\,310 and M\,87, are suitable for our objective. Assuming an intrinsic spectrum exponential cutoff energy, we extrapolate the observed spectra of these sources up to above 100\,TeV by the models with/without ALPs. For $g_{a\gamma}\gtrsim 2\times$$10^{-11} \rm GeV^{-1}$ with $m_{a}\lesssim0.5\,\mu$eV, the flux at around 100\,TeV predicted by the ALP model can be enhanced more than an order of magnitude than that from the standard absorption, and could be detected by LHAASO. Our result is subject to the uncertainty from the intrinsic cutoff energy and the AGN lobe (or plume) magnetic-field. For an optimistic estimation, the constraint can be improved to $g_{a\gamma}\gtrsim 2\times$$10^{-11} \rm GeV^{-1}$ with $m_{a}\lesssim1\,\mu$eV. This require further observations on these sources by the forthcoming CTA, LHAASO, SWGO and so on.

  • Cancellation mechanism of dark matter direct detection in Higgs-portal and vector-portal models

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present two alternative proofs for the cancellation mechanism in the U(1) symmetric pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson Dark Matter (pNGB DM) model. They help us to have a better understanding of the mechanism from multi-angle, and inspire us to propose some interesting generalizations. In the first proof, we revisit the non-linear representation method and rephrase the argument with the interaction eigenstates. In this picture, the phase mode (DM) can only have a trilinear interaction with a derivative-squared acting on the radial mode when the DM is on-shell. Thus, the DM-quark scattering generated by a mass mixing between the radial mode and the Higgs boson vanishes in the limit of zero-momentum transfer. Using the same method, we can easily generalize the model to an SO(N) model with general soft-breaking structures. In particular, we study the soft-breaking cubic terms and identify those terms which preserve the cancellation mechanism for the DM candidate. In our discussion of the second method, we find that the cancellation relies on the special structure of mass terms and interactions of the mediators. This condition can be straightforwardly generalized to the vector-portal models. We provide two examples of the vector-portal case where the first one is an SU(2)_L \times U(1)_Y \times U(1)_X model and the second one is an SU(2)_L \times U(1)_Y \times U(1)_(B-L) \times U(1)_X model. In the first model, the vector mediators are the Z_nu boson and a new U(1)_X gauge boson X_nu, while in the second model the mediators are the U(1)_(B-L) and U(1)_X gauge bosons. The cancellation mechanism works in both models when there are no generic kinetic mixing terms for the gauge bosons. Once the generic kinetic mixing terms are included, the first model requires a fine-tuning of the mixing parameter to avoid the stringent direct detection bound, while the second model can naturally circumvent it.

  • Laser irradiation-induced Au-ZnO nanospheres with enhanced sensitivity and stability in ethanol sensing

    分类: 材料科学 >> 材料化学 提交时间: 2017-10-31

    摘要: Incorporating noble metal nanoparticles on the surface or inner side of semiconductors to form a hybrid nanostructure is an effective route to improve the gas sensing performance of these semiconductors. In this study, we present novel Au-decorated ZnO nanospheres (Au-ZnO NSs) obtained by laser irradiation of liquids. Structural characterization indicated that the Au-ZnO NSs consisted of single crystalline ZnO NSs with few Au nanoparticles decorated on their surfaces and abundant encapsulated Au nanoparticles with relatively small sizes. Laser irradiation-induced heating–melting–evaporating processes are responsible for the formation of unique Au-ZnO NSs. Gas sensing properties of the Au-ZnO NSs, as gas sensing materials, were investigated and compared with those of pure ZnO NSs. The former showed lower working temperature, higher sensitivity, better selectivity, and good reproducibility. The response values of Au-ZnO NSs and pure ZnO NSs sensors to ethanol of 100 ppm were 252 and 75 at working temperature of 320 °C and 360 °C, respectively. The significant enhancements in gas sensing performance should be attributed to the electronic sensitization induced by the depleted layers between encapsulated Au nanoparticles and ZnO and chemical sensitization originating from the catalytic effects of Au nanoparticles decorated on the surfaces that dissociated molecular oxygen.

  • White dwarf binary modulation can help stochastic gravitational wave background search

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: For the stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) search centred at the milli-Hz band, the galactic foreground produced by white dwarf binaries (WDBs) within the Milky Way contaminates the extra-galactic signal severely. Because of the anisotropic distribution pattern of the WDBs and the motion of the spaceborne gravitational wave interferometer constellation, the time-domain data stream will show an annual modulation. This property is fundamentally different from those of the SGWBs. In this Letter, we propose a new filtering method for the data vector based on the annual modulation phenomenon. We apply the resulted inverse variance filter to the LISA data challenge. The result shows that for the weaker SGWB signal, such as energy density $\Omega_{\rm astro}=5\times10^{-12}$, the filtering method can enhance the posterior distribution peak prominently. For the stronger signal, such as $\Omega_{\rm astro}=15\times10^{-12}$, the method can improve the Bayesian evidence from `substantial' to `strong' against null hypotheses. This method is model-independent and self-contained. It does not ask for other types of information besides the gravitational wave data.

  • White dwarf binary modulation can help stochastic gravitational wave background search

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: For the stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) search centred at the milli-Hz band, the galactic foreground produced by white dwarf binaries (WDBs) within the Milky Way contaminates the extra-galactic signal severely. Because of the anisotropic distribution pattern of the WDBs and the motion of the spaceborne gravitational wave interferometer constellation, the time-domain data stream will show an annual modulation. This property is fundamentally different from those of the SGWBs. In this Letter, we propose a new filtering method for the data vector based on the annual modulation phenomenon. We apply the resulted inverse variance filter to the LISA data challenge. The result shows that for the weaker SGWB signal, such as energy density $\Omega_{\rm astro}=5\times10^{-12}$, the filtering method can enhance the posterior distribution peak prominently. For the stronger signal, such as $\Omega_{\rm astro}=15\times10^{-12}$, the method can improve the Bayesian evidence from `substantial' to `strong' against null hypotheses. This method is model-independent and self-contained. It does not ask for other types of information besides the gravitational wave data.

  • Squeezed-Light-Enhanced Dispersive Gyroscope based Optical Microcavities

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect have excellent potential in the application of high-sensitivity inertial rotation sensors. In this paper, we demonstrate that for an optical resonance gyroscope with normal dispersion, the measurement sensitivity can be increased by two orders of magnitude through coupling into a squeezed vacuum light, which is different from that in the classical situation. When the system is operated under critical anomalous dispersion condition, injecting a squeezed vacuum light allows the measurement sensitivity beyond the corresponding standard quantum limit by five orders of magnitude, with a minimum value of 3.8*10^-5 Hz. This work offers a promising possibility for developing optical gyroscopes that combine high sensitivity with tiny size.

  • Low-noise large-bandwidth high-gain transimpedance amplifier for cryogenic STM at 77 K

    分类: 电子与通信技术 >> 电子技术 分类: 工程与技术科学 >> 仪器仪表技术 分类: 物理学 >> 交叉学科物理及相关领域的科学与技术 分类: 物理学 >> 凝聚态:电子结构、电、磁和光学性质 提交时间: 2024-05-06

    摘要: In this work, we design and fabricate the transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) following the design mentioned in Ref. cite{Liang2024}. In the TIA, the preamplifier (Pre-Amp) is made of a junction field effect transistor (JFET) that can work at 77 K. The post-amplifier is made of an operational amplifier (OPA). Cascade Pre-Amp and Post-Amp to form the inverting-amplifier (Inv-Amp). The gain-bandwidth product of Inv-Amp with the gain about 50,000 is higher than 10 GHz. With a 1.13 Gohm feedback network, the gain of TIA is 1.13 Gohm and its bandwidth is about 97 kHz. The equivalent input noise voltage power spectral density of TIA is not more than 9 (nV)2/Hz at 10 kHz and 4 (nV)2/Hz at 50kHz, and its equivalent input noise current power spectral density is about 26 (fA)2/Hz at 10 kHz and 240(fA)2/Hz at 50 kHz. The measured transport performances and noise performances of TIA are consistent with the simulations and calculations, verifying the feasibility for the design of low-noise large-bandwidth TIA proposed in Ref. 1 . And, TIA with various performances that meet various needs can be designed according to the design methods in Ref. 1,2 . With the same gain, the bandwidth of the TIA in this work is much larger than the present TIA and its noises are much lower than those of present ones. The TIA in this work is perfect for the cryogenic STM working at 77 K (i.e. liquid nitrogen temperature).

  • Perturbativity Limits for Scalar Minimal Dark Matter with Yukawa Interactions: Septuplet

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要: The candidate of minimal dark matter (MDM) is limited if one demands perturbativity up to a very high scale, and it was believed that the MDM model with a real scalar septuplet could keep perturbative up to the Planck or GUT scale. In this work we point out that it is not true after taking into account the running of the quartic self-couplings of the scalar septuplet. For the septuplet mass around 10 TeV, which is suggested by the observed dark matter relic abundance, these couplings would hit the Landau pole at a scale ∼108−109 GeV, much lower than the Planck scale. We attempt to push up the Landau pole scale as high as possible by proposing an extension with extra Yukawa interactions of the septuplet. We find that in principle the Landau pole could be deferred to a scale of ∼1014 GeV if one could tolerate a serious fine-tuning of the initial condition of the Yukawa coupling. Moreover, if the MDM particle mass could be relaxed to ∼108 GeV, which would need some nonthermal production mechanisms to give a correct relic abundance, the Landau pole scale could be pushed up above the Planck scale.

  • Constraints on interacting dark energy models from time-delay cosmography with seven lensed quasars

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Measurements of time-delay cosmography of lensed quasars can provide an independent probe to explore the expansion history of the late-time Universe. In this paper, we employ the time-delay cosmography measurements from seven lenses (here abbreviated as the TD data) to constrain interacting dark energy (IDE) models. We mainly focus on the scenario of vacuum energy (with $w=-1$) interacting with cold dark matter, and consider four typical cases of the interaction form $Q$. When the TD data alone are employed, we find that the IDE models with $Q\propto \rho_{\rm de}$ seem to have an advantage in relieving the $H_{0}$ tension between the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and TD data. When the TD data are added to the CMB$+$BAO$+$SN$+H_0$ data, we find that: (i) the coupling parameter $\beta$ in all the considered IDE models is positive within 1$\sigma$ range, implying a mild preference for the case of cold dark matter decaying into dark energy; (ii) the IDE model with $Q = \beta H_{0} \rho_{\rm c}$ slightly relieves the $S_8$ tension, but the other considered IDE models further aggravate this tension; (iii) the Akaike information criteria of the IDE models with $Q \propto \rho_{\rm c}$ are lower than that of the $\Lambda$CDM model, indicating that these IDE models are more preferred by the current mainstream data. We conclude that the considered IDE models have their own different advantages when the TD data are employed, and none of them can achieve good scores in all aspects.

  • Resolving Galactic binaries in LISA data using particle swarm optimization and cross-validation

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector LISA is expected to observe signals from a large population of compact object binaries, comprised predominantly of white dwarfs, in the Milky Way. Resolving individual sources from this population against its self-generated confusion noise poses a major data analysis problem. We present an iterative source estimation and subtraction method to address this problem based on the use of particle swarm optimization (PSO). In addition to PSO, a novel feature of the method is the cross-validation of sources estimated from the same data using different signal parameter search ranges. This is found to greatly reduce contamination by spurious sources and may prove to be a useful addition to any multi-source resolution method. Applied to a recent mock data challenge, the method is able to find $O(10^4)$ Galactic binaries across a signal frequency range of $[0.1,15]$ mHz, and, for frequency $\gtrsim 4$ mHz, reduces the residual data after subtracting out estimated signals to the instrumental noise level.

  • Vector dark matter from split SU(2) gauge bosons

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We propose a vector dark matter model with an exotic dark SU(2) gauge group. Two Higgs triplets are introduced to spontaneously break the symmetry. All of the dark gauge bosons become massive, and the lightest one is a viable vector DM candidate. Its stability is guaranteed by a remaining Z_2 symmetry. We study the parameter space constrained by the Higgs measurement data, the dark matter relic density, and direct and indirect detection experiments. We find numerous parameter points satisfying all the constraints, and they could be further tested in future experiments. Similar methodology can be used to construct vector dark matter models from an arbitrary SO(N) gauge group.

  • Scalable higher-order exceptional surface with passive resonators

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The sensitivity of perturbation sensing can be effectively enhanced with higher-order exceptional points due to the nonlinear response to frequency splitting. However, the experimental implementation is challenging since all the parameters need to be precisely prepared. The emergence of exceptional surface (ES) improves the robustness of the system to the external environment, while maintaining the same sensitivity. Here, we propose the first scalable protocol for realizing photonic high-order exceptional surface with passive resonators. By adding one or more additional passive resonators in the low-order ES photonic system, the 3- or arbitrary N-order ES is constructed and proved to be easily realized in experiment. We show that the sensitivity is enhanced and experimental demonstration is more resilent against the fabrication errors. The additional phase-modulation effect is also investigated.

  • Exceptional Point modulated by Kerr effect in Anti-Parity-Time Symmetry System

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: With respect to parity-time (PT) symmetry, anti-parity-time (APT) symmetric system exhibits much easier readout mechanism due to its real frequency splitting. Generally, such systems need to be operated at exceptional points (EPs) to obtain the best performance. However, strict conditons to locate APT symmetric systems at their EPs precisely put restraints on their practical applications. To overcome this problem, we propose a scheme to manipulate the EPs in APT symmetric configuration by Kerr effect. It is demonstrated that operating EPs by self-phase modulation alone will impede the frequency splitting caused by external perturbations, while cross-phase modulation can enhance the response to measurable perturbations. We also investigate the thermal effect induced by high light intensity, which could reduce the power to manipulate EPs. This proposed scheme can pave a new way in fabricating devices based on APT symmetry.

  • Phase transition gravitational waves from pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone dark matter and two Higgs doublets

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We investigate the potential stochastic gravitational waves from first-order electroweak phase transitions in a model with pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone dark matter and two Higgs doublets. The dark matter candidate can naturally evade direct detection bounds, and can achieve the observed relic abundance via the thermal mechanism. Three scalar fields in the model obtain vacuum expectation values, related to phase transitions at the early Universe. We search for the parameter points that can cause first-order phase transitions, taking into account the existed experimental constraints. The resulting gravitational wave spectra are further evaluated. Some parameter points are found to induce strong gravitational wave signals, which have the opportunity to be detected in future space-based interferometer experiments LISA, Taiji, and TianQin.

  • Dynamical encircling exceptional point in largely detuned multimode optomechanical system

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Dynamical encircling exceptional point(EP) shows a number of intriguing physical phenomena and its potential applications. To enrich the manipulations of optical systems in experiment, here, we study the dynamical encircling EP, i.e. state transfer process, in largely detuned multimode optomechanical system. The process of state transfer has been investigated with different factors about the location of start point, the orientation and the initial state of the trajectories around the EP in parameter space. Results show that the nonreciprocal and the chiral topological energy transfer between two optical modes are performed successfully by tuning the effective optomechanical coupling in the multimode system with large detuning. Moreover, the factor of evolution speed about system parameters is also discussed. Our work demonstrates the fundamental physics around EP in large detuning domain of multimode optomechanical system and provides an alternative for manipulating of optical modes in non-hermitian system.

  • Experimental realization of sensitivity enhancement and suppression with exceptional surfaces

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: By preparing a sensor system around isolated exceptional points, one can obtain a great enhancement of the sensitivity benefiting from the non-Hermiticity. However, this comes at the cost of reduction of the flexibility of the system, which is critical for practical applications. By generalizing the exceptional points to exceptional surfaces, it has been theoretically proposed recently that enhanced sensitivity and flexibility can be combined. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an exceptional surface in a non-Hermitian photonic sensing system, which is composed of a whispering-gallery-mode microresonator and two nanofiber waveguides, resulting in a unidirectional coupling between two degenerate counter-propagating modes with an external optical isolator. The system is simple, robust, and can be easily operated around an exceptional surface. On the one hand, we observe sensitivity enhancement by monitoring the resonant frequency splitting caused by small perturbations. This demonstration of exceptional-surface-enhanced sensitivity paves the way for practical non-Hermitian sensing applications. On the other hand, we also show the suppression of frequency splitting around the exceptional surface for the first time.