按提交时间
按主题分类
按作者
按机构
  • A Channel to Form Fast-spinning Black Hole--Neutron Star Binary Mergers as Multi-messenger Sources

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: After the successful detection of a gravitational-wave (GW) signal and its associated electromagnetic (EM) counterparts from GW170817, neutron star--black hole (NSBH) mergers have been highly expected to be the next type of multi-messenger source. However, despite the detection of several of NSBH merger candidates during the GW third observation run, no confirmed EM counterparts from these sources have been identified. The most plausible explanation is that these NSBH merger candidates were plunging events mainly because the primary BHs had near-zero projected aligned-spins based on GW observations. In view that NSs can be easily tidally disrupted by BHs with high projected aligned-spins, we study an evolution channel to form NSBH binaries with fast-spinning BHs, the properties of BH mass and spin, and their associated tidal disruption probability. We find that if the NSs are born firstly, the companion helium stars would be tidally spun up efficiently, and would thus finally form fast-spinning BHs. If BHs do not receive significant natal kicks at birth, these NSBH binaries that can merge within the Hubble time would have BHs with the projected aligned-spins $\chi_{z}\gtrsim0.8$ and, hence, can certainly allow tidal disruption to happen. Even if significant BH kicks are considered for a small fraction of NSBH binaries, the projected aligned-spins of BHs are $\chi_z\gtrsim0.2$. These systems can still be disrupted events unless the NSs are very massive. Thus, NS-first-born NSBH mergers would be promising multi-messenger sources. We discuss various potential EM counterparts associated with these systems and their detectability in the upcoming fourth observation run.

  • GRB 200612A: An Ultralong Gamma-Ray Burst Powered by Magnetar Spinning Down

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-02-28 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: GRB 200612A could be classified as an ultralong gamma-ray burst due to its prompt emission lasting up to ∼1020 s and the true timescale of the central engine activity tburst ≥ 4 × 104 s. The late X-ray light curve with a decay index of α = 7.53 is steeper than the steepest possible decay from an external shock model. We propose that this X-ray afterglow can be driven by dipolar radiation from the magnetar spindown during its early stage, while the magnetar collapsed into the black hole before its spindown, resulting in a very steep decay of the late X-ray light curve. The optical data show that the light curve is still rising after 1.1 ks, suggesting a late onset. We show that GRB 200612A's optical afterglow light curve is fitted with the forward shock model by Gaussian structured off-axis jet. This is a special case among GRBs, as it may be an ultralong gamma-ray burst powered by a magnetar in an off-axis observation scenario.

  • Model-Independent Determination of $H_0$ and $\Omega_{K,0}$ using Time-Delay Galaxy Lenses and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Combining the `time-delay distance' ($D_{\Delta t}$) measurements from galaxy lenses and other distance indicators provides model-independent determinations of the Hubble constant ($H_0$) and spatial curvature ($\Omega_{K,0}$), only based on the validity of the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric and geometrical optics. To take the full merit of combining $D_{\Delta t}$ measurements in constraining $H_0$, we use gamma-ray burst (GRB) distances to extend the redshift coverage of lensing systems much higher than that of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and even higher than quasars, whilst the general cosmography with a curvature component is implemented for the GRB distance parametrizations. Combining Lensing+GRB yields $H_0=71.5^{+4.4}_{-3.0}$~km s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$ and $\Omega_{K,0} = -0.07^{+0.13}_{-0.06}$ (1$\sigma$). A flat-universe prior gives slightly an improved $H_0 = 70.9^{+4.2}_{-2.9}$~km s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$. When combining Lensing+GRB+SN Ia, the error bar $\Delta H_0$ falls by 25\%, whereas $\Omega_{K,0}$ is not improved due to the degeneracy between SN Ia absolute magnitude, $M_B$, and $H_0$ along with the mismatch between the SN Ia and GRB Hubble diagrams at $z\gtrsim 1.4$. Future increment of GRB observations can help to moderately eliminate the $M_B-H_0$ degeneracy in SN Ia distances and ameliorate the restrictions on cosmographic parameters along with $\Omega_{K,0}$ when combining Lensing+SN Ia+GRB. We conclude that there is no evidence of significant deviation from a (an) flat (accelerating) universe and $H_0$ is currently determined at 3\% precision. The measurements show great potential to arbitrate the $H_0$ tension between the local distance ladder and cosmic microwave background measurements and provide a relevant consistency test of the FLRW metric.

  • Effect of axion-like particles on the spectrum of the extragalactic gamma-ray background

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Axion-like particles (ALPs) provide a feasible explanation for the observed lower TeV opacity of the Universe. If the anomaly TeV transparency is caused by ALPs, then the fluxes of distant extragalactic sources will be enhanced at photon energies beyond TeV, resulting in an enhancement of the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) spectrum. In this work, we have investigated the ALP modulation on the EGB spectrum at TeV energies. Our results show that in the most optimistic case, the existence of ALPs can cause the EGB spectrum to greatly deviate from the prediction of a pure extragalactic-background-light (EBL) absorption scenario. The deviation occurs at approximately $\gtrsim$1 TeV, and the current EGB measurements by Fermi-LAT cannot identify such an effect. We also find that most of the sensitive ALP parameters have been ruled out by existing constraints, leaving only a small region of unrestricted parameters that can be probed using the EGB effect investigated in this work. Observations from forthcoming very-high-energy instruments like LHAASO and CTA may be beneficial for the study of this effect.

  • Model-Independent Determination of $H_0$ and $\Omega_{K,0}$ using Time-Delay Galaxy Lenses and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Combining the `time-delay distance' ($D_{\Delta t}$) measurements from galaxy lenses and other distance indicators provides model-independent determinations of the Hubble constant ($H_0$) and spatial curvature ($\Omega_{K,0}$), only based on the validity of the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric and geometrical optics. To take the full merit of combining $D_{\Delta t}$ measurements in constraining $H_0$, we use gamma-ray burst (GRB) distances to extend the redshift coverage of lensing systems much higher than that of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and even higher than quasars, whilst the general cosmography with a curvature component is implemented for the GRB distance parametrizations. Combining Lensing+GRB yields $H_0=71.5^{+4.4}_{-3.0}$~km s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$ and $\Omega_{K,0} = -0.07^{+0.13}_{-0.06}$ (1$\sigma$). A flat-universe prior gives slightly an improved $H_0 = 70.9^{+4.2}_{-2.9}$~km s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$. When combining Lensing+GRB+SN Ia, the error bar $\Delta H_0$ falls by 25\%, whereas $\Omega_{K,0}$ is not improved due to the degeneracy between SN Ia absolute magnitude, $M_B$, and $H_0$ along with the mismatch between the SN Ia and GRB Hubble diagrams at $z\gtrsim 1.4$. Future increment of GRB observations can help to moderately eliminate the $M_B-H_0$ degeneracy in SN Ia distances and ameliorate the restrictions on cosmographic parameters along with $\Omega_{K,0}$ when combining Lensing+SN Ia+GRB. We conclude that there is no evidence of significant deviation from a (an) flat (accelerating) universe and $H_0$ is currently determined at 3\% precision. The measurements show great potential to arbitrate the $H_0$ tension between the local distance ladder and cosmic microwave background measurements and provide a relevant consistency test of the FLRW metric.

  • Constraints on ultracompact minihalos from the extragalactic gamma-ray background observation

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Ultracompact minihalo (UCMH) is a special type of dark matter halo with a very steep density profile which may form in the early universe seeded by an overdense region or a primordial black hole. Constraints on its abundance give valuable information on the power spectrum of primordial perturbation. In this work, we update the constraints on the UCMH abundance in the universe using the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) observation. Comparing to previous works, we adopt the updated Fermi-LAT EGB measurement and derive constraints based on a full consideration of the astrophysical contributions. With these improvements, we place constraints on UCMH abundance 1-2 orders of magnitude better than previous results. With the background components considered, we can also attempt to search for possible additional components beyond the known astrophysical contributions.

  • The Study of the Physical Properties and Energy Sources of Five Luminous Type Ibc Supernovae

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-01-09 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: In this paper, we study five luminous supernovae (LSNe) Ibc (SN 2009ca, ASASSN-15mj, SN 2019omd, SN 2002ued, and SN 2021bmf) whose peak absolute magnitudes Mpeak are ≈ −19.5 to −21 mag by fitting their multi-band light curves (LCs) with different energy source models. We find that SN 2009ca might be powered by the 56Ni model since the required 56Ni mass (0.56 M⊙) is comparable to those of energetic SNe Ic, while the rest four SNe cannot be accounted for the 56Ni model since their derived 56Ni masses are ≳1 M⊙ or the ratios of the 56Ni mass to the ejecta mass are larger than 0.2. This indicates that some LSNe might be powered by 56Ni decay, while most of them need additional energy sources. We then use the magnetar plus 56Ni model and the fallback plus 56Ni model to fit the LCs of the four LSNe that cannot be explained by the 56Ni model, finding that the two models can account for the four SNe, and the derived parameters are comparable to those of LSNe or superluminous SNe in the literature, if they were (mainly) powered by magnetars or fallback. We suggest that the magnetar plus 56Ni model is more reasonable than the fallback plus 56Ni model, since the validity of the fallback plus 56Ni model depends on the value of accretion efficiency (η) and favors a large η value, and the magnetar plus 56Ni model yields smaller χ2/dof values. It should be pointed out that, however, the fallback plus 56Ni model is still a promising model that can account for the four SNe in our sample as well as other LSNe.

  • Formation of Fast-spinning Neutron Stars in Close Binaries and Magnetar-driven Stripped-envelope Supernovae

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Extreme stripped-envelope supernovae (SESNe), including Type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), broad-line Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic-BL), and fast blue optical transients (FBOTs), are widely believed to harbor a newborn fast-spinning highly-magnetized neutron star (``magnetar''), which can lose its rotational energy via spin-down processes to accelerate and heat the ejecta. The progenitor(s) of these magnetar-driven SESNe, and the origin of considerable angular momentum (AM) in the cores of massive stars to finally produce such fast-spinning magnetars upon core-collapse are still under debate. Popular proposed scenarios in the literature cannot simultaneously explain their event rate density, SN and magnetar parameters, and the observed metallicity. Here, we perform a detailed binary evolution simulation that demonstrates that tidal spin-up helium stars with efficient AM transport mechanism in close binaries can form fast-spinning magnetars at the end of stars' life to naturally reproduce the universal energy-mass correlation of these magnetar-driven SESNe. Our models are consistent with the event rate densities, host environments, ejecta masses, and energetics of these different kinds of magnetar-driven SESNe, supporting that the isolated common-envelope formation channel could be a major common origin of magnetar-driven SESNe. The remnant compact binary systems of magnetar-driven SESNe are progenitors of some galactic systems and gravitational-wave transients.

  • Formation of Fast-spinning Neutron Stars in Close Binaries and Magnetar-driven Stripped-envelope Supernovae

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Extreme stripped-envelope supernovae (SESNe), including Type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), broad-line Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic-BL), and fast blue optical transients (FBOTs), are widely believed to harbor a newborn fast-spinning highly-magnetized neutron star (``magnetar''), which can lose its rotational energy via spin-down processes to accelerate and heat the ejecta. The progenitor(s) of these magnetar-driven SESNe, and the origin of considerable angular momentum (AM) in the cores of massive stars to finally produce such fast-spinning magnetars upon core-collapse are still under debate. Popular proposed scenarios in the literature cannot simultaneously explain their event rate density, SN and magnetar parameters, and the observed metallicity. Here, we perform a detailed binary evolution simulation that demonstrates that tidal spin-up helium stars with efficient AM transport mechanism in close binaries can form fast-spinning magnetars at the end of stars' life to naturally reproduce the universal energy-mass correlation of these magnetar-driven SESNe. Our models are consistent with the event rate densities, host environments, ejecta masses, and energetics of these different kinds of magnetar-driven SESNe, supporting that the isolated common-envelope formation channel could be a major common origin of magnetar-driven SESNe. The remnant compact binary systems of magnetar-driven SESNe are progenitors of some galactic systems and gravitational-wave transients.

  • Gas Microchannel Plate–Pixel Detector for X-ray Polarimetry

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 核科学与技术 提交时间: 2024-01-06

    摘要: POLAR-2 is a gamma-ray burst (GRB) polarimeter that is designed to study the polarization in GRB radiation emissions, aiming to improve our knowledge of related mechanisms. POLAR-2 is expected to utilize an on#2;board polarimeter that is sensitive to soft X-rays (210 keV), called low-energy polarization detector (LPD). We have developed a new soft X-ray polarization detector prototype based on gas microchannel plates (GMCPs) and pixel chips (Topmetal). The GMCPs have bulk resistance, which prevents charging-up effects and ensures gain stability during operation. The detector is composed of low-outgassing materials and is gas-sealed using a laser welding technique, ensuring long-term stability. A modulation factor of 41.28% 0.64% is obtained for a 4.5 keV polarized X-ray beam. A residual modulation of 1.96% 0.58% at 5.9 keV is observed for the entire sensitive area.

  • Atypical radio pulsations from magnetar SGR 1935+2154

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-12-29

    摘要: Magnetars are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields, frequently powering high-energy activity in X-rays. Pulsed radio emission following some X-ray outbursts have been detected, albeit its physical origin is unclear. It has long been speculated that the origin of magnetars' radio signals is different from those from canonical pulsars, although convincing evidence is still lacking. Five months after magnetar SGR 1935+2154's X-ray outburst and its associated Fast Radio Burst (FRB) 20200428, a radio pulsar phase was discovered. Here we report the discovery of X-ray spectral hardening associated with the emergence of periodic radio pulsations from SGR 1935+2154 and a detailed analysis of the properties of the radio pulses. The complex radio pulse morphology, which contains both narrow-band emission and frequency drifts, has not been seen before in other magnetars, but is similar to those of repeating FRBs - even though the luminosities are many orders of magnitude different. The observations suggest that radio emission originates from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar, and the surface heating due to the bombardment of inward-going particles from the radio emission region is responsible for the observed X-ray spectral hardening.

  • Magnetic activities and parameters of 43 flare stars in the GWAC archive

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In the archive of the Ground Wide Angle Camera (GWAC), we found 43 white light flares from 43 stars, among which, three are sympathetic or homologous flares, and one of them also has a quasi-periodic pulsation with a period of $13.0\pm1.5$ minutes. Among these 43 flare stars, there are 19 new active stars and 41 stars that have available TESS and/or K2 light curves, from which we found 931 stellar flares. We also obtained rotational or orbital periods of 34 GWAC flare stars, of which 33 are less than 5.4 days, and ephemerides of three eclipsing binaries from these light curves. Combining with low resolution spectra from LAMOST and the Xinglong 2.16m telescope, we found that $L_{\rm H\alpha}/L_{\rm bol}$ are in the saturation region in the rotation-activity diagram. From the LAMOST medium-resolution spectrum, we found that Star \#3 (HAT 178-02667) has double H$\alpha$ emissions which imply it is a binary, and two components are both active stars. Thirteen stars have flare frequency distributions (FFDs) from TESS and/or K2 light curves. These FFDs show that the flares detected by GWAC can occur at a frequency of 0.5 to 9.5 yr$^{-1}$. The impact of flares on habitable planets was also studied based on these FFDs, and flares from some GWAC flare stars may produce enough energetic flares to destroy ozone layers, but none can trigger prebiotic chemistry on their habitable planets.

  • Magnetic activities and parameters of 43 flare stars in the GWAC archive

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In the archive of the Ground Wide Angle Camera (GWAC), we found 43 white light flares from 43 stars, among which, three are sympathetic or homologous flares, and one of them also has a quasi-periodic pulsation with a period of $13.0\pm1.5$ minutes. Among these 43 flare stars, there are 19 new active stars and 41 stars that have available TESS and/or K2 light curves, from which we found 931 stellar flares. We also obtained rotational or orbital periods of 34 GWAC flare stars, of which 33 are less than 5.4 days, and ephemerides of three eclipsing binaries from these light curves. Combining with low resolution spectra from LAMOST and the Xinglong 2.16m telescope, we found that $L_{\rm H\alpha}/L_{\rm bol}$ are in the saturation region in the rotation-activity diagram. From the LAMOST medium-resolution spectrum, we found that Star \#3 (HAT 178-02667) has double H$\alpha$ emissions which imply it is a binary, and two components are both active stars. Thirteen stars have flare frequency distributions (FFDs) from TESS and/or K2 light curves. These FFDs show that the flares detected by GWAC can occur at a frequency of 0.5 to 9.5 yr$^{-1}$. The impact of flares on habitable planets was also studied based on these FFDs, and flares from some GWAC flare stars may produce enough energetic flares to destroy ozone layers, but none can trigger prebiotic chemistry on their habitable planets.