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  • One-time measurement to characterize complex amplitude single component in symmetry superposed optical vortices

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Complex amplitude measurement is an essential prerequisite for light field characterization. In this work, we propose a one-time measurement method to characterize the complex amplitude of symmetry superposed optical vortices (SSOVs) with only one picture registered by CCD. This method includes two strategies we proposed. One is the ring extraction strategy for amplitude measurement, and another is the rotational measurement strategy for phase measurement. In the proof-of-concept experiment, the complex amplitude is characterized, and the mode purity is well measured. This method has excellent flexibility, rapidity, and robustness, which can be applied to various occasions and harsh conditions. Careful alignment and optimized error analysis allow us to generate and measure a single component with mode purity as high as 99.99%.

  • Directly measuring mode purity of single component in superposed optical vortices

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Mode purity is an important reference for the quality of the optical vortex. In this work, we propose a self-interference method to directly measure single component in superposed optical vortices based on phase-shifting technology. This method has excellent flexibility and robustness, which can be applied to a variety of occasions and harsh conditions. Careful alignment and optimized error analysis allow us to generate and measure single component with mode purity as high as 99.997%.

  • An analytical study of the MHD clamshell instability on a sphere

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: This paper studies the instability of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems on a sphere using analytical methods. The underlying flow consists of a zonal differential rotation and a toroidal magnetic field is present. Semicircle rules that prescribe the possible domain of the wave velocity in the complex plane for general flow and field profiles are derived. The paper then sets out an analytical study of the `clamshell instability', which features field lines on the two hemispheres tilting in opposite directions (Cally 2001, Sol. Phys. vol. 199, pp. 231--249). An asymptotic solution for the instability problem is derived for the limit of weak shear of the zonal flow, via the method of matched asymptotic expansions. It is shown that when the zonal flow is solid body rotation, there exists a neutral mode that tilts the magnetic field lines, referred to as the `tilting mode'. A weak shear of the zonal flow excites the critical layer of the tilting mode, which reverses the tilting direction to form the clamshell pattern and induces the instability. The asymptotic solution provides insights into properties of the instability for a range of flow and field profiles. A remarkable feature is that the magnetic field affects the instability only through its local behaviour in the critical layer.

  • GeV Scale Inelastic Dark Matter with Dark Photon Mediator via Direct Detection and Cosmological/Laboratory Constraints

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We propose a new candidate of GeV scale inelastic dark matter (DM). Our construction has an anomaly-free $U(1)_X^{}$ gauge group with dark photon mediator, and can realize either scalar or fermionic inelastic DM. It is highly predictive and testable. We study the scattering rate of light inelastic DM with electrons in the XENON1T experiment and with nuclei in the XENON1T, CRESST-III, CDEX-1B and DarkSide-50 experiments. We resolve the recent XENON1T anomaly via electron recoil detection. Combining the XENON1T constraints from both electron recoils and nuclear recoils (including Migdal effect), we predict the inelastic DM mass $\lesssim 1.5$GeV. We further analyze the bounds by the DM relic abundance, the lifetime of the heavier DM component, and laboratory constraints, from which we identify the viable parameter space for the future probe. This provides an important benchmark for the theories and experimental tests of GeV scale inelastic DM.

  • Bandwidth tunable optical filter based on a tri-mode high-contrast grating

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We propose a monolithic optical bandpass filter with a transmission bandwidth tunable by the incident angle in a tri-mode high-contrast grating (HCG). We attribute this extraordinary phenomenon to the destructive interference between the TM$_{0}$ and TM$_{2}$ modes and the Fabry-P\'erot resonance of the TM1 mode, which can only be excited at the oblique incidence. The transmission bandwidth can be tuned from zero at normal incidence and increases quadratically with incident angle, while the center wavelength reds shifts slightly. The corresponding Q factor can be continuously tuned from 10$^{6}$ to 10$^{2}$ as the incident angle increases from nearly 0$^{\text{o}}$ to 10$^{\text{o}}$.

  • Improved Measurements of Molecular Cloud Distances Based on Global Search

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The principle of the background-eliminated extinction-parallax (BEEP) method is examining the extinction difference between on- and off-cloud regions to reveal the extinction jump caused by molecular clouds, thereby revealing the distance in complex dust environments. The BEEP method requires high-quality images of molecular clouds and high-precision stellar parallaxes and extinction data, which can be provided by the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) CO survey and the Gaia DR2 catalog, as well as supplementary AV extinction data. In this work, the BEEP method is further improved (BEEP-II) to measure molecular cloud distances in a global search manner. Applying the BEEP-II method to three regions mapped by the MWISP CO survey, we collectively measured 238 distances for 234 molecular clouds. Compared with previous BEEP results, the BEEP-II method measures distances efficiently, particularly for those molecular clouds with large angular size or in complicated environments, making it suitable for distance measurements of molecular clouds in large samples.

  • Peering into the Milky Way by FAST: II. Ionized gas in the inner Galactic disk revealed by the piggyback line observations of the FAST GPPS survey

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: As one of the major components of the interstellar medium, the ionized gas in our Milky Way, especially the low-density diffuse component, has not been extensively observed in the radio band. The Galactic Plane Pulsar Snapshot (GPPS) survey covers the sky area within the Galactic latitude of $\pm10^\circ$ around the Galactic plane visible by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), and the spectral line data are simultaneously recorded during the pulsar survey observations. With an integration time of 5 minutes for each beam, the GPPS survey project provides the most sensitive piggyback spectra for tens of radio recombination lines (RRLs) in the band of 1000$-$1500 MHz for H$n\alpha$, He$n\alpha$, C$n\alpha$, as well as H$n\beta$ and H$n\gamma$. We processed the spectral data of RRLs, and obtained a sensitive averaged H$n\alpha$ RRL map of a sky area of 88 square degrees in the inner Galaxy of 33$^\circ$ $\leqslant l \leqslant$ 55$^\circ$ and $|b| \leqslant$ 2.0$^\circ$. The final spectral data of the H$n\alpha$ RRLs have a spatial resolution of $\sim$3$^\prime$, a spectral resolution of 2.2 km s$^{-1}$, and a typical spectral rms noise of 0.25 mJy beam$^{-1}$ or 6.3 mK in main-beam brightness temperature. The new H$n\alpha$ RRL map shows complex structural features dominated by a number of HII regions and large extended diffuse ionized gas regions. We detect about 94% of the known HII regions and confirm 43 WISE HII regions in the observed sky area. Several large HII regions or star-forming complexes in the distant outer Galaxy are resolved in the map of H$n\alpha$ RRLs. Extended RRL features of the diffuse ionized gas are detected. The RRL data products of the GPPS survey will be published and updated at http://zmtt.bao.ac.cn/MilkyWayFAST/

  • Analysis of Bright Source Hardness Ratios in the 4 yr Insight-HXMT Galactic Plane Scanning Survey Catalog

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2024-02-28 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: We conduct a statistical analysis of the hardness ratio (HR) for bright sources in the 4 yr Galactic Plane Scanning Survey catalog of Insight-HXMT. Depending on the stable (variable) flux Fs (Fv) or spectrum Ss(Sv) of each source, the bright sources are classified into three groups: Fv&Sv, Fv&Ss, and Fs&Ss. Our study of the HR characteristics in different types of sources reveals that accretion-powered neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) exhibit softer energy spectra than NS high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), but harder energy spectra than black hole binaries in most cases. This difference is probably due to their different magnetic field strengths. Additionally, Fv&Sv LMXBs tend to be harder than Fv&Ss LMXBs below 7 keV, while the opposite is true for HMXBs. Our results suggest that LMXBs may dominate unclassified sources, and NS binaries are likely to be the primary type of X-ray binaries with ambiguous compact stars. By comparing the HR of transient sources in their outburst and low-flux states, it is found that the averaged HR of four sources in the two states are roughly comparable within uncertainties. We also investigate the spatial properties of the three groups and find that Fv&Sv sources are mainly located in the longitude of −20° < l < 9°, Fv&Ss sources cross the Galactic Plane, and Fs&Ss sources are predominantly concentrated in 19° < l < 42°. In addition, analyzing the HR spatial distributions shows the absorption of soft X-rays (primarily below 2 keV) in the Galactic Plane.

  • Gas Column Density Distribution of Molecular Clouds in the Third Quadrant of the Milky Way

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We have obtained column density maps for an unbiased sample of 120 molecular clouds in the third quadrant of the Milky Way mid-plane (b$\le |5|^{\circ}$) within the galactic longitude range from 195$^{\circ}$ to 225$^{\circ}$, using the high sensitivity $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO ($J=1-0$) data from the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project. The probability density functions of the molecular hydrogen column density of the clouds, N-PDFs, are fitted with both log-normal (LN) function and log-normal plus power-law (LN+PL) function. The molecular clouds are classified into three categories according to their shapes of N-PDFs, i.e., LN, LN+PL, and UN (unclear), respectively. About 72\% of the molecular clouds fall into the LN category, while 18\% and 10\% into the LN+PL and UN categories, respectively. A power-law scaling relation, $\sigma_s\propto N_{H_2}^{0.44}$, exists between the width of the N-PDF, $\sigma_s$, and the average column density, $N_{H_2}$, of the molecular clouds. However, $\sigma_s$ shows no correlation with the mass of the clouds. A correlation is found between the dispersion of normalized column density, $\sigma_{N/\rm }$, and the sonic Mach number, $\mathcal{M}$, of molecular clouds. Overall, as predicted by numerical simulations, the N-PDFs of the molecular clouds with active star formation activity tend to have N-PDFs with power-law high-density tails.

  • Discovery of a New Molecular Bubble-Outflow Structure in the Taurus B18 Cloud

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Star formation can produce bubbles and outflows, as a result of stellar feedback. Outflows and bubbles inject momentum and energy into the surrounding interstellar medium, and so are related to the overall energy balance of the molecular cloud. Molecular bubbles can be resolved by higher-resolution radio telescopes to quantify the effect of star formation on molecular clouds. We report here the identification of a new molecular bubble with an outflow, and an Herbig Haro object, HH319, located at the bubble center. Multi-wavelength data have been utilized to study its spatial structure, energy injection, and dynamical timescale. This bubble has a kinetic energy of $\rm 5.8 \times 10^{43}$ erg within the smallest radius of a bubble in Taurus, 0.077 pc. The bubble formed $\sim$70,000 years ago. According to the proper motion velocities of protostars from $Gaia$ EDR3, the T Tauri binary stars (FY Tau and FZ Tau) at the southwest edge of the bubble may have produced the outflow-bubble structure. This is an unusual new structure found in low- and intermediate-mass star formation regions. Only a bubble in Orion A, driven by V380 Ori, has a similar structure. The bubble-outflow structure provides additional observational evidence for the theory of stellar wind from T Tauri stars. It enhances our understanding of how stellar feedback acts on molecular clouds.

  • Likelihood-free Cosmological Constraints with Artificial Neural Networks: An Application on Hubble Parameters and SNe Ia

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The errors of cosmological data generated from complex processes, such as the observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) and the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, cannot be accurately modeled by simple analytical probability distributions, e.g. Gaussian distribution. To constrain cosmological parameters from these data, likelihood-free inference is usually used to bypass the direct calculation of the likelihood. In this paper, we propose a new procedure to perform likelihood-free cosmological inference using two artificial neural networks (ANN), the Masked Autoregressive Flow (MAF) and the denoising autoencoder (DAE). Our procedure is the first to use DAE to extract features from data, in order to simplify the structure of MAF needed to estimate the posterior. Tested on simulated Hubble parameter data with a simple Gaussian likelihood, the procedure shows the capability of extracting features from data and estimating posterior distributions without the need of tractable likelihood. We demonstrate that it can accurately approximate the real posterior, achieve performance comparable to the traditional MCMC method, and the MAF gets better training results for small number of simulation when the DAE is added. We also discuss the application of the proposed procedure to OHD and Pantheon SN Ia data, and use them to constrain cosmological parameters from the non-flat $\Lambda$CDM model. For SNe Ia, we use fitted light curve parameters to find constraints on $H_0,\Omega_m,\Omega_\Lambda$ similar to relevant work, using less empirical distributions. In addition, this work is also the first to use Gaussian process in the procedure of OHD simulation.

  • The initial spin distribution of B-type stars revealed by the split main sequences of young star clusters

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Spectroscopic observations of stars in young open clusters have revealed evidence for a dichotomous distribution of stellar rotational velocities, with 10-30% of stars rotating slowly and the remaining 70-90% rotating fairly rapidly. At the same time, high-precision multiband photometry of young star clusters shows a split main sequence band, which is again interpreted as due to a spin dichotomy. Recent papers suggest that extreme rotation is required to retrieve the photometric split. Our new grids of MESA models and the prevalent SYCLIST models show, however, that initial slow (0-35% of the linear Keplerian rotation velocities) and intermediate (50-65% of the Keplerian rotation velocities) rotation are adequate to explain the photometric split. These values are consistent with the recent spectroscopic measurements of cluster and field stars, and are likely to reflect the birth spin distributions of upper main-sequence stars. A fraction of the initially faster-rotating stars may be able to reach near-critical rotation at the end of their main-sequence evolution and produce Be stars in the turn-off region of young star clusters. However, we find that the presence of Be stars up to two magnitudes below the cluster turnoff advocates for a crucial role of binary interaction in creating Be stars. We argue that surface chemical composition measurements may help distinguish these two Be star formation channels. While only the most rapidly rotating, and therefore nitrogen-enriched, single stars can evolve into Be stars, slow pre-mass-transfer rotation and inefficient accretion allows for mild or no enrichment even in critically rotating accretion-induced Be stars. Our results shed new light on the origin of the spin distribution of young and evolved B-type main sequence stars.

  • Peering into the Milky Way by FAST: I. Exquisite HI structures in the inner Galactic disk from the piggyback line observations of the FAST GPPS survey

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Neutral hydrogen (HI) is the fundamental component of the interstellar medium. The Galactic Plane Pulsar Snapshot (GPPS) survey is designed for hunting pulsars by using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) from the visible Galactic plane within $|b| \leq 10^{\circ}$. The survey observations are conducted with the L-band 19-beam receiver in the frequency range of 1.0 $-$ 1.5 GHz, and each pointing has an integration time of 5 minutes. The piggyback spectral data simultaneously recorded during the FAST GPPS survey are great resources for studies on the Galactic HI distribution and ionized gas. We process the piggyback HI data of the FAST GPPS survey in the region of $33^{\circ} \leq l \leq 55^{\circ}$ and $|b| \leq 2^{\circ}$. The rms of the data cube is found to be approximately 40 mK at a velocity resolution of $0.1$ km s$^{-1}$, placing it the most sensitive observations of the Galactic HI by far. The high velocity resolution and high sensitivity of the FAST GPPS HI data enable us to detect weak exquisite HI structures in the interstellar medium. HI absorption line with great details can be obtained against bright continuum sources. The FAST GPPS survey piggyback HI data cube will be released and updated on the web: http://zmtt.bao.ac.cn/MilkyWayFAST/.

  • Peering into the Milky Way by FAST: I. Exquisite HI structures in the inner Galactic disk from the piggyback line observations of the FAST GPPS survey

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Neutral hydrogen (HI) is the fundamental component of the interstellar medium. The Galactic Plane Pulsar Snapshot (GPPS) survey is designed for hunting pulsars by using the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) from the visible Galactic plane within $|b| \leq 10^{\circ}$. The survey observations are conducted with the L-band 19-beam receiver in the frequency range of 1.0 $-$ 1.5 GHz, and each pointing has an integration time of 5 minutes. The piggyback spectral data simultaneously recorded during the FAST GPPS survey are great resources for studies on the Galactic HI distribution and ionized gas. We process the piggyback HI data of the FAST GPPS survey in the region of $33^{\circ} \leq l \leq 55^{\circ}$ and $|b| \leq 2^{\circ}$. The rms of the data cube is found to be approximately 40 mK at a velocity resolution of $0.1$ km s$^{-1}$, placing it the most sensitive observations of the Galactic HI by far. The high velocity resolution and high sensitivity of the FAST GPPS HI data enable us to detect weak exquisite HI structures in the interstellar medium. HI absorption line with great details can be obtained against bright continuum sources. The FAST GPPS survey piggyback HI data cube will be released and updated on the web: http://zmtt.bao.ac.cn/MilkyWayFAST/.

  • A wide-field CO survey towards the California Molecular Filament

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present the survey of $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO/C$^{18}$O (J=1-0) toward the California Molecular Cloud (CMC) within the region of 161.75$^{\circ} \leqslant l \leqslant$ 167.75$^{\circ}$,-9.5$^{\circ} \leqslant b \leqslant $-7.5$^{\circ}$, using the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7 m millimeter telescope. Adopting a distance of 470 pc, the mass of the observed molecular cloud estimated from $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O is about 2.59$\times$10$^{4}$ M$_\odot$, 0.85$\times$10$^{4}$ M$_\odot$, and 0.09$\times$10$^{4}$ M$_\odot$, respectively. A large-scale continuous filament extending about 72 pc is revealed from the $^{13}$CO images. A systematic velocity gradient perpendicular to the major axis appears and is measured to be $\sim$ 0.82 km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{-1}$. The kinematics along the filament shows an oscillation pattern with a fragmentation wavelength of $\sim$ 2.3 pc and velocity amplitude of $\sim$ 0.92 km s$^{-1}$, which may be related with core-forming flows. Furthermore, assuming an inclination angle to the plane of the sky of 45$^{\circ}$, the estimated average accretion rate is $\sim$ 101 M$_\odot$ Myr$^{-1}$ for the cluster LkH$\alpha$ 101 and $\sim$ 21 M$_\odot$ Myr$^{-1}$ for the other regions. In the C$^{18}$O observations, the large-scale filament could be resolved into multiple substructures and their dynamics are consistent with the scenario of filament formation from converging flows. Approximately 225 C$^{18}$O cores are extracted, of which 181 are starless cores. Roughly 37$\%$ (67/181) of the starless cores have $\alpha_{\text{vir}}$ less than 1. Twenty outflow candidates are identified along the filament. Our results indicate active early-phase star formation along the large-scale filament in the CMC region.

  • On the Circular Polarisation of Repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Fast spinning (e.g., sub-second) neutron star with ultra-strong magnetic fields (or so-called magnetar) is one of the promising origins of repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs). Here we discuss circularly polarised emissions produced by propagation effects in the magnetosphere of fast spinning magnetars. We argue that the polarisation-limiting region is well beyond the light cylinder, suggesting that wave mode coupling effects are unlikely to produce strong circular polarisation for fast spinning magnetars. Cyclotron absorption could be significant if the secondary plasma density is high. However, high degrees of circular polarisation can only be produced with large asymmetries in electrons and positrons. We draw attention to the non-detection of circular polarisation in current observations of known repeating FRBs. We suggest that the circular polarisation of FRBs could provide key information on their origins and help distinguish different radiation mechanisms.

  • Molecular gas distribution perpendicular to the Galactic plane

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We use the ~370 square degrees data from the MWISP CO survey to study the vertical distribution of the molecular clouds (MCs) toward the tangent points in the region of l=[16,52]deg and |b|100pc from the Galactic plane. However, only a few samples (i.e., 32 MCs) are located in the |z|>360pc region. Typically, the discrete MCs of the thick disk population have a median peak temperature of 2.1 K, a median velocity dispersion of 0.8km/s, and a median effective radius of 2.5pc. The median surface density of these MCs is 6.8 Msun/pc^2, indicating very faint CO emission for these high-z MCs. The cloud-cloud velocity dispersion is 4.9+-1.3 km/s and a linear variation with a slope of -0.4 km/s/kpc is obtained in the region of R_GC=2.2-6.4kpc. Assuming that these clouds are supported by their turbulent motions against the gravitational pull of the disk, a model of rho0(R) = 1.28exp(-R/3.2kpc) Msun/pc^3 can be used to describe the distribution of the total mass density in the Galactic midplane.

  • Simulating high-time resolution radio-telescope observations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We describe a new software package for simulating channelised, high-time resolution data streams from radio telescopes. The software simulates data from the telescope and observing system taking into account the observation strategy, receiver system and digitisation. The signatures of pulsars, fast radio bursts and flare stars are modelled, including frequency-dependent effects such as scattering and scintillation. We also simulate more generic signals using spline curves and images. Models of radio frequency interference include signals from satellites, terrestrial transmitters and impulsive, broadband signals. The simulated signals can also be injected into real data sets. Uses of this software include the production of machine learning training data sets, development and testing of new algorithms to search for anomalous patterns and to characterise processing pipelines.

  • Short term minutes-time scale temporal variation statistics of sodium layer dynamics

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The brightness and height of the sodium laser guide star of adaptive optics could vary significantly due to the temporal dynamics of sodium column density and the mean height of sodium layer. To measure these dynamics, an independent sodium Lidar is a necessity. Without such an instrument, it is almost impossible to discern the cause of the brightness variation of laser guide star from the sodium layer's dynamics or other factors from the laser itself. For applications such as characterizing the performance of sodium laser for sodium laser guide star generation, minutes scale short term statistics of the sodium layers' abundance and height is extremely helpful for estimating the contribution of sodium layer's variation to the variation of laser guide star's brightness. In this paper, we analyzed our previous measurement of sodium layer dynamics that has been gathered in two winters, and presented the temporal variation statistics of sodium column density and mean height within minute time scale based on our measurements.

  • Stellar mergers as the origin of the blue main-sequence band in young star clusters

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Recent high-quality Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry shows that the main sequences (MS) stars of young star clusters form two discrete components in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). Based on their distribution in the CMD, we show that stars of the blue MS component can be understood as slow rotators originating from stellar mergers. We derive the masses of the blue MS stars, and find that they follow a nearly flat mass function, which supports their unusual formation path. Our results imply that the cluster stars gain their mass in two different ways, by disk accretion leading to rapid rotation, contributing to the red MS, or by binary merger leading to slow rotation and populating the blue MS. We also derive the approximate merger time of the individual stars of the blue MS component, and find a strong early peak in the merger rate, with a lower level merger activity prevailing for tens of Myr. This supports recent binary formation models, and explains new velocity dispersion measurements for members of young star clusters. Our findings shed new light on the origin of the bi-modal mass, spin, and magnetic field distributions of main-sequence stars.