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  • The Physics of Fast Radio Bursts

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Fast radio bursts (FRBs), millisecond-duration bursts prevailing in the radio sky, are the latest big puzzle in the universe and have been a subject of intense observational and theoretical investigations in recent years. The rapid accumulation of the observational data has painted the following sketch about the physical origin of FRBs: They predominantly originate from cosmological distances so that their sources produce the most extreme coherent radio emission in the universe; at least some, probably most, FRBs are repeating sources that do not invoke cataclysmic events; and at least some FRBs are produced by magnetars, neutron stars with the strongest magnetic fields in the universe. Many open questions regarding the physical origin(s) and mechanism(s) of FRBs remain. This article reviews the phenomenology and possible underlying physics of FRBs. Topics include: a summary of the observational data, basic plasma physics, general constraints on FRB models from the data, radiation mechanisms, source and environment models, propagation effects, as well as FRBs as cosmological probes. Current pressing problems and future prospects are also discussed.

  • The Physics of Fast Radio Bursts

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Fast radio bursts (FRBs), millisecond-duration bursts prevailing in the radio sky, are the latest big puzzle in the universe and have been a subject of intense observational and theoretical investigations in recent years. The rapid accumulation of the observational data has painted the following sketch about the physical origin of FRBs: They predominantly originate from cosmological distances so that their sources produce the most extreme coherent radio emission in the universe; at least some, probably most, FRBs are repeating sources that do not invoke cataclysmic events; and at least some FRBs are produced by magnetars, neutron stars with the strongest magnetic fields in the universe. Many open questions regarding the physical origin(s) and mechanism(s) of FRBs remain. This article reviews the phenomenology and possible underlying physics of FRBs. Topics include: a summary of the observational data, basic plasma physics, general constraints on FRB models from the data, radiation mechanisms, source and environment models, propagation effects, as well as FRBs as cosmological probes. Current pressing problems and future prospects are also discussed.

  • Statistical measurements of dispersion measure fluctuations of FRBs

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Extragalactic Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) have large dispersion measures (DMs) and are unique probes of intergalactic electron density fluctuations. By using the recently released First CHIME/FRB Catalog, we reexamined the structure function (SF) of DM fluctuations. It shows a large DM fluctuation similar to that previously reported in Xu & Zhang (2020), but no clear correlation hinting towards large scale turbulence is reproduced with this larger sample. To suppress the distortion effect from FRB distances and their host DMs, we focus on a subset of CHIME catalog with DM $<500$ pc cm$^{-3}$. A trend of non-constant SF and non-zero correlation function (CF) at angular separations $\theta$ less than $10^\circ$ is seen, but with large statistical uncertainties. The difference found between SF and that derived from CF at $\theta \lesssim 10^\circ$ can be ascribed to the large statistical uncertainties or the density inhomogeneities on scales on the order of $100$ Mpc. The possible correlation of electron density fluctuations and inhomogeneities of density distribution should be tested when several thousands of FRBs are available.

  • Constraints on the maximum mass of neutron stars with a quark core from GW170817 and NICER PSR J0030+0451 data

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We perform a Bayesian analysis of the maximum mass $M_{\rm TOV}$ of neutron stars with a quark core, incorporating the observational data from tidal deformability of the GW170817 binary neutron star merger as detected by LIGO/Virgo and the mass and radius of PSR J0030+0451 as detected by \nicer. The analysis is performed under the assumption that the hadron-quark phase transition is of first order, where the low-density hadronic matter described in a unified manner by the soft QMF or the stiff DD2 equation of state (EOS) transforms into a high-density phase of quark matter modeled by the generic "Constant-sound-speed" (CSS) parameterization. The mass distribution measured for the $2.14 \,{\rm M}_{\odot}$ pulsar, MSP J0740+6620, is used as the lower limit on $M_{\rm TOV}$. We find the most probable values of the hybrid star maximum mass are $M_{\rm TOV}=2.36^{+0.49}_{-0.26}\,{\rm M}_{\odot}$ ($2.39^{+0.47}_{-0.28}\,{\rm M}_{\odot}$) for QMF (DD2), with an absolute upper bound around $2.85\,{\rm M}_{\odot}$, to the $90\%$ posterior credible level. Such results appear robust with respect to the uncertainties in the hadronic EOS. We also discuss astrophysical implications of this result, especially on the post-merger product of GW170817, short gamma-ray bursts, and other likely binary neutron star mergers.

  • High-energy Neutrinos from Stellar Explosions in Active Galactic Nuclei Accretion Disks

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Some catastrophic stellar explosions, such as supernovae (SNe), compact binary coalescences, and micro-tidal disruption events, are believed to be embedded in the accretion disks of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show high-energy neutrinos can be produced efficiently through $pp$-interactions between shock-accelerated cosmic rays and AGN disk materials shortly after the explosion ejecta shock breaks out of the disk. AGN stellar explosions are ideal targets for joint neutrino and electromagnetic (EM) multimessenger observations. Future EM follow-up observations of neutrino bursts can help us search for yet-discovered AGN stellar explosions. We suggest that AGN stellar explosions could potentially be important astrophysical neutrino sources. The contribution from AGN stellar explosions to the observed diffuse neutrino background depends on the uncertain local event rate densities of these events in AGN disks. By considering thermonuclear SNe, core-collaspe SNe, gamma-ray burst associated SNe, kilonovae, and choked GRBs in AGN disks with known theoretical local event rate densities, we show that these events may contribute to $\lesssim10\%$ of the observed diffuse neutrino background.

  • Effective two-body scatterings around a massive object

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Two-body scatterings under the potential of a massive object are very common in astrophysics. If the massive body is far enough away that the two small bodies are in their own gravitational sphere of influence, the gravity of the massive body can be temporarily ignored. However, this requires the scattering process to be fast enough that the small objects do not spend too much time at distances near the surface of the sphere of influence. In this paper, we derive the validation criteria for effective two-body scattering and establish a simple analytical solution for this process, which we verify through numerical scattering experiments. We use this solution to study star-black hole scatterings in the disks of Active Galactic Nuclei and planet-planet scatterings in planetary systems, and calculate their one-dimensional cross-section analytically. Our solution will be valuable in reducing computational time when treating two-body scatterings under the potential of a much more massive third body, provided that the problem settings are in the valid parameter space region identified by our study.

  • Population Properties of Gravitational-Wave Neutron Star--Black Hole Mergers

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Over the course of the third observing run of LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA Collaboration, several gravitational-wave (GW) neutron star--black hole (NSBH) candidates have been announced. By assuming these candidates are real signals and of astrophysical origins, we analyze the population properties of the mass and spin distributions for GW NSBH mergers. We find that the primary BH mass distribution of NSBH systems, whose shape is consistent with that inferred from the GW binary BH (BBH) primaries, can be well described as a power-law with an index of $\alpha = 4.8^{+4.5}_{-2.8}$ plus a high-mass Gaussian component peaking at $\sim33^{+14}_{-9}\,M_\odot$. The NS mass spectrum could be shaped as a near flat distribution between $\sim1.0-2.1\,M_\odot$. The constrained NS maximum mass agrees with that inferred from NSs in our Galaxy. If GW190814 and GW200210 are NSBH mergers, the posterior results of the NS maximum mass would be always larger than $\sim2.5\,M_\odot$ and significantly deviate from that inferred in the Galactic NSs. The effective inspiral spin and effective precession spin of GW NSBH mergers are measured to potentially have near-zero distributions. The negligible spins for GW NSBH mergers imply that most events in the universe should be plunging events, which supports the standard isolated formation channel of NSBH binaries. More NSBH mergers to be discovered in the fourth observing run would help to more precisely model the population properties of cosmological NSBH mergers.

  • Kilonova and Optical Afterglow from Binary Neutron Star Mergers. I. Luminosity Function and Color Evolution

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In the first work of this series, we adopt a GW170817-like, viewing-angle-dependent kilonova model and the standard afterglow model with the lightcurve distribution based on the properties of cosmological short gamma-ray bursts afterglows to simulate the luminosity functions and color evolution of both kilonovae and optical afterglow emissions from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers. {We find that $\sim10\%$ afterglows are brighter than the associated kilonovae at the peak time, most of which are on-axis or nearly-on-axis. These kilonovae would be significantly polluted by the associated afterglow emission. Only at large viewing angles with $\sin\theta_{\rm v}\gtrsim 0.20$, the EM signals of most BNS mergers would be kilonova-dominated and some off-axis afterglows may emerge at $\sim5-10$\,day after the mergers.} At brightness dimmer than $\sim23-24$\,mag, according to their luminosity functions, the number of afterglows is much larger than that of kilonovae. Since the search depth of the present survey projects is $<22$\,mag, the number of afterglow events detected via serendipitous observations would be much higher than that of kilonova events, consistent with the current observations. {For the foreseeable survey projects (e.g., Mephisto, WFST, LSST) whose search depths can reach $\gtrsim23-24$\,mag, the detection rate of kilonovae could have the same order of magnitude as that of afterglows.} We also find that it may be difficult to use the fading rate in a single band to directly identify kilonovae and afterglows among various fast-evolving transients by serendipitous surveys. However, the color evolution between optical and infrared bands can identify them, since their color evolution patterns are unique compared with those of other fast-evolving transients.

  • Search for lensing signatures from the latest fast radio burst observations and constraints on the abundance of primordial black holes

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The possibility that primordial black holes (PBHs) form a part of dark matter has been considered for a long time but poorly constrained over a wide mass range. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright radio transients with millisecond duration. Lensing effect of them has been proposed as one of the cleanest probes for constraining the presence of PBHs in the stellar mass window. In this paper, we first apply the normalised cross-correlation algorithm to search and identify candidates of lensed FRBs in the latest public FRB observations, i.e. $593$ FRBs which mainly consist of the first Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment FRB catalog, and then derive constraints on the abundance of PBHs from the null search result of lensing signature. For a monochromatic mass distribution, the fraction of dark matter made up of PBHs could be constrained to $\leq87\%$ for $\geq500~M_{\odot}$ at 95\% confidence level by assuming flux ratio thresholds dependent signal-to-noise ratio for each FRB and that apparently one-off events are intrinsic single bursts. This result would be improved by a three times factor when a conventional constant flux ratio threshold is considered. Moreover, we derive constraints on PBHs with a log-normal mass function naturally predicted by some popular inflation models and often investigated with gravitational wave detections. We find that, in this mass distribution scenario, the constraint from currently public FRB observations is relatively weaker than the one from gravitational wave detections. It is foreseen that upcoming complementary multi-messenger observations will yield considerable constraints on the possibilities of PBHs in this intriguing mass window.

  • High Energy Neutrinos from Choked Gamma-Ray Bursts in AGN Accretion Disks

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Both long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) from core collapse of massive stars and short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) from mergers of binary neutron star (BNS) or neutron star--black hole (NSBH) are expected to occur in the accretion disk of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We show that GRB jets embedded in the migration traps of AGN disks are promised to be choked by the dense disk material. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays at the reverse shock is expected, and high-energy neutrinos would be produced. We find that these sources can effectively produce detectable TeV--PeV neutrinos through $p\gamma$ interactions. From a choked LGRB jet with isotropic equivalent energy of $10^{53}\,{\rm erg}$ at $100\,{\rm Mpc}$, one expects $\sim2\,(7)$ neutrino events detectable by IceCube (IceCube-Gen2). The contribution from choked LGRBs to the observed diffuse neutrino background depends on the unknown local event rate density of these GRBs in AGN disks. For example, if the local event rate density of choked LGRBs in AGN disk is $\sim5\%$ that of low-luminosity GRBs $(\sim10\,{\rm Gpc}^{-3}\,{\rm yr}^{-1})$, the neutrinos from these events would contribute to $\sim10\%$ of the observed diffuse neutrino background. Choked SGRBs in AGN disks are potential sources for future joint electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational wave multi-messenger observations.

  • Magnetar Engines in Fast Blue Optical Transients and Their Connections with SLSNe, SNe Ic-BL, and lGRBs

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We fit the multi-band lightcurves of 40 fast blue optical transients (FBOTs) with the magnetar engine model. The mass of the FBOT ejecta, the initial spin period and polar magnetic field of the FBOT magnetars are respectively constrained to $M_{\rm{ej}}=0.18^{+0.52}_{-0.13}\,M_\odot$, $P_{\rm{i}}=9.4^{+8.1}_{-3.9}\,{\rm{ms}}$, and $B_{\rm p}=7^{+16}_{-5}\times10^{14}\,{\rm{G}}$. The wide distribution of the value of $B_{\rm p}$ spreads the parameter ranges of the magnetars from superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) to broad-line Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL; some are observed to be associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts), which are also suggested to be driven by magnetars. Combining FBOTs with the other transients, we find a strong universal anti-correlation as $P_{\rm{i}}\propto{M_{\rm{ej}}^{-0.45}}$, indicating them could share a common origin. To be specific, it is suspected that all of these transients originate from collapse of extreme-stripped stars in close binary systems, but with different progenitor masses. As a result, FBOTs distinct themselves by their small ejecta masses with an upper limit of ${\sim}1\,M_\odot$, which leads to an observational separation in the rise time of the lightcurves $\sim12\,{\rm d}$. In addition, the FBOTs together with SLSNe can be separated from SNe Ic-BL by an empirical line in the $M_{\rm peak}-t_{\rm rise}$ plane corresponding to an energy requirement of a mass of $^{56}$Ni of $\sim0.3M_{\rm ej}$, where $M_{\rm peak}$ is the peak absolute magnitude of the transients and $t_{\rm rise}$ is the rise time.

  • A Channel to Form Fast-spinning Black Hole--Neutron Star Binary Mergers as Multi-messenger Sources

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: After the successful detection of a gravitational-wave (GW) signal and its associated electromagnetic (EM) counterparts from GW170817, neutron star--black hole (NSBH) mergers have been highly expected to be the next type of multi-messenger source. However, despite the detection of several of NSBH merger candidates during the GW third observation run, no confirmed EM counterparts from these sources have been identified. The most plausible explanation is that these NSBH merger candidates were plunging events mainly because the primary BHs had near-zero projected aligned-spins based on GW observations. In view that NSs can be easily tidally disrupted by BHs with high projected aligned-spins, we study an evolution channel to form NSBH binaries with fast-spinning BHs, the properties of BH mass and spin, and their associated tidal disruption probability. We find that if the NSs are born firstly, the companion helium stars would be tidally spun up efficiently, and would thus finally form fast-spinning BHs. If BHs do not receive significant natal kicks at birth, these NSBH binaries that can merge within the Hubble time would have BHs with the projected aligned-spins $\chi_{z}\gtrsim0.8$ and, hence, can certainly allow tidal disruption to happen. Even if significant BH kicks are considered for a small fraction of NSBH binaries, the projected aligned-spins of BHs are $\chi_z\gtrsim0.2$. These systems can still be disrupted events unless the NSs are very massive. Thus, NS-first-born NSBH mergers would be promising multi-messenger sources. We discuss various potential EM counterparts associated with these systems and their detectability in the upcoming fourth observation run.

  • Thermonuclear Explosions and Accretion-induced Collapses of White Dwarfs in Active Galactic Nucleus Accretion Disks

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: White dwarfs (WDs) embedded in gaseous disks of active galactic nucleus (AGNs) can rapidly accrete materials from the disks and grow in mass to reach or even exceed the Chandrasekhar limit. Binary WD (BWD) mergers are also believed to occur in AGN accretion disks. We study observational signatures from these events. We suggest that mass-accreting WDs and BWD mergers in AGN disks can lead to thermonuclear explosions that drive an ejecta shock breakout from the disk surface and power a slow-rising, relatively dim Type Ia supernova (SN). Such SNe Ia may be always outshone by the emission of the AGN disk around the supermassive black hole (BH) with a mass of $M_{\rm SMBH}\gtrsim 10^8\,M_\odot$. Besides, accretion-induced collapses (AICs) of WDs in AGN disks may occur sometimes, which may form highly-magnetized millisecond neutron stars (NSs). The subsequent spin-down process of this nascent magnetar can deposit its rotational energy into the disk materials, resulting in a magnetar-driven shock breakout and a luminous magnetar-powered transient. We show that such an AIC event could power a rapidly evolving and luminous transient for a magnetic field of $B\sim10^{15}\,{\rm G}$. The rising time and peak luminosity of the transient, powered by a magnetar with $B\sim10^{14}\,{\rm G}$, are predicted to have similar properties with those of superluminous supernovae. AIC events taking place in the inner parts of the disk around a relatively less massive supermassive BHs ($M_{\rm SMBH}\lesssim10^8\,M_\odot$) are more likely to power the transients that are much brighter than the AGN disk emission and hence easily to be identified.

  • No Detectable Kilonova Counterpart is Expected for O3 Neutron Star-Black Hole Candidates

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We analyse the tidal disruption probability of potential neutron star--black hole (NSBH) merger gravitational wave (GW) events, including GW190426_152155, GW190814, GW200105_162426 and GW200115_042309, detected during the third observing run of the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration, and the detectability of kilonova emission in connection with these events. The posterior distributions of GW190814 and GW200105_162426 show that they must be plunging events and hence no kilonova signal is expected from these events. With the stiffest NS equation of state allowed by the constraint of GW170817 taken into account, the probability that GW190426_152155 and GW200115_042309 can make tidal disruption is $\sim24\%$ and $\sim3\%$, respectively. However, the predicted kilonova brightness is too faint to be detected for present follow-up search campaigns, which explains the lack of electromagnetic (EM) counterpart detection after triggers of these GW events. Based on the best constrained population synthesis simulation results, we find that disrupted events account for only $\lesssim20\%$ of cosmological NSBH mergers since most of the primary BHs could have low spins. The associated kilonovae for those disrupted events are still difficult to be discovered by LSST after GW triggers in the future, because of their low brightness and larger distances. For future GW-triggered multi-messenger observations, potential short-duration gamma-ray bursts and afterglows are more probable EM counterparts of NSBH GW events.

  • Reply to: Three papers regarding the origin of GN-z11-flash

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In Jiang et al., we detected a bright flash (hereafter GN-z11-flash) that appeared as compact continuum emission during our Keck MOSFIRE observations of the galaxy GN-z11 at z ~ 11. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the origin of the flash using all available information and our current understanding of known man-made objects or moving objects in the solar system. We found that GN-z11-flash was likely a rest-frame UV flash associated with a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) from GN-z11. Recently, Steinhardt et al., Michalowski et al., and Nir et al. reported that GN-z11-flash was more likely from a satellite. While one cannot completely rule out the possibility of unknown satellites (or debris), we find that either the chance probabilities of being a satellite estimated by these authors have been largely overestimated or their identified satellites have been ruled out in our original analysis. Our new calculations show that the probability of GN-z11-flash being a satellite is still lower than that of it being a signal originated from GN-z11.

  • Kilonova and Optical Afterglow from Binary Neutron Star Mergers. II. Optimal Search Strategy for Serendipitous Observations and Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Triggers

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In the second work of this series, we explore the optimal search strategy for serendipitous and gravitational-wave-triggered target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations of kilonovae and optical short-duration gamma-ray burst (sGRB) afterglows from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers, assuming that cosmological kilonovae are AT2017gfo-like (but with viewing-angle dependence) and that the properties of afterglows are consistent with those of cosmological sGRB afterglows. A one-day cadence serendipitous search strategy with an exposure time of $\sim30\,$s can always achieve an optimal search strategy of kilonovae and afterglows for various survey projects. We show that the optimal detection rates of the kilonovae (afterglows) are $\sim0.3/0.6/1/20\,$yr$^{-1}$ ($\sim50/60/100/800\,$yr$^{-1}$) for ZTF/Mephisto/WFST/LSST, respectively A better search strategy for SiTian than the current design is to increase the exposure time. In principle, a fully built SiTian can detect $\sim7({2000})\,$yr$^{-1}$ kilonovae (afterglows). Population properties of electromagnetic (EM) signals detected via the serendipitous observations are studied in detail. For ToO observations, we predict that one can detect $\sim11\,{\rm{yr}}^{-1}$ BNS gravitational wave (GW) events during the fourth observing run (O4) by considering an exact duty cycle of the third observing run. The median GW sky localization area is expected to be $\sim10\,{\rm{deg}}^2$ for detectable BNS GW events. In O4, we predict that ZTF/Mephisto/WFST/LSST can detect $\sim5/4/3/3$ kilonovae ($\sim1/1/1/1$ afterglows) per year, respectively. The GW detection rates, GW population properties, GW sky localizations, and optimistic ToO detection rates of detectable EM counterparts for BNS GW events at the Advanced Plus, LIGO Voyager and ET\&CE eras are detailedly simulated in this paper.

  • Kilonova and Optical Afterglow from Binary Neutron Star Mergers. II. Optimal Search Strategy for Serendipitous Observations and Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Triggers

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In the second work of this series, we explore the optimal search strategy for serendipitous and gravitational-wave-triggered target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations of kilonovae and optical short-duration gamma-ray burst (sGRB) afterglows from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers, assuming that cosmological kilonovae are AT2017gfo-like (but with viewing-angle dependence) and that the properties of afterglows are consistent with those of cosmological sGRB afterglows. A one-day cadence serendipitous search strategy with an exposure time of $\sim30\,$s can always achieve an optimal search strategy of kilonovae and afterglows for various survey projects. We show that the optimal detection rates of the kilonovae (afterglows) are $\sim0.3/0.6/1/20\,$yr$^{-1}$ ($\sim50/60/100/800\,$yr$^{-1}$) for ZTF/Mephisto/WFST/LSST, respectively A better search strategy for SiTian than the current design is to increase the exposure time. In principle, a fully built SiTian can detect $\sim7({2000})\,$yr$^{-1}$ kilonovae (afterglows). Population properties of electromagnetic (EM) signals detected via the serendipitous observations are studied in detail. For ToO observations, we predict that one can detect $\sim11\,{\rm{yr}}^{-1}$ BNS gravitational wave (GW) events during the fourth observing run (O4) by considering an exact duty cycle of the third observing run. The median GW sky localization area is expected to be $\sim10\,{\rm{deg}}^2$ for detectable BNS GW events. In O4, we predict that ZTF/Mephisto/WFST/LSST can detect $\sim5/4/3/3$ kilonovae ($\sim1/1/1/1$ afterglows) per year, respectively. The GW detection rates, GW population properties, GW sky localizations, and optimistic ToO detection rates of detectable EM counterparts for BNS GW events at the Advanced Plus, LIGO Voyager and ET\&CE eras are detailedly simulated in this paper.

  • Kilonova Emission From Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers. II. Luminosity Function and Implications for Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Triggers and Blind Searches

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We present detailed simulations of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers kilonova and gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow and kilonova luminosity function, and discuss the detectability of electromagnetic (EM) counterpart in connection with gravitational wave (GW) detections, GW-triggered target-of-opportunity observations, and time-domain blind searches. The predicted absolute magnitude of the BH-NS kilonovae at $0.5\,{\rm days}$ after the merger falls in $[-10,-15.5]$. The simulated luminosity function contains the potential viewing-angle distribution information of the anisotropic kilonova emission. We simulate the GW detection rates, detectable distances and signal duration, for the future networks of 2nd/2.5th/3rd-generation GW detectors. BH-NSs tend to produce brighter kilonovae and afterglows if the BH has a higher aligned-spin, and a less massive NS with a stiffer EoS. The detectability of kilonova is especially sensitive to the BH spin. If BHs typically have low spins, the BH-NS EM counterparts are hard to discover. For the 2nd generation GW detector networks, a limiting magnitude of $m_{\rm limit}\sim23-24\,{\rm mag}$ is required to detect the kilonovae even if BH high spin is assumed. Thus, a plausible explanation for the lack of BH-NS associated kilonova detection during LIGO/Virgo O3 is that either there is no EM counterpart (plunging events), or the current follow-ups are too shallow. These observations still have the chance to detect the on-axis jet afterglow associated with an sGRB or an orphan afterglow. Follow-up observations can detect possible associated sGRB afterglows, from which kilonova signatures may be studied. For time-domain observations, a high-cadence search in redder filters is recommended to detect more BH-NS associated kilonovae and afterglows.

  • Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Gravitational Waves

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-08-30

    摘要: A conservative constraint on the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) can be obtained under the assumption that the observed time delay between correlated particles from astronomical sources is dominated by the gravitational fields through which they move. Current limits on the EEP are mainly based on the observed time delays of photons with different energies, and it is highly desirable to develop more accurate tests involving different types of particles. The detection by the advanced LIGO/VIRGO systems of gravitational waves (GWs) will provide attractive candidates for constraining the EEP, which would further extend the tested particle species to the gravitons, with potentially higher accuracy. Considering the capabilities of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO network and the source direction uncertainty, we show that the joint detection of GWs and electromagnetic signals can potentially probe the EEP to an accuracy of 10−11, which is several orders of magnitude tighter than previous limits.

  • Formation of Fast-spinning Neutron Stars in Close Binaries and Magnetar-driven Stripped-envelope Supernovae

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Extreme stripped-envelope supernovae (SESNe), including Type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), broad-line Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic-BL), and fast blue optical transients (FBOTs), are widely believed to harbor a newborn fast-spinning highly-magnetized neutron star (``magnetar''), which can lose its rotational energy via spin-down processes to accelerate and heat the ejecta. The progenitor(s) of these magnetar-driven SESNe, and the origin of considerable angular momentum (AM) in the cores of massive stars to finally produce such fast-spinning magnetars upon core-collapse are still under debate. Popular proposed scenarios in the literature cannot simultaneously explain their event rate density, SN and magnetar parameters, and the observed metallicity. Here, we perform a detailed binary evolution simulation that demonstrates that tidal spin-up helium stars with efficient AM transport mechanism in close binaries can form fast-spinning magnetars at the end of stars' life to naturally reproduce the universal energy-mass correlation of these magnetar-driven SESNe. Our models are consistent with the event rate densities, host environments, ejecta masses, and energetics of these different kinds of magnetar-driven SESNe, supporting that the isolated common-envelope formation channel could be a major common origin of magnetar-driven SESNe. The remnant compact binary systems of magnetar-driven SESNe are progenitors of some galactic systems and gravitational-wave transients.