摘要：The neural correlates of associative memory in healthy older adults were investigated by examining the correlation of associative memory performance with spontaneous brain oscillations. Eighty healthy older adults underwent a resting-state functional MRI and took a paired-associative learning test (PALT). Correlations between the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) as well as fractional ALFF (fALFF) in the whole brain and PALT scores were calculated. We found that spontaneous activity as indexed by both ALFF and fALFF in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) was significantly positively correlated with associative memory performance, suggesting that the PHG plays a critical role in associative memory in older people.
摘要：The individual roles of three chloroplast CPN60 protomers (CPN60 alpha, CPN60 beta 1, and CPN60 beta 2) and whether and how they are assembled into functional chaperonin complexes are investigated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Protein complexes containing all three potential subunits were identified in Chlamydomonas, and their co-expression in Escherichia coli yielded a homogeneous population of oligomers containing all three subunits (CPN60 alpha beta 1 beta 2), with a molecular weight consistent with a tetradecameric structure. While homo-oligomers of CPN60 beta could form, they were dramatically reduced when CPN60 alpha was present and homo-oligomers of CPN60 beta 2 were readily changed into hetero-oligomers in the presence of ATP and other protomers. ATP hydrolysis caused CPN60 oligomers to disassemble and drove the purified protomers to reconstitute oligomers in vitro, suggesting that the dynamic nature of CPN60 oligomers is dependent on ATP. Only hetero-oligomeric CPN60 alpha beta 1 beta 2, containing CPN60 alpha, CPN60 beta 1, and CPN60 beta 2 subunits in a 5: 6: 3 ratio, cooperated functionally with GroES. The combination of CPN60 alpha and CPN60 beta subunits, but not the individual subunits alone, complemented GroEL function in E. coli with subunit recognition specificity. Down-regulation of the CPN60 alpha subunit in Chlamydomonas resulted in a slow growth defect and an inability to grow autotrophically, indicating the essential role of CPN60 alpha in vivo.
摘要：Sensory dendrites innervate peripheral tissues through cell-cell interactions that are poorly understood. The proprioceptive neuron PVD in C. elegans extends regular terminal dendritic branches between muscle and hypodermis. We found that the PVD branch pattern was instructed by adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM, which formed regularly spaced stripes on the hypodermal cell. The regularity of the SAX-7 pattern originated from the repeated and regularly spaced dense body of the sarcomeres in the muscle. The extracellular proteoglycan UNC-52/Perlecan linked the dense body to the hemidesmosome on the hypodermal cells, which in turn instructed the SAX-7 stripes and PVD dendrites. Both UNC-52 and hemidesmosome components exhibited highly regular stripes that interdigitated with the SAX-7 stripe and PVD dendrites, reflecting the striking precision of subcellular patterning between muscle, hypodermis, and dendrites. Hence, the muscular contractile apparatus provides the instructive cues to pattern proprioceptive dendrites.
摘要：Normal aging is associated with greater decline in associative memory relative to item memory due to impaired recollection. Familiarity may also contribute to associative recognition when stimuli are perceived as a 'unitized' representation. Given that familiarity is relatively preserved in older adults, we explored whether age-related associative memory deficits could be attenuated when associations were unitized (i.e., compounds) compared with those non-unitized (i.e., unrelated word pairs). Young and older adults performed an associative recognition task while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Behavioral results showed that age differences were smaller for recognition of compounds than for unrelated word pairs. ERP results indicated that only compounds evoked an early frontal old/new effect in older adults. Moreover, the early frontal old/new effect was positively correlated with associative discrimination accuracy. These findings suggest that reduced age-related associative deficits under unitized condition may be associated with the presence of familiarity-based retrieval of compounds in older adults. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
摘要：Luminance and contrast are two major attributes of objects in the visual scene. Luminance and contrast information received by visual neurons are often updated simultaneously. We examined the temporal response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) to stimuli whose luminance and contrast were simultaneously changed by 50 Hz. We found that response tuning to luminance changes precedes tuning to contrast changes in V1. For most V1 neurons, the onset time of response tuning to luminance changes was shorter than that to contrast changes. Most neurons carried luminance information in the early response stage, while all neurons carried both contrast and luminance information in the late response stage. The early luminance response suggests that cortical processing for luminance is not as slow as previously thought.
摘要：Identification and detection of dendritic spines in neuron images are of high interest in diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, and autism). In this paper, we have proposed a novel automatic approach using wavelet-based conditional symmetric analysis and regularized morphological shared-weight neural networks (RMSNN) for dendritic spine identification involving the following steps: backbone extraction, localization of dendritic spines, and classification. First, a new algorithm based on wavelet transform and conditional symmetric analysis has been developed to extract backbone and locate the dendrite boundary. Then, the RMSNN has been proposed to classify the spines into three predefined categories (mushroom, thin, and stubby). We have compared our proposed approach against the existing methods. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed approach can accurately locate the dendrite and accurately classify the spines into three categories with the accuracy of 99.1% for "mushroom" spines, 97.6% for "stubby" spines, and 98.6% for "thin" spines.