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中国与美国、日本、德国制造业国际竞争优势比较研究及相关政策建议

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摘要: 强化制造业竞争优势,推动制造业高质量发展是构建现代产业体系的关键。文章综合运用国际市场占 有率、显示性比较优势指数、贸易竞争指数和价格指数等指标,深入分析20052020 年主要国家制造业竞争 优势演变态势及其主要来源。研究发现,中国劳动密集型产业始终保持强大的国际竞争优势,部分资本与技 术密集型产业国际竞争优势不断强化;德国、日本、美国资本和技术密集型产业始终保持较强的国际竞争优 势,但部分产业竞争优势出现下降趋势;中国电气机械和器材制造业、专用设备制造业等资本与技术密集型 产业国际竞争优势主要来源于产品价格优势,德国、日本、美国主要来源于产品技术优势。文章提出4 点政 策建议,包括:推动以提高产业基础能力为核心的技术创新;提升制造业产业链、供应链、创新链现代化水 平;加快推进制造业数字化、绿色化、服务化转型;着力提升制造业国际合作和跨国经营水平。

Abstract: Strengthening the competitive advantage of manufacturing and promoting its high-quality development are the key points to build a modern industrial system. This study uses international market share (MS), revealed comparative advantage (RCA), trade competition index (TCI), and price index (PI) from 2005 to 2020 to analyze the evolution of manufacturing competitive advantage and its main sources in major countries. The main findings are as follows. Chinas labor-intensive industries maintain a strong international competitive advantage, and the international competitive advantage of some capital and technology-intensive industries is increasing. The capital and technology intensive industries in Germany, Japan, and United States have maintained a strong international competitive advantage, but some of them have shown a downward trend. The international competitive advantages of capital and technology-intensive industries such as electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing, special equipment manufacturing in China mainly come from product prices, while those in Germany, Japan, and United States mainly come from technology. Four policy suggestions are presented in this study for strengthening the competitive advantage of manufacturing: promoting technological innovation focusing on industrial basic capabilities; modernizing the manufacturing industry chain, supply chain, and innovation chain; accelerating digital, green, and service transformation; and increasing level of international cooperation and cross-border operations.

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[V1] 2023-08-23 00:20:14 ChinaXiv:202308.00228V1 下载全文
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