摘要: 营造乡土树种人工林和桉树人工林是我国南亚热带森林经营的常见模式，但土壤真菌群落多样性及 功能对乡土树种和桉树人工林的响应特征与机制尚不明确。本研究以南亚热带4个乡土树种人工林（马尾 松（Pinus massoniana）、火力楠（Michelia macclurei）、米老排（Mytilaria laosensis）、红锥（Castanopsis hystrix））和外来树种尾巨桉（Eucalyptus urophylla E. grandis）人工林为研究对象，基于各林分土壤（0~20 cm）18S rRNA高通量测序数据，利用FUNGuild数据库，比较分析乡土树种与尾巨桉人工林土壤真菌群落 多样性和功能类群的差异特性及其影响的主导土壤环境因子。结果表明：（1）5个研究林分土壤真菌优势 门均为子囊菌门和担子菌门，但不同乡土树种林分与尾巨桉林的土壤真菌优势目存在差异。（2）尾巨桉 林土壤真菌群落多样性高于乡土树种人工林，其群落组成结构也与乡土树种人工林差异显著（P<0.05）。 （3）4个乡土树种人工林土壤的腐生营养型相对丰度高于尾巨桉林，且火力楠林和米老排林土壤丛枝菌根 真菌相对丰度明显高于尾巨桉林，尾巨桉林土壤共生营养型以及外生菌根真菌和木材腐生菌的相对丰度明 显高于乡土树种人工林。（4）pH是导致尾巨桉林与乡土树种人工林土壤真菌群落多样性和功能类群差异 的主要土壤环境因子。综上表明，在南亚热带地区将尾巨桉林改建成火力楠林或米老排林可提高土壤养分 水平，提升土壤生态功能。
Abstract: Planting native tree species plantations and Eucalyptus plantations is a common model of forest management in south subtropical China, but the response characteristics and mechanisms of soil fungal community diversity and functions to native tree species and Eucalyptus plantations are still unclear. Based on the 18S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data of soil (0-20cm) in each stand and FUNGuild database, this study took 4 native tree species plantations(Pinus massoniana, Michelia macclurei, Mytilaria laosensis, Castanopsis hystrix) and exotic tree species Eucalyptus urophylla E. grandis(EUG) plantations in the south subtropical China as the research object, and compared and analyzed the diversity and functional groups of soil fungal communities between native tree species and EUG plantations, as well as the dominant soil environmental factors affecting them. The results were as follows: (1)The dominant phyla of soil fungi in the five stands were both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but there were differences in the dominant orders of soil fungi between different native tree species and EUG plantations. (2) The diversity of soil fungal communities in EUG plantation was higher than that in native tree plantations, and the community composition was significantly different from the native tree plantations(P<0.05). (3)The relative abundance of saprotroph in the native tree plantations was higher than that of EUG plantation, and the relative abundance of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Michelia macclurei and Mytilaria laosensis plantations was markedly higher than that of EUG plantation. The relative abundance of soil symbiotroph, ectomycorrhizal fungi and wood saprotroph in EUG plantation was remarkably higher than that in the native tree plantations. (4) pH was the crucial soil environmental factor regulating the difference of soil fungal community diversity and functional group between EUG and native tree plantations. In general, there were significant differences in the structure and function of soil fungal community between native tree plantations and EUG plantations, which indicated that different stand types had great effects on soil fungal community and function. In conclusion, it is concluded that the soil nutrient level can be improved by converting the EUG plantation into native tree species plantations in the south subtropical China, and the soil ecological function could be improved by choosing Michelia macclurei or Mytilaria laosensis plantation as native tree species plantation.
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