Do not think any virtue trivial, and thus neglect it: serial mediating role of social mindfulness and perspective taking
摘要: 基于正念的去自我中心机制，提出正念可通过观点采择与社会善念的链式中介对智慧产生正向效应的假设，运用问卷横断自评、正念干预和社会善念的操纵等多种方法从特质与状态层面进行验证 (总样本量为909)。研究表明，特质层面的正念与社会善念、智慧两两正相关，可正向预测社会善念与智慧，并验证了社会善念的中介作用 (研究1)；从状态层面发现正念干预能在短期内有效提升个体的状态社会善念与智慧推理水平，再次验证社会善念的中介效应(研究2)；受到操纵的社会善念也能够提升正念对智慧的正向预测效应，不仅验证了社会善念中介作用的稳健性，也验证了社会善念与智慧的因果关联，同时，观点采择与社会善念的链式中介作用也得到了研究结果的支持(研究3)，即具备特质正念或进行正念练习时体验状态正念的个体，更易运用观点采择能力，在人际互动中表现出善意关注，由此作出考量他人的智慧决策。
Abstract: Mindfulness has roots in Eastern Buddhism and is generally defined as focusing ones complete attention to experiences occurring in the present moment in a nonjudgmental or accepting way. The objective of mindfulness intervention is to first understand current experiences then gradually develop self-awareness and wisdom. Moreover, following Buddhist ethics, mindfulness predicts wisdom, which is linked with emphasis on individualized moral foundations of care, empathy, benevolence, and so on. Social mindfulness, as a positive quality and state behavior of mindful attention to others, may potentially affect the influence of mindfulness on wisdom by providing an indirect way to promote the common good. Moreover, social mindfulness involves minding the needs and interests of others in a way that honors the idea that most people prefer choosing for themselves. Based on this statement, the skill of processing the perspectives of others may lay the foundation for social mindfulness. Therefore, based on the above propositions, the hypothesis that mindfulness positively affects wisdom, mediated by perspective taking and social mindfulness, is proposed in this study. Through three studies, the above hypothesis is examined. For study 1 (n= 417), a self-rated wisdom, mindfulness, and social mindfulness questionnaire is adopted to investigate the link between trait mindfulness, wisdom, and social mindfulness. For study 2 (n= 80), data on state mindfulness, social mindfulness, and wisdom are collected at three points using a switching replication experimental design, which further examines the influence of social mindfulness on the link between mindfulness and wisdom at the state level. For study 3 (n= 412), social mindfulness is manipulated using the scenario simulation method, and the role of perspective taking is considered, which demonstrates the influence of mindfulness on wisdom through perspective taking and social mindfulness. Results show multidimensional mindfulness, with awareness and acceptance, is positively correlated with increased social mindfulness and wisdom, thereby verifying the mediating role of social mindfulness. Mindfulness intervention can effectively initiate state mindfulness and simultaneously improve social mindfulness and wisdom within a short period. Manipulated social mindfulness can enhance the positive predicted effect of mindfulness on wisdom and verify the mediating role of social mindfulness. Evidence on the mediating effect of perspective taking and social mindfulness is provided in this study. Specifically, mindful individuals are likely to demonstrate benign attention in interpersonal interactions by perspective taking, thereby constructing a practical path to wisdom. The theoretical model aims to complement and enrich the burgeoning mindfulness, wisdom, and morality literature. In studies 1 and 2, the standard finding (trait and state levels) that mindfulness triggers wisdom is replicated, and the correlation between mindfulness, social mindfulness, and wisdom is explored. A new perspective for improving individual wisdom is also provided. In summary, mindfulness positively influences wisdom through perspective taking and social mindfulness, thereby suggesting an indirect path from mindfulness to wisdom.