摘要：Technology assessment is a systematic examination of the effects on or of new developments such as technologies, processes, policies, organizations, and so on. In this paper, we present a systematic method for technology assessment, as a part of the suite of tools for Forecasting Innovation Pathways (FIP). We explore means to combine tech mining tools with human intelligence in several idea exchange rounds to uncover potential secondary effects, and array them in terms of likelihood and magnitude. Big Data is studied as the case study. This is on-going research. We are currently on the 2nd round of stage 2. Technology assessment is a necessary component of FIP. It identifies areas in which significant impacts may occur, their likelihood, and their significance. The forecaster must evaluate these impacts, consider measures to enhance or inhibit them, and factor them into the planning process for developing the technology.
摘要：CD1, as the third family of antigen-presenting molecules, is previously only found in mammals and chickens, which suggests that the chicken and mammalian CD1 shared a common ancestral gene emerging at least 310 million years ago. Here, we describe CD1 genes in the green anole lizard and Crocodylia, demonstrating that CD1 is ubiquitous in mammals, birds, and reptiles. Although the reptilian CD1 protein structures are predicted to be similar to human CD1d and chicken CD1.1, CD1 isotypes are not found to be orthologous between mammals, birds, and reptiles according to phylogenetic analyses, suggesting an independent diversification of CD1 isotypes during the speciation of mammals, birds, and reptiles. In the green anole lizard, although the single CD1 locus and MHC I gene are located on the same chromosome, there is an approximately 10-Mb-long sequence in between, and interestingly, several genes flanking the CD1 locus belong to the MHC paralogous region on human chromosome 19. The CD1 genes in Crocodylia are located in two loci, respectively linked to the MHC region and MHC paralogous region (corresponding to the MHC paralogous region on chromosome 19). These results provide new insights for studying the origin and evolution of CD1.