摘要：Depression is theoretically associated with poor social functioning and social impairments, but empirical evidence for poor trust or cooperative behavior among depressed patients is scarce and severely under-researched. Based on a revised version of Trust Game, the present study aimed to clarify the equivocal relationships between depression, trust and altruistic cooperative behaviors, whilst taking into consideration of the potentially confounding effects of trait propensity to trust and locus of control. In the new version of Trust Game, each pairs of participant played the role of an investor and a trustee respectively. The investor player first receives an endowment of a given amount of money and decides how much he/she would like to invest. The invested endowment is then tripled and given to the trustee, played by the other participant who decides how much repayment he would like to return. This procedure is repeated for 10 rounds, trust behavior and altruistic cooperative behavior are then quantified as the averaged invested endowments and repayments, respectively. Results revealed that depressive symptoms negatively predicted invested endowments (i.e., the trust behavior) after the trait propensity to trust was controlled for, but a positive relationship between depressive symptoms and repayments (i.e., the altruistic cooperative behavior) was found, which was significantly moderated by the external locus of control. Specifically, in those with higher scores in externality, depressive symptoms actually resulted in a decrease (rather than an increase) in altruistic cooperation. This work, for the first time, clarified the relationships between depression and trust and altruistic cooperation by introducing trait factors such as propensity to trust and locus of controls, providing a new sight of exploring the effects of depressive symptoms on social functions.
摘要： We examined the relationship between supervisor-subordinate guanxi (SSG) and employee silence (ES), and the moderating role of self-regulatory focus (SRF) works on such relationship. With both three dimensions of SSG (deference to supervisor, personal-life inclusion, and affective attachment) and two kinds of SRF (promotion and prevention focus) controlled by scenarios, the results from a survey of 230 part-time MPA program students in Mainland China indicated that (1) ES is positively related to deference to supervisor, affective attachment, and to a lesser extent, personal-life inclusion, and (2) the moderating effect of SRF is significant for the relationships between each dimension of SSG and ES, and specifically, there is less possibility for promotive subordinate to be silent than those with prevention focus in the workplace. The implications of our findings are discussed and suggestions made for future studies.
摘要：Multisensory integration, which enhances the stimulus saliency at the early stage of processing hierarchy, is recently shown to produce a larger pupil size than its unisensory constituents. Theoretically, any modulation on pupil size ought to be associated with the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways that are sensitive to lights. But it remains poorly understood how pupillary light reflex is changed in a multisensory context. The present study evoked an oscillation of pupillary light reflex by periodically changing the luminance of a visual stimulus at 1.25 Hz. It was found that such induced pupil oscillation was substantially attenuated when the bright but not the dark phase of the visual flicker was periodically and synchronously presented with a burst of tones. This inhibition effect persisted when the visual flicker was task-irrelevant and out of attentional focus, but disappeared when the visual flicker was moved from the central field to the periphery. These findings not only offer a comprehensive characterization of the multisensory impact on pupil response to lightness, but also provide valuable clues to the individual contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to multisensory modulation of pupil size.
摘要： One’s propensity to trust others and others’ trustworthiness are two important aspects of interpersonal trust. Both theory and research suggest that it is possible to distinguish between an individual’s propensity to trust (one’s ‘trustingness’ or the extent to which one feels able to trust others) and their other-focused trust (the extent to which one feels that others are worthy of our trust). However, there is as yet no measure that distinguishes between these two components of trust. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of a proposed two-dimensional measure of trust that encompasses propensity to trust and other-focused trust components. To test discriminant validity, we also administered measures of personality, personal self-esteem, social capital, propensity to like people, perceived social support, as well as general and personal beliefs in a just world. Factor analyses supported the proposed two-factor model for the new trust measure. Further analyses supported the difference between these measures.
摘要：Although extensive research has shown the benefits of meditation on attention, evidence for the benefits of short-term meditation training remains scarce. In addition, prior studies on these benefits have included considerably more females than males, potentially concealing gender differences in attention training effects. Here we present a longitudinal study including equal-sample male and female participants to explore potential gender differences in short-term meditation training effects on an attentional blink (AB) task. One hundred and sixty-five college students were randomly divided into three groups: meditation training, video game training and control (no training). Participants were asked to complete the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and to rate their level of emotional state and time spent on video game playing per day. Participants then completed a 4-day, 20-min training including meditation training, video game training, or a waiting period (control). After training, participants rated their arousal state and emotional state, and performed the AB task. Results showed that participants who completed either short-term meditation training or video game training showed significant improvement on AB performance. Interestingly, meditation training was more effective in females, while video game training was more effective in males. Meditation training, but not video game training, decreased anxiety scores. The current results indicate that gender plays an important role in the benefits of attention training. It is essential that clinicians take gender into consideration when implementing meditation based therapy.