摘要：Flood and drought are the two most prevalent abiotic stresses causing major yield reduction globally. In the last decade, molecular mechanisms of flood tolerance in rice have been revealed with successful release of flash flood-tolerant varieties to farmers. However, despite extensive research, the breakthrough of drought tolerance is still to come. In this review, we have examined the distribution and population types of drought-and flood-tolerant rice accessions, synthesized recent progresses of flood and drought tolerance research, and proposed a hypothesis that the molecular mechanisms of both drought and flood tolerance may be regulated by cross-talked pathways and coexist in aus subpopulation.We conclude that it is the time to mine the key regulator(s) of drought tolerance through de novo assembly of drought-tolerant aus landrace(s) with other molecular approaches and develop drought-tolerant rice using genome manipulation weaponry.
摘要：S.S.Z. performed the research with the help of L.S., X.D. and S.J.L. W.T. supervised the bioinformatics analysis. S.S.Z. and J.X.L. designed the experiment, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.
摘要：The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) will begin its early-science operations during 2016. Drift-scan pulsar surveys will be carried out during this period using an ultra-wide-band receiver system (covering ∼ 270 to 1620 MHz). We describe a method for accounting for the changes in the telescope beam shape and the pulsar parameters when searching for pulsars over such a wide bandwidth. We applied this method to simulated data sets of pulsars in globular clusters that are visible to FAST and found that a representative observation would have a sensitivity of ∼ 40 µJy. Our results showed that a single drift-scan (lasting less than a minute) is likely to find at least one pulsar for observations of four globular clusters. Repeated observations will increase the likely number of detections. We found that pulsars in ∼16 clusters are likely to be found if the data from 100 drift-scan observations of each cluster are incoherently combined.
摘要：For CM elliptic curve over rational field with analytic rank one, for any potential good ordinary prime p, not dividing the number of roots of unity in the complex multiplication field, we show the p-part of its Shafarevich-Tate group has order predicted by the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.
摘要：Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is ubiquitous for photosynthesis and fluorescent sensor design. However, genetically coded PET sensors are underdeveloped, due to the lack of methods to site-specifically install PET probes on proteins. Here we describe a family of acid and Mn(III) turn-on fluorescent protein (FP) sensors, named iLovU, based on PET and the genetic incorporation of superior PET quenchers in the fluorescent flavoprotein iLov. Using the iLovU PET sensors, we monitored the cytoplasmic acidification process, and achieved Mn(III) fluorescence sensing for the first time. The iLovU sensors should be applicable for studying pH changes in living cells, monitoring biogentic Mn(III) in the environment, and screening for efficient manganese peroxidase, which is highly desirable for lignin degradation and biomass conversion. Our work establishes a platform for many more protein PET sensors, facilitates the de novo design of metalloenzymes harboring redox active residues, and expands our ability to probe protein conformational dynamics.
摘要：In designing large-sized volume type phased array coils for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields, e.g., 7T, minimizing electromagnetic coupling among array elements is technically challenging. A new decoupling method based on induced current compensation or elimination (ICE) for a microstrip line planar array has recently been proposed. In this study, an eight-channel transmit/receive volume array with ICE-decoupled loop elements was built and investigated to demonstrate its feasibility and robustness for human head imaging at 7T. Isolation between adjacent loop elements was better than - 25 dB with a human head load. The worst-case of the isolation between all of the elements was about - 17.5 dB. All of the MRI experiments were performed on a 7T whole-body human MR scanner. Images of the phantom and human head were acquired and g-factor maps were measured and calculated to evaluate the performance of the coil array. Compared with the conventional capacitively decoupled array, the ICE-decoupled array demonstrated improved parallel imaging ability and had a higher SNR. The experimental results indicate that the transceiver array design with ICE decoupling technique might be a promising solution to designing high performance transmit/receive coil arrays for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields.
摘要：Herein, a nontoxic nanocomposite is synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a cationic polymer displaying strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection. These nanocomposites with a large concentration of positive charge promote their adsorption to bacterial membranes through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the synthesized nanocomposites with polyvalent and synergistic antimicrobial effects can effectively kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance. Morphological changes obtained by transmission electron microscope observation show that these nanocomposites can cause leakage and chaos of intracellular contents. Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism confirms that the lethal action of nanocomposites against the bacteria started with disruption of the bacterial membrane, subsequent cellular internalization of the nanopartides, and inhibition of intracellular enzymatic activity. This novel antimicrobial material with good cytocompatibility promotes healing of infected wounds in diabetic rats, and has a promising future in the treatment of other infectious diseases.
摘要：Crowding, the identification difficulty for a target in the presence of nearby flankers, is ubiquitous in spatial vision and is considered a bottleneck of object recognition and visual awareness. Despite its significance, the neural mechanisms of crowding are still unclear. Here, we performed event-related potential and fMRI experiments to measure the cortical interaction between the target and flankers in human subjects. We found that the magnitude of the crowding effect was closely associated with an early suppressive cortical interaction. The cortical suppression was reflected in the earliest event-related potential component (C1), which originated in V1, and in the BOLD signal in V1, but not other higher cortical areas. Intriguingly, spatial attention played a critical role in the manifestation of the suppression. These findings provide direct and converging evidence that attention-dependent V1 suppression contributes to crowding at a very early stage of visual processing.
摘要：Autotransporters deliver virulence factors to the bacterial surface by translocating an effector passenger domain through a membrane-anchored barrel structure. Although passenger domains are diverse, those found in enteric bacteria autotransporters, including AIDA-I in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) and TibA in enterotoxigenic E. coli, are commonly glycosylated. We show that AIDA-I is heptosylated within the bacterial cytoplasm by autotransporter adhesin heptosyltransferase (AAH) and its paralogue AAH2. AIDA-I heptosylation determines DAEC adhesion to host cells. AAH/AAH2 define a bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family that contains ferric ion and adopts a dodecamer assembly. Structural analyses of the heptosylated TibA passenger domain reveal 35 heptose conjugates forming patterned and solenoid-like arrays on the surface of a beta helix. Additionally, CARC, the AIDA-like autotransporter from Citrobacter rodentium, is essential for colonization in mice and requires heptosylation by its cognate BAHT. Our study establishes a bacterial glycosylation system that regulates virulence and is essential for pathogenesis.
摘要：Autophagosome formation is promoted by the PI3 kinase complex and negatively regulated by myotubularin phosphatases, indicating that regulation of local phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) levels is important for this early phase of autophagy. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans myotubularin phosphatase MTM-3 catalyzes PtdIns3P turnover late in autophagy. MTM-3 acts downstream of the ATG-2/EPG-6 complex and upstream of EPG-5 to promote autophagosome maturation into autolysosomes. MTM-3 is recruited to autophagosomes by PtdIns3P, and loss of MTM-3 causes increased autophagic association of ATG-18 in a PtdIns3P-dependent manner. Our data reveal critical roles of PtdIns3P turnover in autophagosome maturation and/or autolysosome formation.
摘要：A novel amphiphilic homopolymer (PAGC(8)), containing two hydrophilic head groups and double hydrophobic tails in each repeat unit, has been prepared by solution polymerization and named as "a geminized amphiphilic homopolymer" in this paper, which is capable of self-assembling into various nanoobjects depending on the solution concentration and solvent properties. Characterization of the self-assembly behaviors was carried out by steady-state fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Particular emphasis was dedicated to the environmental responsiveness of the assemblies. The morphologies were observed to transform from micelle-type to vesicles on adding a certain amount of ethanol. It is noteworthy that the assemblies were able to trap hydrophilic (rhodamine B) and hydrophobic (Sudan Red) molecules. Subsequently different nanoobjects were found after the encapsulation. To probe the effect of the topological structure on the self-assembly behaviors, the properties of an additional homopolymer with single charge pendant architecture on the backbone were investigated for comparison. Significant differences in structure between the two architectures brought out remarkable variations in aggregates, which were non-responsive to the solvent environment, or encapsulation of molecules. Based on the experimental results, we proposed a possible mechanism of the morphological transitions of the assemblies.
摘要：A method for site-specific and high yield modification of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMVCP) utilizing a genetic code expanding technology and copper free cycloaddition reaction has been established, and biotin-functionalized virus-like particles were built by the self-assembly of the protein monomers.
摘要：We calculate the O(alpha(cw)M(t)(2)/M-W(2)) supersymmetric (SUSY) electroweak corrections to single top quark production via
摘要：The O(alpha m(t)(2)/m(w)(2)) Yukawa corrections to top quark pair production in photon-photon collisions ate calculated in the standard model (SM), the general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM), as well as the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM). We found that the correction to the cross section can only reach a few percent in the SM, but can be quite significant (> 10%) in the 2HDM and MSSM for favorable parameter values, which may be observable at high energy e(+)e(-) colliders.
摘要：We calculate the one-loop QCD corrections to t-->(t) over tilde(1)<(chi)over tilde>(0)(j) using the dimensional reduction scheme, including QCD and supersymmetric QCD corrections. The analytic expressions for the corrections to the decay width are given, which can easily be extended to t--><(chi)over tilde>(+)(j)(b) over tilde(i). The numerical results show that the correction amounts to more than a 10% reduction in the partial width relative to the tree level result. We also compare the corrections in the no-mixing top squark case with those in the mixing top squark case.
摘要：This talk is a review of the recent studies on probing new physics through single top quark processes and probing exotic top quark decays at the upgraded Tevatron.
摘要：We evaluate the supersymmetric QCD corrections to single top quark production via q (q) over bar'-->t (b) over bar at the Fermilab Tevatron in the minimal supersymmetric model. We find that within the allowed range of squark and gluino masses the supersymmetric QCD corrections can enhance the cross section by a few percent. The combined effects of SUSY QCD, SUSY EW, and the Yukawa couplings can exceed 10% for the smallest allowed tan beta(similar or equal to 0.25) but are only a few percent for tan beta>1.
摘要：We discuss single top quark production via u(i) (d) over bar(j)-->t (b) over bar at the Fermilab Tevatron in the minimal supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. We find that within the allowed range of coupling constants, the lepton-number-violating couplings can give rise to observable effects when the slepton mass lies in a specific narrow range. For the baryon number-violating couplings, the contribution to the production rate can be quite large in the presently allowed range of the coupling constants. We show that the measurement of single top quark production at the upgraded Tevatron can be used to constrain a linear combination of products of the R-parity-violating couplings.
摘要：We list all possible dimension-six CP-violating SUc(3) x SUL(2) x U-Y(1)-invariant operators involving the third-family quarks, which can be generated by new physics at a higher energy scale. The expressions of these operators after electroweak symmetry breaking and the induced effective couplings Wt (b) over bar,Xb (b) over bar, and Xt (t) over bar (X = Z,gamma,g,H) are also presented. We evaluate sample contributions of these operators to CP-odd asymmetries of transverse polarization of the top quark in single top quark production at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron, the same polarization effect in top-quark-top-antiquark pair production at the NLC, and the CP-odd observables of momentum correlations among the top quark decay products at the NLC. The energy and luminosity sensitivity in probing this CP-violating new physics is also studied.