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1. chinaXiv:202112.00044 [pdf]

突发事件中民众责任归因的心理需求与应对

解晓娜; 张跃; 郭永玉
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

突发事件发生后,通过责任归因对事件原因和责任归属进行推断是民众心理活动的重要特征之一。从民众心理需要来看,突发事件带来的不确定感驱使个体寻找事件的解释来实现认知闭合,控制感的不足则会让个体更加强调外部世界的秩序性,这两种需要也是事件中阴谋论传播和替罪羊效应的心理基础。相应地,在事件中负有责任的组织主体,也应当基于民众的心理需要采取适当的应对策略,来重塑组织形象和民众的信任,避免责任规避带来的负面效应。未来研究可以进一步从心理学视角出发补充整合性的实证证据,对突发事件的不同类型进行区分,关注责任归因与其他社会心理学变量之间的联系,以及探索适合中国社会的有效应对措施。

submitted time 2021-12-08 Hits8Downloads3 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202112.00042 [pdf]

正念在缓解社会排斥中的作用

陈婧; 王玉正; 王锦琰; 罗非
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

从三个角度(被排斥者,排斥者和旁观者)三个时间点(排斥发生前中后)出发,正念是否、何时以及如何在社会排斥情境中发挥作用这一系列问题被详细论述,并概述为一个正念和排斥相关的模型。该模型表明,排斥发生前,正念能够缓解被排斥者的拒绝敏感性;减少排斥者的排斥行为;排斥发生后,正念能够缓解被排斥者的痛苦,有助于旁观者的助人行为;排斥发生时,正念可能促进良好沟通,减少排斥恶化的可能性。未来研究可以针对正念在社会排斥中效益发生的机制以及边界条件方面进行深入的探讨。

submitted time 2021-12-07 Hits22Downloads11 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202112.00043 [pdf]

时间感知在跨期决策中的作用—时间决策模型的新探索

毕翠华; 齐怀远
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

“时间”是跨期决策的“必需品”,人们感知到的延迟时间决定跨期决策的结果。近年来,研究者发现“时间长度感知”、“时间资源感知”和“时间框架感知”是时间感知作用于跨期决策的主要方式。时间感知的神经作用机制包含微观层面和宏观层面两种。“对数/指数时间折扣模型”、“感知时间基础模型”及“多模态漂移扩散模型”解释了时间感知的作用方式。然而,现有理论模型还存在诸多局限,主要体现为“长短时距预测偏差”和“实际决策与预期决策偏差”两个方面。因此,深入探讨时间感知影响跨期决策的基本方式,分析现有理论模型的局限性并提出整合的机制框架具有十分重要的意义。未来研究亟需进一步整合时间感知的理论模型,开展脑机制与应用方面的研究,从深层揭露时间感知的作用本质,帮助个人与社会更理性地决策。

submitted time 2021-12-07 Hits22Downloads15 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202112.00041 [pdf]

视觉形状知觉在近似数量系统和计算流畅性关系中的作用

张译允; 马媛媛; 赵锦; 周新林; 邵园颖
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

已有大量研究揭示了近似数量系统与计算流畅性的相关关系,但缺少对二者关系原因的系统检验与论证。视觉形状知觉假设有别于传统的数量领域特异性解释,认为对形状的快速知觉是近似数量系统与计算流畅性的共同认知机制,即视觉形状的快速知觉能力可以解释二者之间的相关关系。近似数量系统和计算流畅性在加工过程中依赖对形状的快速知觉,二者在加工过程中都涉及了复杂视觉刺激的快速处理。视觉形状知觉假设得到了一系列研究结果的支持,但局限在视觉形状知觉与二者关系的探讨上,视觉形状知觉在二者关系中作用的加工机制仍不清楚。未来研究需要结合多种研究方法和技术,多角度深入探讨视觉形状知觉在二者关系中作用的认知与脑机制,并将研究结果应用于数学课堂教学和计算困难的干预中。

submitted time 2021-12-06 Hits63Downloads34 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202112.00036 [pdf]

人们为什么会羞怯:认知机制及神经基础

李亮; 李红
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

羞怯指个体在社交情境下的抑制,是个体参与社交的阻碍。近年来,关于羞怯的认知神经科学研究增多,学者基于元认知模型、社会适应模型、侧化脑-体情绪模型等理论,探讨了大脑结构和功能以及几种与感知觉和注意相关的ERP成分与羞怯的关系。但当前关于羞怯认知神经科学的理论和实证研究尚处于起步阶段。基于上述提出羞怯的心理发展模型;未来应从人格和情绪双角度研究羞怯,并在开发研究范式的基础上,加大羞怯认知神经机制的探讨。

submitted time 2021-12-05 Hits117Downloads47 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202112.00037 [pdf]

问题解决测验中过程数据的特征抽取与能力评估

韩雨婷; 肖悦; 刘红云
Subjects: Psychology >> Psychological Measurement

基于计算机的问题解决测验可以实时记录被试探索环境和解决问题时的详细行动痕迹,并保存为过程数据。首先介绍了过程数据的分析流程,然后从问题解决测验入手,分别对过程数据的特征抽取和能力估计建模两方面的研究进行了梳理和评价。未来研究应注意:提高分析结果的可解释性;特征提取时纳入更多信息;实现更复杂问题情景下的能力评估; 注重方法的实用性;以及融合与借鉴不同领域的分析方法。

submitted time 2021-12-04 Hits158Downloads87 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202112.00039 [pdf]

急性应激与风险决策:兴奋易感性的调节作用

王霈珊; 古若雷; 张亮
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

为探索应激对决策的作用机理及其个体差异,减少工程作业中因应激导致的决策失误,本研究采用特里尔社会应激测试和气球模拟风险任务考察应激反应与应激下风险倾向的关系,并探索兴奋易感性在其中的调节作用。研究结果表明,应激下个体的皮质醇反应越大,行为越冒险。且这一作用受到兴奋易感性的调节:兴奋易感性较高的个体,应激下皮质醇反应越大,行为越冒险;而兴奋易感性较低的个体,其皮质醇变化不能预测风险倾向。该发现提示了兴奋易感性在应激影响中的重要作用,也为高压岗位的人员选拔提供了科学启示。

submitted time 2021-12-04 Hits77Downloads39 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202112.00038 [pdf]

基于仿真气球冒险任务(BART)的风险决策研究

邓尧; 王梦梦; 饶恒毅
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

仿真气球冒险任务(The Balloon Analog Risk Task, BART)能在实验室环境下模拟真实世界的风险情境,具有高生态性,稳定性和可靠性等优点,已经成为风险决策研究的中最常用的实验范式之一。近年来,研究者发展了多种BART变体范式,对发展、健康以及精神病理等多领域的风险决策行为及其神经基础开展了广泛探索。BART任务中的风险决策加工与腹侧纹状体、前扣带皮层、脑岛、中脑及背外侧前额叶等脑区的激活相关。未来研究需要进一步完善BART任务在风险决策认知神经领域的信效度并扩展BART的应用情境。

submitted time 2021-12-03 Hits91Downloads42 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202112.00013 [pdf]

A new method of searching for concealed Au deposits by using the spectrum of arid desert plant species

CUI Shichao; ZHOU Kefa; ZHANG Guanbin; DING Rufu; WANG Jinlin; CHENG Yinyi; JIANG Guo
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

With the increase of exploration depth, it is more and more difficult to find Au deposits. Due to the limitation of time and cost, traditional geological exploration methods are becoming increasingly difficult to be effectively applied. Thus, new methods and ideas are urgently needed. This study assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of using hyperspectral technology to prospect for hidden Au deposits. For this purpose, 48 plant (Seriphidium terrae-albae) and soil (aeolian gravel desert soil) samples were first collected along a sampling line that traverses an Au mineralization alteration zone (Aketasi mining region in an arid region of China) and were used to obtain soil Au contents by a chemical analysis method and the reflectance spectra of plants obtained with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) FieldSpec3 spectrometer. Then, the corresponding relationship between the soil Au content anomaly and concealed Au deposits was investigated. Additionally, the characteristic bands were selected from plant spectra using four different methods, namely, genetic algorithm (GA), stepwise regression analysis (STE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and correlation coefficient method (CC), and were then input into the partial least squares (PLS) method to construct a model for estimating the soil Au content. Finally, the quantitative relationship between the soil Au content and the 15 different plant transformation spectra was established using the PLS method. The results were compared with those of a model based on the full spectrum. The results obtained in this study indicate that the location of concealed Au deposits can be predicted based on soil geochemical anomaly information, and it is feasible and effective to use the full plant spectrum and PLS method to estimate the Au content in the soil. The cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2) and the ratio of the performance to deviation (RPD) between the predicted value and the measured value reached the maximum of 0.8218 and 2.37, respectively, with a minimum value of 6.56 μg/kg for the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) in the full spectrum model. However, in the process of modeling, it is crucial to select the appropriate transformation spectrum as the input parameter for the PLS method. Compared with the GA, STE, and CC methods, CARS was the superior characteristic band screening method based on the accuracy and complexity of the model. When modeling with characteristic bands, the highest accuracy, R2 of 0.8016, RMSE of 7.07 μg/kg, and RPD of 2.20 were obtained when 56 characteristic bands were selected from the transformed spectra (1/lnR)' (where it represents the first derivative of the reciprocal of the logarithmic spectrum) of sampled plants using the CARS method and were input into the PLS method to construct an inversion model of the Au content in the soil. Thus, characteristic bands can replace the full spectrum when constructing a model for estimating the soil Au content. Finally, this study proposes a method of using plant spectra to find concealed Au deposits, which may have promising application prospects because of its simplicity and rapidity.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits111Downloads50 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202112.00014 [pdf]

Elevated CO2 increases shoot growth but not root growth and C:N:P stoichiometry of Suaeda aralocaspica plants

WANG Lei; FAN Lianlian; JIANG Li; TIAN Changyan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the eco-physiological responses, in terms of growth and C:N:P stoichiometry of plants cultured from dimorphic seeds of a single-cell C4 annual Suaeda aralocaspica (Bunge) Freitag and Schütze under elevated CO2. A climatic chamber experiment was conducted to examine the effects of ambient (720 μg/L) and CO2-enriched (1440 μg/L) treatments on these responses in S. aralocaspica at vegetative and reproductive stages in 2012. Result showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased shoot dry weight, but decreased N:P ratio at both growth stages. Plants grown from dimorphic seeds did not exhibit significant differences in growth and C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics. The transition from vegetation to reproductive stage significantly increased shoot:root ratio, N and P contents, but decreased C:N, C:P and N:P ratios, and did not affect shoot dry weight. Moreover, our results indicate that the changes in N:P and C:N ratios between ambient and elevated CO2 are mainly caused by the decrease of N content under elevated CO2. These results provide an insight into nutritional metabolism of single-cell C4 plants under climate change.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits123Downloads65 Comment 0

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