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1. chinaXiv:202102.00086 [pdf]

自身得失对朋友博弈结果评价的影响:来自ERPs的证据

岳童; 黄希庭; 岳彩镇; 薛黎明; 傅安国
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

本研究通过经典的金钱博弈任务,以FRN和P300为反应指标,探讨了自身获益或损失对朋友结果评价分别会产生何种影响,以及这种影响模式是如何受到个体自我建构方式调节的。结果发现,在自身获益条件下,观看朋友损益之间的FRN和P300差异不再存在;在自身损失条件下,虽然观看朋友输赢之间的P300差异消失了,但FRN差异依然显著。不仅如此,无论自身得失,独立型自我建构启动组在观看朋友损益上的FRN差异均不再显著,但在自身获益后看到朋友损失能激发更强的P300波幅。本研究结果表明:(1) 对朋友的结果评价模式并非固定不变,而是会随个体自身所处得失境遇的不同而有所区别;(2) 相对于互依型自我建构启动组,独立型自我建构启动组在面对朋友的得失时表现得更为冷漠并更具竞争性。

submitted time 2021-02-26 Hits87Downloads64 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201904.00075 [pdf]

A new approach to characterize the violation of Lorentz invariance

胡锦文
Subjects: Physics >> Geophysics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics

本文引入了一个参量n来表征不同惯性系间光速的变化。为了满足众所周知的基本原理,又不违背一些可靠的实验结果,我们应该对n施加一些必要的约束。首先,重要的是,n的引入应该符合以下三个原则:(1)我们可以用一个规定的时钟同步来定义整个空间中的时间;(2)时间是均匀的,空间是各向同性的;(3)所有的惯性系统都是等价的,这是对狭义相对论(SR)思想的继承。在n的一些约束条件下,我们构造了一个满足惯性系对称性的一般坐标变换。近年来,许多理论都表现出对超高能量尺度下洛伦兹不变性的破坏的兴趣,例如量子引力,它暗示粒子的能量有一个有限值(称为普朗克能量),而不是从洛伦兹模型导出的无限值。因此我们构造一个n的表达式来描述洛伦兹模型的违逆。进一步,通过与著名的彩虹模型比较,我们发现本文推导的“最大能量”与彩虹模型假设的“最大能量”有一定的关系。

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits13063Downloads524 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202102.00083 [pdf]

试次历史对跨通道非空间返回抑制的影响

张明; 桑汉斌; 鲁柯; 王爱君
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

个体对刺激的反应不仅受刺激本身的影响,还会受到先前刺激的影响,表现为对当前试次中刺激的反应会受到前一试次的影响,即试次历史。本研究采用“线索-中性线索-靶子”范式探讨前一试次有效性对跨通道的非空间返回抑制的影响。实验1通过连续两个试次间的线索有效性考察在跨通道非空间返回抑制中试次历史的影响。为了在跨通道非空间返回抑制中减小试次历史的影响,实验2通过延长试次间时间间隔考察跨通道非空间返回抑制中试次历史的作用是否减小。结果发现,前一试次线索无效时,当前试次中的返回抑制效应量显著小于前一试次有效时,这种影响会根据试次中线索和靶子通道的不同而不同。并且当延长试次间的时间间隔可以有效地减少前一试次对当前试次的影响。因此本研究表明,试次历史能够对跨通道非空间返回抑制产生影响,并且这种影响可以通过增大试次间时间间隔来减小

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits65Downloads34 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202102.00085 [pdf]

An electrophysiological investigation of the temporal asynchrony effect on character-speech sound integration in Chinese typically developing children and children with dyslexia

Du, Yingchun; Li, Yizhen; Qin, Li; Bi, Hongyan
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

The neural mechanism of orthographic-phonological integration was influenced by the temporal relationship of cross-modal stimuli. However, previous studies mainly investigated the neural mechanism of letter-speech sound integration in precise temporal synchrony or small temporal asynchrony conditions. In this study, character-speech sound integration was investigated in a relatively wide temporal window. Chinese characters were presented synchronously to the onset of speech sounds or before speech sound by 300 or 600 ms (referred as AV0, AV300 and AV600). ERP responses evoked by congruent condition (speech sounds were paired with congruent visual characters) and baseline condition (speech sounds were paired with Korean characters) were compared. Different electrophysiological markers were found in the temporal synchrony and temporal asynchrony conditions. In the AV0 condition, developing dyslexia (DD) and typically developing (TD) children showed similar congruency effect on P1, N170 and N300 components, demonstrating the influence of speech sound on visual character processing. In the AV300 condition, DD group showed left-lateralized congruency effect on N200, whereas TD children showed bilateral congruency effect on N200. Both groups showed bilateral congruency effect on N200 in the AV600 condition. We speculate that the insufficient character-speech sound integration exhibited by dyslexic children in the AV300 condition was probably caused by their slow visual processing speed. The results provide unique insight into the neural mechanism of print-speech integration in a wide temporal window and point out the necessity to investigate neural mechanism of print-speech integration in a relatively wide temporal window.

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits62Downloads29 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202102.00080 [pdf]

Development of X-ray spectrometer automatic adjustment system based on global optimization algorithm

Fei Zhan
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

In high energy resolution X-ray spectroscopy beamlines of synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and laboratory XAS/XES spectrometer, it is important to keep X-ray spectrometer operating in optimal conditions. The adjusting process is normally very time consuming due to the irregular light source beam point, and it is difficult to get global optimum. This study aims to develop an intelligent adjusting system based on global optimization algorithm for spectrometers on SR beamlines and on laboratory x-ray source. First of all, based on the two dimensional experimental data, automatic adjustment process was established. Then the automatic optimization was applied to adjust X-ray spectrometer practically, and upgraded iteratively. The online testing is carried out on a self-developed laboratory XAS spectrometer. Online tests results show that this automatic adjustment process converges to the optimal solution quickly, and the convergence time is about several dozens to hundreds steps, more efficient than manual optimization process. After automatic adjustment, we can get correct X-ray absorption spectrum based on the adjusted spectrometer.

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits96Downloads43 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202102.00084 [pdf]

长期高策略性技能训练对运动员大脑白质结构的影响:一项DTI研究

祁亚鹏; 王怡萱; 朱桦; 周成林; 王莹莹
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

目前关于运动员经验优势的脑机制还存在争议,尤其对于涉及较多认知过程参与的高策略性技能项目运动员,其大脑白质结构可塑性变化还需进一步探究。研究横向对比了乒乓球运动员和非运动员大脑白质纤维束的弥散张量成像数据。结果发现,相比于非运动员,乒乓球运动员在连接背侧和腹侧通路脑区的双侧皮质脊髓束、左侧上纵束、左侧下纵束和双侧额枕下束的各向异性值(FA)更大,进一步分析发现,部分腹侧通路白质纤维束FA增加的原因是径向扩散系数(RD)下降。研究结果支持了动作双通路模型。提示经过长期高策略性技能训练,乒乓球运动员在背侧和腹侧通路上的白质纤维束结构完整性增强。

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits76Downloads43 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202102.00082 [pdf]

汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童视觉同时性加工技能子成分的发展及其与阅读的关系

李杰; 杨悦; 赵婧
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

通过分别以高频汉字(实验1)和图形非言语材料(实验2)为刺激的两个联合视觉注意任务,并采用基于Budensen视觉注意理论的参数估计方法,系统地探查小学三~六年级汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的视觉同时性加工技能缺陷的内在机制。以43名汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童和46名生理年龄匹配典型发展儿童为被试,每类被试均被分为小学中年级组(三、四年级)和高年级组(五、六年级)。两个实验均发现不同年级组的阅读障碍儿童在知觉加工速度参数上显著小于控制组儿童。在空间注意分布权重参数上,实验1的结果显示,不同于控制组儿童向左侧化发展的注意分布模式,两个年级组的阅读障碍儿童均表现为无偏的注意分布;而实验2未发现显著组别差异。且这两种同时性加工子技能分别与不同水平的汉语阅读技能密切相关。结果表明,汉语阅读障碍儿童在同时加工多个视觉刺激时存在持续的知觉加工速度缓慢的问题,在同时加工言语类刺激时还表现出异常的空间注意分布模式。本研究有助于从基础认知层面揭示汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的缺陷机理,为进一步设计相关的提高阅读效率的干预方案提供理论依据。

submitted time 2021-02-25 Hits148Downloads80 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202102.00079 [pdf]

均等分区问题模型、算法及应用

孔云峰
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

分区问题广泛应用于地理、经济、政治、商业、公共服务等领域。均等分区问题是其中一类问题,通常要求分区人口数量或任务量均等、几何形状紧凑和空间连续,应用于选区、销售区和巡逻区的划分。本文针对均等分区问题提出了一个混合整型线性规划模型,并设计了一个基于迭代局部搜索(ILS)的混合算法。该算法从三个方面扩展ILS:群解搜索、VND搜索及SPP模型改进。选择5个区域对模型和算法进行测试,结果表明:数学模型能够求解空间单元数量为324的案例;混合算法优化性能优异,鲁棒性强,计算效率较高。所提出的均等分区问题适用于政治分区等经典问题,在新冠疫情应急服务等领域也具有应用潜力。

submitted time 2021-02-24 Hits169Downloads69 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202102.00078 [pdf]

跨期决策中的负折扣现象及其机制

孙红月; 鲁盼; 蒋元萍
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

主流跨期决策模型认为,跨期决策存在一个时间折扣过程。时间折扣是指人们会根据将来获益或损失的延迟时间对其效用进行折扣,折扣后的效用小于原来的效用,而负折扣现象违背了时间折扣过程。负折扣现象出现在金钱、非金钱的获益与损失领域,其可能的解释机制为预期情绪。目前关于负折扣现象的研究,较少验证其影响机制,未来的研究可以结合眼动追踪和fMRI技术探讨其机制,并丰富对负折扣现象的影响因素研究。

submitted time 2021-02-22 Hits196Downloads101 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202102.00081 [pdf]

黄河流域生态系统质量和稳定性研究(1980-2019)

张金良; 曹智伟; 谭培影; 张超; 郭鹏程; 金鑫
Subjects: Hydraulic Engineering >> Basic Disciplines of Hydraulic Engineering

质量与稳定性是生态系统基本特征,综合反映了生态系统结构、过程、功能完整性和抵抗干扰、自我调节、动态平衡的能力。黄河流域是一个由众多元素构成的复杂巨系统,流域生态系统治理保护工作受到越来越多的关注,需要从生态系统整体性出发,统筹考虑、综合施策,提高生态系统质量和稳定性,促进生态系统良性循环,因而系统质量和稳定性的定量描述至关重要。本文利用熵权模型,建立多指标长时间序列的生态系统质量评价指数(EQI)定量描述黄河流域40年来的生态质量变化;同时,利用耗散结构理论和布鲁塞尔器模型建立生态系统稳态转化的量化指标和方法,为黄河流域生态系统稳态转化研究提供思路。研究发现:(1)黄河流域生态系统40年EQI值平均为0.64,最大值为0.70,最小值为0.59,总体质量呈现震荡式向好趋势;(2)多年系统稳态转换动力值均小于0,表明黄河流域生态-人类社会耦合系统的稳态转换力较低,但整体呈现震荡式上升趋势,整体趋势与达到稳态转换的临界条件越来越近。

submitted time 2021-02-22 Hits139Downloads74 Comment 0

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