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1. chinaXiv:202101.00059 [pdf]

Coping With Coronavirus Pandemic: Risk Perception Predicts Life Optimism

Kailin Cheng; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: Given that the coronavirus pandemic has become a severe concern around the world, how can optimism be maintained in an outbreak of a collective epidemic? We proposed that perceived control and negative affect could be potential explanatory factors for optimism in the face of pandemic. Methods & Results: In Study 1, a large-scale (N = 599) cross-sectional design (N = 599) showed the effect of risk perception on life optimism and the serial mediating effect of “perceived control–negative affect” through structural equation modeling. Then, Study 2 (N = 191) ascertained the causality between risk perception for epidemic and life optimism with experimental manipulations. Finally, Study 3 (N = 186) controlled for extrinsic variables and further revealed that the effect of risk perception on optimism could be extended to overall subjective well-being. Conclusions: Together, these findings indicated that under influenza epidemic, risk perception could make a difference in life optimism. Moreover, perceived control and negative affect were notable contributing factors in the link. Measures strengthening the publicity and transparency of recovery rates should be taken to reduce public risk perceptions and promote life optimism.

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits8Downloads4 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00060 [pdf]

Haze Blocks the Windows to the Soul: The Role of Anonymity in the Unethical Effects of Air Pollution

Kailin CHENG; Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: Air pollution is a global concern with both health and psychological costs. Drawing upon the unethical impacts of air pollution, this paper proposes that haze could give rise to immoral tendencies through enhanced anonymity. Methods & Results: Big data analysis of daily web searches across a period of three years revealed that an increase in web searches for immoral words was associated with hazy days. Three subsequent experiments established the causal effects of psychologically experiencing haze or personally experiencing hazy days on immoral intentions and cheating behaviors. Moreover, these effects were mediated by perceived anonymity, intensified by the low visibility in haze. In support of deindividuation, masking, which could boost perceived anonymity, amplified the unethical effects of air pollution. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived anonymity was a key psychological process underlying the unethical effects of haze. The findings of the study provide insights for researchers and policy makers to tackle the adverse effects of anonymity, especially on polluted days.

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits15Downloads5 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202101.00061 [pdf]

COVID-19 中稀缺对恐慌消费的影响:链式中介模型分析

马欣然; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

[目的] 研究旨在考察突发公共危机中稀缺对恐慌消费的影响及其心理路径和边界条件。 [方法] 研究一借助大数据使用客观产品反映稀缺的影响。研究二在疫情爆发期进行了高生态效度的全国性线上问卷调查。研究三在不同的突发公共危机情境中启动稀缺验证因果。 [结果] 稀缺可以正向预测和加剧恐慌消费(研究1-3),控制感和恐慌情绪在其中起链式中介作用(研究2-3),但这一模式更适用于高风险的突发公共危机事件(研究3a\3b\3c)。 [局限]控制感与恐慌情绪的链式中介效应不能解释低风险感知的突发公共危机中稀缺引起恐慌消费的心理路径,未来研究需继续探究。更为客观的稀缺和恐慌消费指标值得进一步发掘和考察。 [结论] 高风险性的突发公共危机中,稀缺会降低控制感,增加恐慌情绪,最终引起恐慌消费。

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits28Downloads14 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202101.00063 [pdf]

Psychopathy and Moral Decision Making: A Data Reanalysis Exploration

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous research found that people with higher level of psychopathy trait would endorse more to the harmful but beneficial action in traditional moral dilemmas. Three possibilities for this effect were confounded: People with higher psychopathy trait, 1) care more about the beneficial consequences; 2) care less about the “no harm” norms; 3) just prefer action irrespective of consequences and norms. A multinomial processing tree model named “CNI” was developed and claimed to dissociated these three possibilities. Four studies have applied CNI model to study the psychopathy-moral decision relationship. However, the CNI model presupposes the agent sequentially processes consequences-norms-generalized inaction/action preferences, which makes the estimated parameters biased and untenable. More recently, an alternative algorithm named “CAN” was developed based on the same data structure to overcome the limitations of CNI model. We applied CAN algorithm and reanalyzed the raw data of the four studies on psychopathy-moral decision relationship. The results demonstrated that people with higher psychopathy trait have weaker consequences and norms sensitivities, stronger overall action preferences, stronger inaction/action preferences irrespective of norms and consequences, and weaker moral principles obedience. Furthermore, the mediation and moderation reanalysis explorations demonstrated that instrumental harm and moral identity partly mediate the psychopathy-moral decision relationship and that perceived societal standards rather than personal standards when making moral decisions can alleviate the positive effects of psychopathy on overall action preference and action preference irrespective of norms and consequences. Present reanalysis exploration study clarified and deepened our insights on the relationship between psychopathy and moral decisions. Theoretical and methodological implications were also discussed.

submitted time 2021-01-14 Hits28Downloads19 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202101.00044 [pdf]

姓名对个体心理与行为的实际影响:证据和理论

包寒吴霜; 蔡华俭
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

姓名不仅会影响他人的印象与评价,还可能会影响个体实际的心理与行为。近几十年来,心理学家在决策、成就、健康、人格四个领域开展了大量实证研究来考察姓氏或名字对个体的实际影响。姓名的多个维度(如独特性、性别倾向、含义效价、温暖–能力维度等)在不同程度上可以预测这些领域的心理与行为(包括职业决策/生活决策/经济决策、职业成就/学业成就、生理健康/心理健康/犯罪行为、人格特质/心理需要/面孔特征等)。但是,现有研究证据比较混杂,理论解释有待完善。未来研究应全面考虑姓名维度,重点解决可重复性、因果关系、心理机制、跨文化普遍性等问题,努力构建更系统、更包容的理论来解释姓名的心理与行为效应。

submitted time 2021-01-13 Hits603Downloads270 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202101.00001 [pdf]

中国集体主义文化下的一致性行动是如何达成的?责任意识动态模型的构建与检验

尹彬; 吴新宇; 安雪辉; 张秋婷; 杨珮琼; 和宜园; 马楠; 王馨曼
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

目的 基于新冠疫情爆发后中国民众可以短时间内戴上口罩这一现象,本研究探讨了中国集体主义文化下一致性行动的达成机制。 方法 通过逻辑整合前人研究及疫情期间民众戴口罩行为动机的全国性问卷调查结果,研究首先构建出集体主义文化下的责任意识理论模型,并提出了其随社会与组织情境变化而动态变化的可能性;而后研究采用问卷、访谈、主题统觉测验和实验的方法验证了集体主义文化下的责任意识模型及其动态变化的存在和原因,且推测该责任意识模型的不同形态会导致集体目标下不同水平的一致性行动,进而设计了情境启动的问卷实验。 结果 1、集体主义文化下的责任意识微观模型可以分为个体责任和互依责任两个部分:当互依责任占主导时,个体与集体中的他人形成元责任互依,构成责任意识的中观模型;集体中所有个体的元责任互依相互连结形成类似于“中国结”的宏观模型;2、由于自我构念组成随情境的变化引发了责任意识模型中个体责任和互依责任的强弱变化,责任意识的“中国结”模型呈现出随情境变化而产生的动态变化;3、问卷实验的结果说明了在集体目标的驱使下,与集体责任互依的个体的一致性行动倾向会显著增强。 局限 作为将中国本土心理学和西方文化心理学视角相结合进行理论建模和实证检验的初步探索,本研究离其最终目标“用世界通用的学术语言讲好中国故事”还有较长的路要走。 结论 中国集体主义文化下民众的责任意识可以用“中国结”来形象表征,且其由自我构念随情境变化而产生的不同形态会导致集体目标驱使下不同水平的一致性行动。

submitted time 2021-01-02 Hits409Downloads207 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202012.00065 [pdf]

性别化名字对个体印象评价及人际交往的影响

佐斌; 刘晨; 温芳芳; 谭潇; 谢志杰
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

名字在个体印象评价和人际交往中发挥着重要作用。本研究结合刻板印象内容模型,从刻板印象维护视角出发,通过三个研究考察了性别化名字的热情能力感知,基于此探究性别化名字对不同性别个体的印象评价及人际交往的影响。结果发现:(1)人们对男性化名字的能力评价高于女性化名字,对女性化名字的热情评价高于男性化名字;(2)性别化名字影响男性的能力评价和女性的热情评价;(3)性别化名字影响人们对女性的交友偏好,热情评价在其中起到完全中介作用;性别化名字影响人们和男性的共事偏好,能力评价起到完全中介作用。研究揭示了性别化名字影响印象评价的模式,并为理解人际交往中名字的作用机制提供了新的研究思路。

submitted time 2020-12-23 Hits310Downloads153 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202012.00061 [pdf]

疫苗安全恐慌的成因与应对

付春野; 吕小康; 刘洪志
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

疫苗安全恐慌是由疫苗负面报道或疫苗阴谋论引发的公众对疫苗接种安全性与有效性的普遍怀疑, 其后果是导致区域性甚至全球范围内的疫苗接种率或接种意愿的短期骤降。在个体对疫苗接种的感知必要性以及经验加工和要义提取的影响下, 前述信息会在传播过程中形成风险的社会放大。应对疫苗安全恐慌的心理学策略主要包括网络标记与纠正技术、信念接种、重建风险感知、满足信息需求和情绪诉求等, 但仍需进一步检验其生态效度。此外还需采取有效措施促进正面疫苗信息的社会分享以反制疫苗不实信息的影响。

submitted time 2020-12-18 Hits838Downloads316 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202005.00049 [pdf]

污名化对被污名个体人际互动的影响

张明; 穆妍; 章玉琪; 孔亚卓
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

污名是指个体所具有不受欢迎的特征,这种特征会导致个体在一定社会背景下被主流文化群体贴负性标签、贬低、侮辱而遭受到污名化。污名化对个体或群体本身会有消极影响,不仅会使个体遭受到来自他人的歧视、排斥或拒绝等这些直接作用于自身的外部影响,还会进一步消极影响被污名个体在人际互动中的表现和行为反应。被污名个体与主流文化群体之间的消极互动又会进一步加剧主流文化对被污名个体或群体的排斥,形成恶性循环。从被污名个体的角度出发,有助于更加深入地探讨污名化对被污名个体人际互动方面的影响以及被污名个体采取的应对方式。

submitted time 2020-12-04 Hits4846Downloads2121 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202011.00141 [pdf]

东西方文化下的真实自我研究:一种关系的视角

梁燕芳; 谢天
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

真实自我反映了个体行为与其价值观、信仰、需求等内在状态的一致性程度,分为特质真实与状态真实。在辨析了真实自我与自我认知、自我概念清晰性、自我一致性、正直、真诚等相关概念的异同,并梳理该领域已有理论后,提出真实自我表现或实现的文化差异,即西方文化中的真实自我是自主动机驱动的,而东方文化中的真实自我是关系要求驱动的。未来可以将“关系化”作为现象场,以儒家传统思想为理智资源,从理论建构、社会现象(新兴网络社交平台、社会变迁),以及结合具体的研究方法(如跨文化比较、突显情境变化的方法)等方面开展研究。

submitted time 2020-11-27 Hits465Downloads260 Comment 0

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