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1. chinaXiv:202101.00064 [pdf]

成员关系对协作提取成绩的影响

张环; 王欣; 刘一贝; 曹贤才; 吴捷
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

当人们与搭档组成社会群体一起协作讨论某些已经发生的事件或经验时,该社会群体中的成员关系对协作提取成绩的影响仍不明确。本研究通过两项实验,分别使用语词词单和情景故事作为实验材料,考察成员关系(关系类型和关系时长)对协作提取成绩的影响。研究结果表明,当记忆的材料为语词词单时,青年陌生组出现了协作抑制;而当记忆的材料为情景故事时,青年夫妻和老年夫妻组均出现了协作促进。此外,老年夫妻在协作提取情景故事的过程中使用的有效交流策略更多,且这些有效交流策略的使用与更高的协作提取成绩有关。该结果支持了具有长时亲密关系的老年夫妻之间“交互记忆系统”对协作促进的关键作用,为理解成员关系对协作提取成绩的影响提供了全面的证据。

submitted time 2021-01-18 Hits32Downloads14 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202011.00114 [pdf]

精神分析的主体间转向:理论特征与分歧

张巍; 郭本禹; 张磊
Subjects: Psychology >> History of Psychology

主体间理论是当代精神分析领域最重要的取向之一。与更传统的精神分析相比,其理论特征表现为从区分“内/外”空间到强调“之间”的空间、从“主体—客体”关系到“主体—主体”关系、从顿悟到行动、从基础主义和实证主义到诠释学和建构主义。尽管存在术语的混乱和观点的分歧,但精神分析的主体间转向几乎遍及各个流派,广泛影响了北美洲、欧洲和拉丁美洲的诸多分析师。未来的主体间理论需要保持开放的态度,持续与先前的理论、临床资料和其他学科领域对话。

submitted time 2021-01-18 Hits1361Downloads336 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202101.00059 [pdf]

Coping With Coronavirus Pandemic: Risk Perception Predicts Life Optimism

Kailin Cheng; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: Given that the coronavirus pandemic has become a severe concern around the world, how can optimism be maintained in an outbreak of a collective epidemic? We proposed that perceived control and negative affect could be potential explanatory factors for optimism in the face of pandemic. Methods & Results: In Study 1, a large-scale (N = 599) cross-sectional design (N = 599) showed the effect of risk perception on life optimism and the serial mediating effect of “perceived control–negative affect” through structural equation modeling. Then, Study 2 (N = 191) ascertained the causality between risk perception for epidemic and life optimism with experimental manipulations. Finally, Study 3 (N = 186) controlled for extrinsic variables and further revealed that the effect of risk perception on optimism could be extended to overall subjective well-being. Conclusions: Together, these findings indicated that under influenza epidemic, risk perception could make a difference in life optimism. Moreover, perceived control and negative affect were notable contributing factors in the link. Measures strengthening the publicity and transparency of recovery rates should be taken to reduce public risk perceptions and promote life optimism.

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits8Downloads4 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202101.00060 [pdf]

Haze Blocks the Windows to the Soul: The Role of Anonymity in the Unethical Effects of Air Pollution

Kailin CHENG; Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: Air pollution is a global concern with both health and psychological costs. Drawing upon the unethical impacts of air pollution, this paper proposes that haze could give rise to immoral tendencies through enhanced anonymity. Methods & Results: Big data analysis of daily web searches across a period of three years revealed that an increase in web searches for immoral words was associated with hazy days. Three subsequent experiments established the causal effects of psychologically experiencing haze or personally experiencing hazy days on immoral intentions and cheating behaviors. Moreover, these effects were mediated by perceived anonymity, intensified by the low visibility in haze. In support of deindividuation, masking, which could boost perceived anonymity, amplified the unethical effects of air pollution. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived anonymity was a key psychological process underlying the unethical effects of haze. The findings of the study provide insights for researchers and policy makers to tackle the adverse effects of anonymity, especially on polluted days.

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits15Downloads5 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202101.00061 [pdf]

COVID-19 中稀缺对恐慌消费的影响:链式中介模型分析

马欣然; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

[目的] 研究旨在考察突发公共危机中稀缺对恐慌消费的影响及其心理路径和边界条件。 [方法] 研究一借助大数据使用客观产品反映稀缺的影响。研究二在疫情爆发期进行了高生态效度的全国性线上问卷调查。研究三在不同的突发公共危机情境中启动稀缺验证因果。 [结果] 稀缺可以正向预测和加剧恐慌消费(研究1-3),控制感和恐慌情绪在其中起链式中介作用(研究2-3),但这一模式更适用于高风险的突发公共危机事件(研究3a\3b\3c)。 [局限]控制感与恐慌情绪的链式中介效应不能解释低风险感知的突发公共危机中稀缺引起恐慌消费的心理路径,未来研究需继续探究。更为客观的稀缺和恐慌消费指标值得进一步发掘和考察。 [结论] 高风险性的突发公共危机中,稀缺会降低控制感,增加恐慌情绪,最终引起恐慌消费。

submitted time 2021-01-15 Hits28Downloads14 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202101.00063 [pdf]

Psychopathy and Moral Decision Making: A Data Reanalysis Exploration

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Previous research found that people with higher level of psychopathy trait would endorse more to the harmful but beneficial action in traditional moral dilemmas. Three possibilities for this effect were confounded: People with higher psychopathy trait, 1) care more about the beneficial consequences; 2) care less about the “no harm” norms; 3) just prefer action irrespective of consequences and norms. A multinomial processing tree model named “CNI” was developed and claimed to dissociated these three possibilities. Four studies have applied CNI model to study the psychopathy-moral decision relationship. However, the CNI model presupposes the agent sequentially processes consequences-norms-generalized inaction/action preferences, which makes the estimated parameters biased and untenable. More recently, an alternative algorithm named “CAN” was developed based on the same data structure to overcome the limitations of CNI model. We applied CAN algorithm and reanalyzed the raw data of the four studies on psychopathy-moral decision relationship. The results demonstrated that people with higher psychopathy trait have weaker consequences and norms sensitivities, stronger overall action preferences, stronger inaction/action preferences irrespective of norms and consequences, and weaker moral principles obedience. Furthermore, the mediation and moderation reanalysis explorations demonstrated that instrumental harm and moral identity partly mediate the psychopathy-moral decision relationship and that perceived societal standards rather than personal standards when making moral decisions can alleviate the positive effects of psychopathy on overall action preference and action preference irrespective of norms and consequences. Present reanalysis exploration study clarified and deepened our insights on the relationship between psychopathy and moral decisions. Theoretical and methodological implications were also discussed.

submitted time 2021-01-14 Hits28Downloads19 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202101.00062 [pdf]

君子不忧不惧:君子人格与心理健康——自我控制与真实性的链式中介

葛枭语; 侯玉波
Subjects: Psychology >> Personality Psychology

基于儒学经典命题提出君子人格通过自我控制与真实性的链式中介对心理健康产生正向效应的假设,运用多种方法进行验证(总样本量为1169)。结果表明,君子人格正向预测同时测量的心理健康(研究一)和6个月后测量的自尊、核心自我评价、情感平衡,负向预测心理症状(研究四);君子人格正向预测自我控制特质(研究一)和自我控制决策(研究三和四),受到情境模拟操纵的自我控制提升心理健康与真实性(研究二),受到回忆启动操纵的真实性提升心理健康(研究三);链式中介作用也得到了同时和跨时间点测量、统计控制和实验控制等多方法结果的支持。君子人格水平较高的人,更易自我控制,由此感到自己的行为与真实自我更加一致与贯通,因此具有更积极的心理状态。

submitted time 2021-01-14 Hits24Downloads15 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202101.00044 [pdf]

姓名对个体心理与行为的实际影响:证据和理论

包寒吴霜; 蔡华俭
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

姓名不仅会影响他人的印象与评价,还可能会影响个体实际的心理与行为。近几十年来,心理学家在决策、成就、健康、人格四个领域开展了大量实证研究来考察姓氏或名字对个体的实际影响。姓名的多个维度(如独特性、性别倾向、含义效价、温暖–能力维度等)在不同程度上可以预测这些领域的心理与行为(包括职业决策/生活决策/经济决策、职业成就/学业成就、生理健康/心理健康/犯罪行为、人格特质/心理需要/面孔特征等)。但是,现有研究证据比较混杂,理论解释有待完善。未来研究应全面考虑姓名维度,重点解决可重复性、因果关系、心理机制、跨文化普遍性等问题,努力构建更系统、更包容的理论来解释姓名的心理与行为效应。

submitted time 2021-01-13 Hits603Downloads270 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202101.00042 [pdf]

激活右腹外侧前额叶提高抑郁症患者对社会疼痛的情绪调节能力:一项TMS研究

莫李澄; 郭田友; 张岳瑶; 徐锋; 张丹丹
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

负性人际交往经历和负性社会事件是抑郁症的重要诱导因素, 而社会功能受损是抑郁症患者的重要特征之一, 患者通常表现出对社会疼痛的情绪失调。为了提高抑郁症患者在负性社交情境中或面对负性社会事件时的情绪调节能力, 本研究采用经颅磁刺激技术(transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS), 考察抑郁症患者在腹外侧前额叶(the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, VLPFC)被激活后其情绪调节能力的改变。结果表明, 当右侧VLPFC被TMS激活且患者采用认知重评策略调节情绪时, 实验组患者(n = 64)比对照组患者(n = 63)在社会排斥情境下报告了更弱的负性情绪体验, 这说明激活右侧VLPFC可以有效提高患者对社会疼痛的外显性情绪调节能力。本研究是采用TMS提高抑郁症患者情绪调节能力的首次尝试, 实验发现不但支持了VLPFC与认知重评策略的因果关系, 还为临床改善抑郁症等社会功能障碍患者的情绪调节能力提供了明确的神经治疗靶点。后续研究还需探讨多疗程TMS刺激方案、改变社会疼痛的诱发方式、对比左右侧VLPFC的治疗效果、尝试使用其他的情绪调节策略, 进一步验证本研究的结论, 优化TMS治疗方案。

submitted time 2021-01-12 Hits977Downloads58 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202101.00043 [pdf]

竞赛压力、注意控制与运动表现关系的理论演进

孙国晓; 张力为
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

竞赛压力及其引发的紧张焦虑对运动员的竞技状态有重要影响。注意控制理论(ACT)从注意控制角度解释焦虑如何影响操作表现。阐述了ACT的历史演变过程和基本假设,梳理了ACT在运动领域的适用性检验和基于ACT的拓展研究,引出了ACT的发展理论——运动注意控制理论,进而分析了其与挑战-威胁生物心理社会模型和自我控制力量模型的整合链接点,提出了“压力-资源-注意控制整合模型”,以更好地理解竞赛压力、注意控制与运动表现之间的关系。

submitted time 2021-01-12 Hits1134Downloads219 Comment 0

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