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1. chinaXiv:202011.00140 [pdf]


黄观澜; 周晓璐
Subjects: Psychology >> Clinical and Counseling Psychology


submitted time 2020-11-28 Hits78Downloads29 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202011.00141 [pdf]


梁燕芳; 谢天
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology


submitted time 2020-11-27 Hits65Downloads31 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202005.00034 [pdf]


柴晓运; 林丹华
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology


submitted time 2020-11-26 Hits3308Downloads1269 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202011.00139 [pdf]


詹思群; 严瑜
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology


submitted time 2020-11-26 Hits179Downloads95 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202011.00126 [pdf]

Morphological characteristics and dynamic changes of seif dunes in the eastern margin of the Kumtagh Desert, China

PANG,Yingjun; WU,Bo; LI,Yonghua; XIE,Shengbo
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The seif dune field over the gravel desert surface in the eastern margin of the Kumtagh Desert is a valuable experimental site for the observation of dune formation and dynamics. We used high-resolution remote sensing and station observation approaches, combined with wind and grain size data, to study the characteristics of the aeolian environment and the morphologies of and dynamic changes in seif dunes. We observed the ratio of the resultant drift potential (RDP) to the drift potential (DP), which was 0.37, associated with an obtuse bimodal wind regime. The drift potentials in the west-northwest (WNW) and east-northeast (ENE) directions were dominant, and the angle between the two primary DP directions was 135.00°. The dune orientations ranged from 168.75°–213.75°, which were parallel to the resultant drift direction (186.15°). The dune lengths ranged from 51.68 to 1932.11 m with a mean value of 344.91 m. The spacings of the dunes ranged from 32.34 to 319.77 m with a mean value of 93.39 m. The mean grain size of the sediments became finer, and the sorting became better from upwind tail to downwind tip, which indicated that the sediment of the seif dunes in the study region may be transported from northward to southward. The rate of increase in the length, the mean longitudinal migration rate of the dune tail, and the mean longitudinal extension rate of the dune tip (also called elongation rate) were 4.93, 4.63, and 9.55 m/a, respectively. The mean lateral migration vector of the seif dunes was approximately 0.11 m/a towards the west (–0.11 m/a), while the mean amplitude of lateral migration was 0.53 m/a, ignoring the direction of lateral migration. We found that the seif dune field formed first beside seasonal rivers, which can provide sediment, and then expanded downwind.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits121Downloads67 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202011.00127 [pdf]

Assessing the effects of vegetation and precipitation on soil erosion in the Three-River Headwaters Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

HE,Qian; DAI,Xiao'ai; CHEN,Shiqi
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Soil erosion in the Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR) of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China has a significant impact on local economic development and ecological environment. Vegetation and precipitation are considered to be the main factors for the variation in soil erosion. However, it is a big challenge to analyze the impacts of precipitation and vegetation respectively as well as their combined effects on soil erosion from the pixel scale. To assess the influences of vegetation and precipitation on the variation of soil erosion from 2005 to 2015, we employed the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model to evaluate soil erosion in the TRHR, and then developed a method using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index model (LMDI) which can exponentially decompose the influencing factors, to calculate the contribution values of the vegetation cover factor (C factor) and the rainfall erosivity factor (R factor) to the variation of soil erosion from the pixel scale. In general, soil erosion in the TRHR was alleviated from 2005 to 2015, of which about 54.95% of the area where soil erosion decreased was caused by the combined effects of the C factor and the R factor, and 41.31% was caused by the change in the R factor. There were relatively few areas with increased soil erosion modulus, of which 64.10% of the area where soil erosion increased was caused by the change in the C factor, and 23.88% was caused by the combined effects of the C factor and the R factor. Therefore, the combined effects of the C factor and the R factor were regarded as the main driving force for the decrease of soil erosion, while the C factor was the dominant factor for the increase of soil erosion. The area with decreased soil erosion caused by the C factor (12.10×103 km2) was larger than the area with increased soil erosion caused by the C factor (8.30×103 km2), which indicated that vegetation had a positive effect on soil erosion. This study generally put forward a new method for quantitative assessment of the impacts of the influencing factors on soil erosion, and also provided a scientific basis for the regional control of soil erosion.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits126Downloads70 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202011.00129 [pdf]

Precipitation forecasting by large-scale climate indices and machine learning techniques

Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Global warming is one of the most complicated challenges of our time causing considerable tension on our societies and on the environment. The impacts of global warming are felt unprecedentedly in a wide variety of ways from shifting weather patterns that threatens food production, to rising sea levels that deteriorates the risk of catastrophic flooding. Among all aspects related to global warming, there is a growing concern on water resource management. This field is targeted at preventing future water crisis threatening human beings. The very first stage in such management is to recognize the prospective climate parameters influencing the future water resource conditions. Numerous prediction models, methods and tools, in this case, have been developed and applied so far. In line with trend, the current study intends to compare three optimization algorithms on the platform of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network to explore any meaningful connection between large-scale climate indices (LSCIs) and precipitation in the capital of Iran, a country which is located in an arid and semi-arid region and suffers from severe water scarcity caused by mismanagement over years and intensified by global warming. This situation has propelled a great deal of population to immigrate towards more developed cities within the country especially towards Tehran. Therefore, the current and future environmental conditions of this city especially its water supply conditions are of great importance. To tackle this complication an outlook for the future precipitation should be provided and appropriate forecasting trajectories compatible with this region's characteristics should be developed. To this end, the present study investigates three training methods namely backpropagation (BP), genetic algorithms (GAs), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms on a MLP platform. Two frameworks distinguished by their input compositions are denoted in this study: Concurrent Model Framework (CMF) and Integrated Model Framework (IMF). Through these two frameworks, 13 cases are generated: 12 cases within CMF, each of which contains all selected LSCIs in the same lead-times, and one case within IMF that is constituted from the combination of the most correlated LSCIs with Tehran precipitation in each lead-time. Following the evaluation of all model performances through related statistical tests, Taylor diagram is implemented to make comparison among the final selected models in all three optimization algorithms, the best of which is found to be MLP-PSO in IMF.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits144Downloads74 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202011.00131 [pdf]

Can climate change influence agricultural GTFP in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China?

FENG,Jian; ZHAO,Lingdi; ZHANG,Yibo; SUN,Lingxiao; YU,Xiang; YU,Yang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

There are eight provinces and autonomous regions (Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Shanxi Province, and Shaanxi Province) in Northwest China, most areas of which are located in arid and semi-arid regions (northwest of the 400 mm precipitation line), accounting for 58.74% of the country's land area and sustaining approximately 7.84×106 people. Because of drought conditions and fragile ecology, these regions cannot develop agriculture at the expense of the environment. Given the challenges of global warming, the green total factor productivity (GTFP), taking CO2 emissions as an undesirable output, is an effective index for measuring the sustainability of agricultural development. Agricultural GTFP can be influenced by both internal production factors (labor force, machinery, land, agricultural plastic film, diesel, pesticide, and fertilizer) and external climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration). In this study, we used the Super-slacks-based measure (Super-SBM) model to measure agricultural GTFP during the period 2000–2016 at the regional level. Our results show that the average agricultural GTFP of most provinces and autonomous regions in arid and semi-arid regions underwent a fluctuating increase during the study period (2000–2016), and the fluctuation was caused by the production factors (input and output factors). To improve agricultural GTFP, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Gansu should reduce agricultural labor force input; Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Shanxi should decrease machinery input; Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Shanxi should reduce fertilizer input; Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Ningxia should reduce diesel input; Xinjiang and Gansu should decrease plastic film input; and Gansu, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia should cut pesticide input. Desirable output agricultural earnings should be increased in Qinghai and Tibet, and undesirable output (CO2 emissions) should be reduced in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu, and Shaanxi. Agricultural GTFP is influenced not only by internal production factors but also by external climate factors. To determine the influence of climate factors on GTFP in these provinces and autonomous regions, we used a Geographical Detector (Geodetector) model to analyze the influence of climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) and identify the relationships between different climate factors and GTFP. We found that temperature played a significant role in the spatial heterogeneity of GTFP among provinces and autonomous regions in arid and semi-arid regions. For Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Tibet, a suitable average annual temperature would be in the range of 7°C–9°C; for Gansu, Shanxi, and Ningxia, it would be 11°C–13°C; and for Shaanxi, it would be 15°C–17°C. Stable climatic conditions and more efficient production are prerequisites for the development of sustainable agriculture. Hence, in the agricultural production process, reducing the redundancy of input factors is the best way to reduce CO2 emissions and to maintain temperatures, thereby improving the agricultural GTFP. The significance of this study is that it explores the impact of both internal production factors and external climatic factors on the development of sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, identifying an effective way forward for the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits176Downloads98 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202011.00130 [pdf]

Effects of biodegradable mulch on soil water and heat conditions, yield and quality of processing tomatoes by drip irrigation

JIA,Hao; WANG,Zhenhua; ZHANG,Jinzhu; LI,Wenhao; REN,Zuoli; JIA,Zhecheng; WANG,Qin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

To combat the problem of residual film pollution and ensure the sustainable development of agriculture in oasis areas, a field experiment was carried out in 2019 at the Wuyi Farm Corps Irrigation Center Test Station in Urumqi, Northwest China. Four types of biodegradable mulches, traditional plastic mulchs and a control group (bare land; referred to as CK) were compared, including a total of six different treatments. Effects of mulching on soil water and heat conditions as well as the yield and quality of processing tomatoes under drip irrigation were examined. In addition, a comparative analysis of economic benefits of biodegradable mulches was performed. Principal component analysis and gray correlation analysis were used to evaluate suitable mulching varieties for planting processing tomatoes under drip irrigation. Our results show that, compared with CK, biodegradable mulches and traditional plastic mulch have a similar effect on retaining soil moisture at the seedling stage but significantly increase soil moisture by 0.5%–1.5% and 1.5%–3.0% in the middle and late growth periods (P<0.050), respectively. The difference in the thermal insulation effect between biodegradable mulch and plastic mulch gradually reduces as the crop grows. Compared with plastic mulch, the average soil temperature at 5–20 cm depth under biodegradable mulches is significantly lowered by 2.04°C–3.52°C and 0.52°C–0.88°C (P<0.050) at the seedling stage and the full growth period, respectively, and the water use efficiency, average fruit yield, and production-investment ratio under biodegradable mulches were reduced by 0.89%–6.63%, 3.39%–8.69%, and 0.51%–6.33% (P<0.050), respectively. The comprehensive evaluation analysis suggests that the black oxidized biological double-degradation ecological mulch made from eco-benign plastic is the optimal film type under the study condition. Therefore, from the perspective of sustainable development, biodegradable mulch is a competitive alternative to plastic mulch for large-scale tomato production under drip irrigation in the oasis.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits211Downloads109 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202011.00128 [pdf]

Degradation leads to dramatic decrease in topsoil but not subsoil root biomass in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, China

ZHANG,Zhenchao; LIU,Miao; SUN,Jian; WEI,Tianxing
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Understanding the effects of degradation on belowground biomass (BGB) is essential for assessment of carbon budget of the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This ecosystem has been undergoing serious degradation owing to climate change and anthropogenic activities. This study examined the response of the vertical distribution of plant BGB to degradation and explored the underlying mechanisms in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. A field survey was conducted in an alpine meadow with seven sequential degrees of degradation in the Zoige Plateau on the Tibetan Plateau during the peak growing season of 2018. We measured aboveground biomass (AGB), BGB, soil water content (SWC), soil bulk density (SBD), soil compaction (SCOM), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), soil total phosphorus (STP), soil available nitrogen (SAN), and soil available phosphorus (STP) in the 0–30 cm soil layers. Our results show that degradation dramatically decreased the BGB in the 0–10 cm soil layer (BGB0–10) but slightly increased the subsoil BGB. The main reason may be that the physical-chemical properties of surface soil were more sensitive to degradation than those of subsoil, as indicated by the remarked positive associations of the trade-off value of BGB0–10 with SWC, SCOM, SOC, STN, SAN, and STP, as well as the negative correlation between the trade-off value of BGB0–10 and SBD in the soil layer of 0–10 cm. In addition, an increase in the proportion of forbs with increasing degradation degree directly affected the BGB vertical distribution. The findings suggest that the decrease in the trade-off value of BGB0–10 in response to degradation might be an adaptive strategy for the degradation-induced drought and infertile soil conditions. This study can provide theoretical support for assessing the effects of degradation on the carbon budget and sustainable development in the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau as well as other similar ecosystems in the world.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits231Downloads124 Comment 0

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