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1. chinaXiv:201609.00805 [pdf]

Detection of thermal neutrons with the PRISMA-YBJ array in Extensive Air Showers selected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We report on a measurement of thermal neutrons, generated by the hadronic component of extensive air showers (EAS), by means of a small array of EN-detectors developed for the PRISMA project (PRImary Spectrum Measurement Array), novel devices based on a compound alloy of ZnS(Ag) and?LiF. This array has been operated within the ARGO-YBJ experiment at the high altitude Cosmic Ray Observatory in Yangbajing (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l.). Due to the tight correlation between the air shower hadrons and thermal neutrons, this technique can be envisaged as a simple way to estimate the number of high energy hadrons in EAS. Coincident events generated by primary cosmic rays of energies greater than 100 TeV have been selected and analyzed. The EN-detectors have been used to record simultaneously thermal neutrons and the air shower electromagnetic component. The density distributions of both components and the total number of thermal neutrons have been measured. The correlation of these data with the measurements carried out by ARGO-YBJ confirms the excellent performance of the EN-detector.

submitted time 2016-09-12 Hits712Downloads411 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201609.00797 [pdf]

4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of mrk 421 During the Argo-ybj and Fermi Common Operation Time

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to gamma-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from August 2008 to February 2013. In particular, thanks to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the whole energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low and high activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV gamma-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to few keV. The TeV gamma-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV gamma-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to the acceleration process or to the environment properties.

submitted time 2016-09-12 Hits559Downloads364 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201609.00604 [pdf]

Study of the Diffuse Gamma-ray Emission From the Galactic Plane With ARGO-YBJ

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The events recorded by ARGO-YBJ in more than five years of data collection have been analyzed to determine the diffuse gamma-ray emission in the Galactic plane at Galactic longitudes 25{\deg} < l < 100{\deg} and Galactic latitudes . The energy range covered by this analysis, from ~350 GeV to ~2 TeV, allows the connection of the region explored by Fermi with the multi-TeV measurements carried out by Milagro. Our analysis has been focused on two selected regions of the Galactic plane, i.e., 40{\deg} < l < 100{\deg} and 65{\deg} < l < 85{\deg} (the Cygnus region), where Milagro observed an excess with respect to the predictions of current models. Great care has been taken in order to mask the most intense gamma-ray sources, including the TeV counterpart of the Cygnus cocoon recently identified by ARGO-YBJ, and to remove residual contributions. The ARGO-YBJ results do not show any excess at sub-TeV energies corresponding to the excess found by Milagro, and are consistent with the predictions of the Fermi model for the diffuse Galactic emission. From the measured energy distribution we derive spectral indices and the differential flux at 1 TeV of the diffuse gamma-ray emission in the sky regions investigated.

submitted time 2016-09-10 Hits563Downloads361 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201609.00229 [pdf]

The analog Resistive Plate Chamber detector of the ARGO-YBJ experiment

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (4300 m a.s.l.). The detector consists of a single layer of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) ( about 6700 m^2}) operated in streamer mode. The signal pick-up is obtained by means of strips facing one side of the gas volume. The digital readout of the signals, while allows a high space-time resolution in the shower front reconstruction, limits the measurable energy to a few hundred TeV. In order to fully investigate the 1-10 PeV region, an analog readout has been implemented by instrumenting each RPC with two large size electrodes facing the other side of the gas volume. Since December 2009 the RPC charge readout has been in operation on the entire central carpet (about 5800 m^2). In this configuration the detector is able to measure the particle density at the core position where it ranges from tens to many thousands of particles per m^2. Thus ARGO-YBJ provides a highly detailed image of the charge component at the core of air showers. In this paper we describe the analog readout of RPCs in ARGO-YBJ and discuss both the performance of the system and the physical impact on the EAS measurements.

submitted time 2016-09-09 Hits620Downloads398 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201609.00217 [pdf]

The Cosmic ray proton plus helium energy spectrum measured by the ARGO-YBJ experiment in the energy range 3–300?TeV

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full-coverage air shower detector located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, People's Republic of China, 4300 m a.s.l.). The high altitude, combined with the full-coverage technique, allows the detection of extensive air showers in a wide energy range and offer the possibility of measuring the cosmic ray proton plus helium spectrum down to the TeV region, where direct balloon/space-borne measurements are available. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration from November 2007 to February 2013. In this paper the measurement of the cosmic ray proton plus helium energy spectrum is presented in the region 3-300 TeV by analyzing the full collected data sample. The resulting spectral index is?γ=?2.64±0.01. These results demonstrate the possibility of performing an accurate measurement of the spectrum of light elements with a ground based air shower detector.

submitted time 2016-09-09 Hits594Downloads380 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201609.00186 [pdf]

Crab Nebula: five-year observation with ARGO-YBJ

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of??3.3?×?105?events,reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I0?(E / 2 TeV)?α, with a flux normalization I0?= (5.2?±?0.2)?×?10?12?photons cm?2?s?1?TeV?1and?α?= 2.63?±?0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97?×?10?11?photons cm?2?s?1. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30%?for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I0?(E / 2 TeV)?α?exp?(-E / Ecut), the lower limit of the cutoff energy Ecut?is 12 TeV, at 90%?confidence level. Our extended dataset allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3?×?10?2. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over??4.5 years using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient?r?= 0.56?±?0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a "blind" search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205?±?91 photons day?1, consistent with the average value of 137?±?10 day?1.

submitted time 2016-09-09 Hits597Downloads358 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201609.00184 [pdf]

Search for GeV Gamma Ray Bursts with the ARGO-YBJ Detector: Summary of Eight Years of Observations

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The search for Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) emission in the energy range 1-100 GeV in coincidence with the satellite detection has been carried out using the Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing (ARGO-YBJ) experiment. The high altitude location (4300 m a.s.l.), the large active surface (??6700 m2?of Resistive Plate Chambers), the wide field of view (?2?sr, limited only by the atmospheric absorption) and the high duty cycle (>?86 %) make the ARGO-YBJ experiment particularly suitable to detect short and unexpected events like GRBs. With the scaler mode technique, i.e., counting all the particles hitting the detector with no measurement of the primary energy and arrival direction, the minimum threshold of???1 GeV can be reached, overlapping the direct measurements carried out by satellites. During the experiment lifetime, from December 17, 2004 to February 7, 2013, a total of 206 GRBs occurring within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle?θ?≤?45?) have been analyzed. This is the largest sample of GRBs investigated with a ground-based detector. Two lightcurve models have been assumed and since in both cases no significant excess has been found, the corresponding fluence upper limits in the 1-100 GeV energy region have been derived, with values as low as 10?5?erg cm?2. The analysis of a subset of 24 GRBs with known redshift has been used to constrain the fluence extrapolation to the GeV region together with possible cutoffs under different assumptions on the spectrum.

submitted time 2016-09-09 Hits540Downloads347 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201609.00176 [pdf]

The Knee of the cosmic hydrogen and helium spectrum below 1?PeV measured by ARGO-YBJ and a Cherenkov telescope of LHAASO

Bartoli, B. and others
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The measurement of cosmic ray energy spectra, in particular for individual species, is an essential approach in finding their origin. Locating the "knees" of the spectra is an important part of the approach and has yet to be achieved. Here we report a measurement of the mixed Hydrogen and Helium spectrum using the combination of the ARGO-YBJ experiment and of a prototype Cherenkov telescope for the LHAASO experiment. A knee feature at 640+/-87 TeV, with a clear steepening of the spectrum, is observed. This gives fundamental inputs to galactic cosmic ray acceleration models.

submitted time 2016-09-09 Hits701Downloads418 Comment 0

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