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1. chinaXiv:202008.00038 [pdf]

“差点儿VP了”的两种否定形式及其语义指向.doc

莫伯峰
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

基于对江蓝生“概念叠加”“构式整合”理论的推导,本文对“差点儿没”各种句式的语义指向形成了一套统一的认识:“差点儿VP了”(以及“差点儿VP”)的否定形式有A式“差点儿没VP了”和B式“差点儿没VP”两种。A式否定是单义句式,应该首先剥离出来。B式否定中,VP为V的句式也是单义句式,也应该剥离出来。剩余的B式否定都是歧义句式,具有B1类和B2类两种语义指向,具体表示哪种语义,由前提条件确定。前提条件分两类:隐性前提和显性前提。隐性前提由常识和语境决定,是句式B首先默认的前提,通常不需要出现在句子表面。显性前提是特殊性前提或无倾向性前提,必须在句子表面出现,才能取代隐形前提的位置。B1类语义前提条件的显性语言形式可表述为“本来应该/~/VP,差点+没VP”;B2类语义前提条件的显性语言形式可表述为“本来不应该/~/VP,差点没+VP”。综合所有这些显性语言形式的前提条件,则可以归结为“能”类和“愿”类两种类型的主观认识与最终事实结果之间的逻辑转折。

submitted time 2020-06-26 Hits4445Downloads191 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202006.00174 [pdf]

基于ERP的预测性句子加工研究前沿

岳金星; 卜玉伟; 李佳音
Subjects: Psychology >> Physiological Psychology

本文梳理了国际期刊发表的使用事件相关电位(ERP)技术研究人脑开展预测性句子加工所取得的主要成果和重要突破。本文从心理语言学对句子预测的研究逻辑为切入点,接着分别回顾通过N400和前侧正波(frontal positivity)两个ERP效应揭示词形预测和语义预测这两个预测性句子加工主要操作的研究里程碑,并进而总结勾勒出预测性句子加工理论模型。最后,本文指出了现有研究的局限性和未来该课题潜在的方向。

submitted time 2020-06-19 Hits7593Downloads555 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202003.00050 [pdf]

2~4岁普通话儿童前注意阶段的声调感知机制

杨婉晴; 肖容; 梁丹丹
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

以MMN、p-MMR作为汉语词汇声调感知的神经关联物,探究2~4岁汉语普通话儿童前注意阶段对声调刺激的失匹配响应,关注范畴信息和偏差大小两个因素对儿童感知水平的影响。结果显示:在范畴间大偏差条件下(T1/T3),诱发明显的MMN;在范畴内或小偏差条件下(T3a/T3、T3b/T3、T2/T3),都未诱发显著的MMR。表明:2~4岁普通话儿童正处于声调感知能力的发展过程中,音位信息和声学信息共同影响其声调感知。

submitted time 2020-03-10 Hits25067Downloads1596 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201911.00101 [pdf]

音乐训练对4~5岁幼儿普通话声调范畴感知能力的影响

姚尧; 陈晓湘
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

已有研究表明,音乐训练能提高成人对普通话声调范畴感知的能力,此种训练能否增强幼儿对声调范畴感知的能力?训练效果是否受到训练时间长短的影响?本研究对幼儿园4~5岁幼儿进行音乐训练,共40人,分成音乐组和控制组,每组各20人,追踪考察音乐训练和训练时间长短对幼儿声调范畴感知能力提升的影响。实验采用前测-中测-后测设计,对音乐组开展每周3次,每次30分钟,以小钟琴演奏为主的音乐训练;控制组不进行任何有组织的训练活动。结果发现,12个月音乐训练提升了幼儿对声调范畴感知的程度,表现为音乐组幼儿范畴边界宽度显著小于控制组,而训练6个月时,该优势并不显著。此外,12个月音乐训练还加强了幼儿区分范畴内刺激声学差异的敏感性,而对范畴间刺激的区分能力无显著提高。本研究结果支持了音乐学习的歌剧理论(OPERA),音乐训练具有跨域迁移作用,可提升4~5岁幼儿对普通话声调范畴感知的能力,但只有长期持续的训练才可能真正促进幼儿对音高进行精细化加工。

submitted time 2019-11-28 Hits26235Downloads2023 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201906.00035 [pdf]

Vocal Attack Time of different pitch levels and vowels in Mandarin

Ruifeng Zhang,; t R.J. Baken; Jiangping Kong
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

The purpose of this study was to investigate how vocal attack time (VAT) varies when young adults articulate the three vertex vowels in Mandarin Chinese at five linguistically unconstrained pitch levels. Sound pressure (SP) and electroglottographic (EGG) signals were recorded simultaneously from fifty-three male and fifty-three female subjects saying sustained /A/, /i/ and /u/ at five equally spaced pitch heights, each being higher than the preceding one. Then analyses of means, variance and correlation were performed to explore the relationships of VAT/pitch levels and VAT/vowels. Findings were: As mean STs (semitone) increase linearly from levels one to five, mean VATs decrease nonlinearly in a big group of subjects but increase nonlinearly in a small group of them. Based on the body-cover model of F0 control, data here lead to the guess that different people incline to use different strategies in increasing pitch height. When males, females and males plus females are considered as a whole, average STs and VATs tend to be positively correlated among the three vertex vowels.

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits35543Downloads1314 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201906.00036 [pdf]

An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study on Anticipatory Coarticulation in V1#C2V2 Sequences in Standard Chinese

Yinghao Li; Jiangping KongP1
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

This paper presents the data on the anticipatory coarticulation of C2 and V2 on V1 in V1#C2V2 sequences in Standard Chinese. Electropalatographic measures and F2 trajectory were obtained to define the articulatory and F2 targets for V1 as well as the displacement for articulatory and F2 transition of V1. Results show that the articulatory target is affected only by C2 place, while C2 place, C2 manner, and V2 show combined effect on the articulatory and F2 displacement of V1. Lip rounding associated with V2 is found to affect the F2 target and F2 transition of V1.

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits33377Downloads1191 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201906.00037 [pdf]

PROSODIC BOUNDARIES EFFECT ON SEGMENT ARTICULATION IN STANDARD CHINESE:AN ARTICULATORY AND ACOUSTIC STUDY

Yinghao Li
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

This paper presents an electropalatographic (EPG) and acoustic study of prosodic boundaries effect on the domain-initial segments in Standard Chinese.1 Two speech sounds, namely, the voiceless unaspirated alveolar stop /t/ and the high front vowel /i/, were studied to examine the domain-initial strengthening in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The articulatory and acoustic parameters of the speech sounds were compared in initial positions of five prosodic constituents in Standard Chinese, namely, a Syllable, a Foot, an Immediate Phrase, an Intonational Phrase, and an Utterance. The results show that: (1) the production of the domain-initial consonantal gesture was prosodically encoded. The linguopalatal contact and the seal duration varied as a function of the prosodic boundary strength. The linguopalatal contact was dependent on the seal duration in a nonlinear fashion. Of the acoustic properties of the domain-initial stop, the total voiceless interval and voicing during closure were found to be reliable acoustic correlates that mark the hierarchical structure of the prosody. (2) At the release moment of the domain-initial stop, no consistent pattern was found to support the domain-initial strengthening. The linguopalatal contact of the vowel immediately following the domain-initial consonant did not show a clear trend of domain-initial strengthening; however, the phonatory features of vowels were indicative of pitch reset at major prosodic boundaries. These indicate that the domain-initial strengthening is restricted on the segment immediately following the boundary. In conclusion Standard Chinese strengthens the phonetic features of the domain-initial segments as a function of boundary strength, which serves as an important way to mark prosodic structure in Standard Chinese.

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits35029Downloads4924 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201906.00038 [pdf]

A STUDY ON THE FEATURES OF CHEST AND ABODOMINAL BREATHING BETWEE

Feng Yang
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

This research studies the features of chest and abdominal breathing between reciting and chanting Chinese poems of different styles. Eight participants were recruited to recite and chant 85 modern style poems (近體詩) and 39 Song poems(宋詞). The chest and abdominal breathing signals as well as speech signal were recorded simultaneously. Programs for breathing analysis have been written to extract parameters such as breathing reset amplitude, time of inhale phase, and slope of exhale phase. The results show that the poem chanting has a larger depth of breathing and amount of breath, and more frequent exhalations compared with the poem reciting. In both poem reciting and chanting, the pause and declination of chest breathing is closely correlated with the prosodic boundaries. The major function of chest breathing in speaking is to keep the extended state of the chest and provide enough breath for articulation and chest resonance. And the function of abdominal breathing is to provide stable sub-glottal pressure through contraction of abdominal muscle and diaphragm, controlling continuous airflow to produce continuous sound.

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits26608Downloads1198 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201906.00039 [pdf]

VAT of the lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese

Jiangping Kong; Ruifeng Zhang
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

The purpose of this research was to investigate the association of vocal attack time (VAT) and tones in speakers of Mandarin Chinese, and to explore how tones initiated at different pitch levels affected VAT. SP and EGG signals were synchronously re corded from 72 young undergraduates or postgraduates (42 females and 30 males) while they were reading aloud a wordlist of 50 disyllabic words at their most comfortable pitch, loudness and rate. VAT measures revealed three findings . (1) Vocal attack time s hows no significant difference between the common yangping and the yangping derived from shangsheng . This, from a physiological perspective, supports the argument that the tone sequence 3 3 in Mandarin is indeed converted into 2 3, nothing else. (2) The to nes of Mandarin Chinese that start from low pitch levels (35, 21) tend to present significantly different VAT values from those that start from high pitch levels (55, 51), with mean VATs of the former being much longer than those of the latter. This embodi es the nonlinear contra variant relationship between VAT and F0 at vowel onsets. (3) There are deviations or individual differences: a small number of people do not follow this pattern.

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits26650Downloads1104 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201906.00068 [pdf]

新闻朗读的呼吸节奏与基频的关系初探.doc

张春连; 孔江平
Subjects: Linguistics and Applied Linguistics >> Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

本文在汉语音高相关研究的基础上,通过呼吸带传感器所记录的呼吸节奏变化,来分析呼吸节奏与音高(基频)之间的关系。本文按照大、中、小呼吸单元(一、二、三级呼吸)来对语料进行统计分析。一般情况下一个自然段为一个大呼吸单元,自然段里的复句对应中级呼吸单元,分句或句子成分对应小呼吸单元。我们依据呼吸重置研究了基频重置的情况,总体而言:1)呼吸重置和基频重置是规律对应的;2)在三个级别的呼吸节奏中,呼吸的重置(截距)相对比较稳定;3)一级呼吸重置中的基频重置并不大于二、三级呼吸重置的基频重置;4)基频的斜率和时长成正比;5)基频的斜率和截距成反比。

submitted time 2019-06-20 Hits23278Downloads1643 Comment 0

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