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1. chinaXiv:202007.00018 [pdf]

人们为何好奇好奇心的机制和作用

黄骐; 陈春萍; 伍海燕
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

作为一种常见的心理状态和人格特质,好奇心是认知心理学研究领域中的重要主题。大脑多个脑区的分工和协同使得个体形成了产生、评估、触发、缓解以及重新产生对 于事物和环境的好奇心的认知过程,以减少对事物和环境预测误差与信息差距,消除对事 物的不确定性。好奇心在个体终生发展过程中,对促进认知功能,保持心理和身体健康有 积极的作用和意义。未来研究可以从跨物种、跨学科和多领域交叉的角度切入,推动好奇 心主题研究的深入、研究手段的发展以及研究成果的应用。

submitted time 2020-07-09 Hits132Downloads63 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202007.00014 [pdf]

记忆的前测效应对老年人学习新事物的作用

Tangsheng,Wang; Chunliang,Yang; Nian,Zhong
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

为检验前置测试是否可以有效地提升老年人学习新事物的能力,参与实验的老年人被随机分为有前置测试的实验组和无前置测试的对照组,在实验1中学习了5列单词,在实验2中记忆了5列日用品,在实验3中学习了4段讲座视频。结果表明,实验组老年人对新事物的记忆成绩均高于对照组的老年人。结论认为,前置测试能够显著提升老年人学习新事物的能力,干扰降低与学习参与相结合的“加减”理论能更好地解释提升老年人记忆的前测效应。

submitted time 2020-07-04 Hits224Downloads113 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202007.00003 [pdf]

未意识到错误影响错误后调整的电生理证据

王丽君; 索涛; 赵国祥
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

现有研究一致认为意识到错误可引起错误后调整,但是未意识到错误能否促使个体进行错误后调整尚存争议。本实验采用基于go/no-go范式的错误意识任务考察上述问题,并根据被试对自己按键反应正误主观报告将no-go错误反应分为意识到错误和未意识到错误。行为结果发现,意识到错误和未意识到错误后正确率均显著高于正确击中试次(正确go试次)后正确率;但是,意识到错误后试次反应时显著快于正确击中后反应时,未意识到错误后反应时显著慢于正确击中后反应时。该结果表明两类错误均优化了错误后行为表现,但是意识到错误后被试调整速度加快,未意识到错误后被试调整速度减慢。进而,时频分析发现意识到错误相较于未意识到错误诱发显著更强的alpha波能量。并且,前者在错误意识主观报告前已诱发alpha波,后者在错误意识主观报告反应后诱发alpha波。该结果表明意识到错误一直处于持续的注意监控中,而未意识到错误是任务引起的暂时注意控制。因此,本实验说明错误意识影响错误后调整,意识到错误可能采用类似主动性控制的策略调节错误后行为,而未意识到错误可能采用类似反应性控制的策略调节错误后行为。

submitted time 2020-07-01 Hits269Downloads143 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202007.00002 [pdf]

Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in self-awareness of highly practiced visuomotor skills

Junjun LI; Zhenglong Lin; Ran Tao; Min Xu; Shihong Kong; Hong-Yan Bi; Yang Yang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Metacognition refers to the ability to introspect our cognitive ability, which plays an essential role in guiding and optimizing our activities. However, little is known about metacognitive capacity for highly practiced motor behaviors and its neural correlates. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present study examined the brain substrates underlying individual differences in self-awareness of handwriting in adults, a highly practiced visuomotor skill. Results showed that adult writers generally overestimate their handwriting skill, which is more pronounced in males relative to females. The extent of overestimation of handwriting quality was positively correlated with grey matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. Moreover, the activation of these regions in a handwriting task was not correlation with self-awareness of handwriting, confirming that the identified connection between brain structures and handwriting self-awareness is independent of task performances. The left fusiform gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus are thought to represent domain-specific brain mechanisms for handwriting self-awareness, while the right precuneus is likely to be a domain-general brain mechanism, suggesting that the ability of introspect practiced visuomotor skills relies on both domain-general and domain-specific brain systems. Together, this study is the first to reveal the neuroanatomical correlates of a highly practiced motor behavior, extending our understanding about the neural basis of human metacognition.

submitted time 2020-06-30 Hits258Downloads127 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202006.00217 [pdf]

抑郁个体的视知觉加工异常

梅高兴; 仇式明; 陈仕语
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

抑郁作为一种神经心理障碍,一般表现为情绪失调,但研究表明,抑郁个体的视知觉加工也发生了改变。综述从视觉客体特征(如对比度敏感性)和常用视觉任务范式(如双眼竞争)两个视角,评述了有关抑郁个体在视知觉加工方面的特点。这些研究总体上反映了抑郁个体在视知觉加工的不同层级水平上均受到了损害。未来的研究可以在区分不同抑郁亚型的基础上,尝试使用视知觉加工任务的指标作为区分抑郁个体和非抑郁个体的客观诊断手段。

submitted time 2020-06-22 Hits511Downloads295 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202006.00172 [pdf]

Reconfiguration of functional brain networks underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting

Junjun LI; Lei HONG; Hong-yang BI; Yang YANG
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

This study aimed to examine the brain mechanisms underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while adult participants (n = 53) performed a copying task with varying speed control demands. Network analysis showed significant differences in functional connectivity within and between the frontoparietal network (FPN), the default mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention network (DAN), the somatomotor network (SMN) and the visual network (VN) between automatic and speed-controlled handwriting irrespective of written materials, which are thought to reflect general executive control and task-relevant visuomotor operations. However, there were no differences in brain activation between automatic and controlled handwriting. These results suggest that reconfiguration of functional network architecture, rather than regional activation, underlies the dissociations between automatic and controlled handwriting. Our findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms of handwriting mastery and handwriting impairments in individuals with neurological disorders.

submitted time 2020-06-17 Hits453Downloads208 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202006.00119 [pdf]

theta频段反映了音节编码过程

蒋宇宸; 蔡笑; 张清芳
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

大脑的神经振荡往往反映了人类的各种认知活动。语言理解的研究发现大脑θ频段的活动与音节的加工密切相关,但目前尚未有研究者探究语言产生过程中大脑特定频段活动与音节加工的联系。我们通过EEG时频分析技术,采用掩蔽启动范式,考察了23名健康被试在图片命名过程中θ频段的活动与音节加工过程的关系。行为结果发现,当启动词和目标图名称之间存在音节相关时,个体的命名反应时快于音节无关的条件,而音素相关条件的命名反应时慢于音素无关条件。时频结果发现,在刺激出现后的270~460 ms,音节相关条件下个体θ频段神经振荡的能量显著低于音节无关条件,音素相关与音素无关之间无显著差异。综上,我们认为汉语口语产生中大脑θ频段的活动反映了对音节的加工,从神经振荡指标上为音节是汉语口语词汇产生中音韵编码的单元提供了证据。

submitted time 2020-06-16 Hits509Downloads296 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202006.00088 [pdf]

编码强度对字体大小效应的影响

赵文博; 姜英杰; 王志伟; 胡竞元
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

本研究采用三个实验考察编码强度对字体大小效应的影响,探讨由于知觉特征而引发的元认知错觉的内在产生机制(实验1)与有效的矫正措施(实验2和实验3)。结果发现:(1)大字体词语的知觉流畅性显著优于小字体,并且贝叶斯多层中介分析结果表明,知觉流畅性对字体大小效应起部分中介作用(实验1); (2)随着编码强度的增加,由字体大小引起的学习判断错觉逐渐消失(实验2和实验3)。以上结果表明,刺激的知觉特征(字体大小)对个体学习判断的影响,随编码强度激活线索的增加而逐渐减弱。这一结果为真实教学情境中提高学习者的编码强度,进而削弱学习判断对知觉特征线索的依赖,并准确地监测自身的学习进程提供了科学依据。

submitted time 2020-06-12 Hits434Downloads250 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202006.00041 [pdf]

对威胁刺激的碰撞时间估计

李才文; 臧奋英; 禤宇明; 傅小兰
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

对靠近运动刺激的碰撞时间(time-to-collision, TTC)估计具有重要的进化意义。为了解释个体如何进行TTC估计,研究者提出了结构主义理论、生态光学理论和tau理论等,也考察了影响TTC估计的部分因素。近年的研究通过比较个体对威胁刺激和非威胁刺激的TTC估计,考察了刺激的情绪相关属性对TTC估计的影响。结果表明,相比于自然非威胁刺激(如兔子等图片),个体会低估自然威胁刺激(如蛇等图片)的TTC,但这种TTC的低估在社会威胁刺激(如愤怒面孔图片)上有时很小甚至不显著。个体低估TTC可能存在三种原因:(1)个体对威胁刺激具有特异性反应;(2)威胁刺激具有较高的情绪唤醒度;(3)个体对威胁刺激具有心理距离更近和运动速度更快的知觉偏差。未来研究可以进一步考察在社会威胁刺激上表现出的TTC低估效应不稳定的原因;探索威胁刺激TTC估计中的自主生理反应和神经机制;采用虚拟现实技术进行威胁刺激TTC估计的研究;在实验设计中考虑性别和人格特质等个体因素的影响。

submitted time 2020-06-09 Hits1622Downloads287 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202006.00037 [pdf]

视听整合对注意瞬脱的影响

王爱君; 赵超越; 唐晓雨; 张明
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

注意瞬脱(Attentional Blink, AB)是指面对接连不断出现的刺激时个体会表现出对较短时间内的刺激识别能力减弱的现象。注意瞬脱的出现很容易造成个体对后续信息加工的流失,是注意在时间维度上局限性的体现。而大量研究指出,个体在与复杂信息环境进行交换沟通时,对于可以在视觉和听觉通道同时呈现信息的物体或刺激识别更快更精准。现有研究表明,视听整合不仅可以促进空间注意的定向和搜索效率,同样在长时程注意中也会引起感觉促进效应。本研究探讨视听整合是否可以调节注意瞬脱造成的局限性影响;如果存在影响,那么整合的强度又会如何影响注意瞬脱,并且这种调节的效能如何更优化。实验1中启用RSVP范式,通过对比不同声音条件下的瞬脱效应探究视听整合对注意瞬脱的影响,结果发现当被忽略的声音与瞬脱窗口的目标同步出现时识别正确率明显提高,证明了视听整合可以减小注意瞬脱,且这种影响并不是由于听觉凸显导致的。实验2根据偏向竞争模型,通过增加听觉任务将注意分配到视听双通道中探究不同整合程度对瞬脱的调节作用,结果发现当需要注意的声音与瞬脱窗口的目标同步出现时识别正确率更显著提升,证明了视听整合效应增强可以更显著地减小注意瞬脱。与此同时也说明了视听整合可以不同程度地调节影响注意瞬脱现象。

submitted time 2020-06-05 Hits1784Downloads413 Comment 0

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