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1. chinaXiv:202004.00001 [pdf]

Reappraisal of Serridentinus gobiensis Osborn & Granger?and Miomastodon tongxinensis Chen:the validity of Miomastodon

WANG Shi-Qi; ZHANG Xiao-Xiao; LI Chun-Xiao?
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The elephantimorph proboscideans, Serridentinus gobiensis Osborn & Granger, 1932, and Miomastodon tongxinensis Chen, 1978, from the Middle Miocene of northern China, were revised as Zygolophodon gobiensis (Osborn & Granger, 1932). However, their phylogenetic positions are still being debated because of their intermediate morphology between the typical bunodont (Gomphotheriidae) and zygodont (Mammutidae) elephantimorphs. In the present paper, we compare their dental and mandibular morphology with that of the Eurasian Z. turicensis, Gomphotherium subtapiroideum, and G. tassyi, as well as the North American Mio. merriami and G. productum. It appears that S. gobiensis and Mio. tongxinensis share with Mio. merriami the slightly more bunodont molar morphology than that of Z. turicensis, e.g., the thicker enamel, thicker pretrite crescentoids, higher interlophid enamel pillars in buccal view, and the narrower contour majorly caused by the narrower posttrite half loph(id)s. S. gobiensis and Mio. merriami also possess an “erected oval cross-sectioned mandibular tusk”, in which the cross-section is mediolaterally compressed (dorsoventral diameter being larger than the mediolateral one). Whereas, in Z. turicensis and G. productum, the mandibular tusk is “laid oval cross-sectioned”, in which the cross-section is dorsoventrally compressed (dorsoventral diameter is smaller than the mediolateral one). Therefore, it is reasonable to revive the genus Miomastodon Osborn, 1922, which contains the species that were previously attributed to Zygolophodon, but they have relatively bunodont molar morphology (i.e., the robust type of the Z. turicensis group). The mandibular tusk with erected?oval cross-section seems to be a synapomorphy of Miomastodon species. Furthermore, the molar morphology of G. subtapiroideum and G. tassyi also exhibits intermediate status between the typical bunodonts and zygodonts. However, the mandibular symphysis of G. subtapiroideum and G. tassyi is stronger than that of Miomastodon, and the mandibular tusk is pyriform cross-sectioned. The validity of Miomastodon and G. subtapiroideum/tassyi obscures the boundary between the Gomphotheriidae and Mammutidae, and suggests that the evolutions of the Gomphotheriidae and?Mammutidae are deeply involved in with each other, rather than straightforwardly detached. This phenomenon has been revealed by a collagen sequence analysis among Notiomastodon, Mammut, and extant elephants, which should be further studied.

submitted time 2020-03-31 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits4560Downloads529 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202004.00002 [pdf]

New material of Cervidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from?Xinyaozi Ravine in Shanxi, North China

DONG Wei; BAI Wei-Peng; PAN Yue; LIU Wen-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Many cervid specimens were uncovered during the field exploration for Nihewan beds?at the beginning of the 1980s from Taijiaping, Shuichongkou and Dazhuangke localities along?Xinyaozi Ravine at Nangaoya Township of Tianzhen County, Shanxi Province in North China.?Recent studies on the cervid material identified seven species of Cervidae in total: Muntiacus?bohlini, Cervavitus cf. C. huadeensis, Axis shansius, Nipponicervus elegans, Elaphurus?davidianus predavidianus, E. bifurcatus from the Early Pleistocene deposits at Taijiaping and?Shuichongkou localities, and Cervus (Elaphus) elaphus from uncertain horizon at Dazhuangke. At?least the previous six species of cervids were from Nihewan Formation (Nihewanian or equivalent?to European middle and late Villafranchian), i.e. the Early Pleistocene, in Sangganhe Basin area.Cervavitus cf. C. huadeensis and A. shansius were survivors from the Late Neogene; M. bohlini,N. elegans, E. davidianus predavidianus and E. bifurcatus are new forms of the Early Pleistocene.If Dazhuangke horizon can be dated as those of Shuichongkou and Taijiaping localities, the appearance of elaphoid cervids could be traced back to the Early Pleistocene, and the evolution of?elaphoid antler would start from absence to presence of bez tine. The presence of Elaphurus and?Nipponicervus in mainland China and Japanese archipelago implies further that the sea level was?dropped down that these cervids could migrate from the mainland to the islands. The abundance?of folivorous cervid specimens in the Xinyaozi Ravine area indicates the existence of a certain?scale of forested environment in Sangganhe Basin area during the Early Pleistocene.

submitted time 2020-03-31 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits4077Downloads459 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201906.00027 [pdf]

Metatarsal II osteohistology of Xixianykus zhangi?(Theropoda: Alvarezsauria) and its implications for the?development of the arctometatarsalian pes

QIN Zi-Chuan; ZHAO Qi; XU Xing
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The late-branching alvarezsaurian Xixianykus zhangi is among the smallest known?non-avialan theropods. With great similarity to its close relatives, it is highly cursorial as?indicated by proportionally long lower segments of the hindlimbs and the presence of an?arctometatarsalian pes–a highly modified structure that has been suggested to improve cursorial?capability in theropods. Here we describe the osteohistology of the metatarsal II of the holotype?of X. zhangi (XMDFEC V 0011). Two rarely reported histological features, radial vascular?canals and Sharpey’s fibers, are presented in this study. We suggest that both features are related?to the development of the arctometatarsalian pes; however, further investigations of metatarsal?osteohistology in theropods are required for the validation of our interpretation.

submitted time 2019-06-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2602Downloads448 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201906.00028 [pdf]

Cladistic approach on chronological relationship of the?Pleistocene mammalian faunas from China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; BAI Wei-Peng
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

There are many localities yielding the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China. It?offers excellent material for the study of mammalian evolution, biochronology,paleoecology,paleoenvironment, paleozoogeography, etc. Faunal assemblage characters and taxonomic?extinction rates were widely used for determining the faunal ages in biochronology. Faunal binary?similarity coefficients sequenced according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity coefficients?were further developed methods in biochronology for dating the faunal ages. The faunal binary?similarity coefficients are based on the presence or absence of a taxon in a fauna. It is similar to?the presence or absence of a character of a species in cladistic analyses for phylogeny, and all?faunas have a special ancestor-descendant relationship. The present work is an attempt to find the?relationship of the faunas with cladistic methods by selecting three groups of faunas sequenced?by faunal binary similarity coefficients according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity?coefficients, to compare the results with different methods, and then to estimate the ages of the?faunas not yet dated by physical or chemical methods. The estimations are as follow: Gulongshan?in Dalian, Liaoning Province: 16–20 ka; Shanchengzi at Benxi, Liaoning Province: 20–30 ka;?Hualongdong at Dongzhi Man site, Anhui Province: 150–400 ka; Xinghuashan at Nanzhao Man?site, Henan Province: 150–400 ka; Donghe at Luonan Man site, Shaanxi Province: 500–700 ka; Bailongdong at Yunxi Man site, Hubei Province: 500–850 ka; Meipu at Yunxian, Hubei?Province: 500–850 ka; Mohui at Tiandong Man site, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.8 Ma;?Juyuandong at Liucheng, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.5 Ma; Chutoulang at Chifeng, Nei?Mongol Autonomous Region: 1.6–1.9 Ma; Renzidong at Fanchang, Anhui Province: 1.9–2.4 Ma.

submitted time 2019-06-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits6766Downloads605 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201906.00096 [pdf]

Metatarsal II osteohistology of Xixianykus zhangi?(Theropoda: Alvarezsauria) and its implications for the?development of the arctometatarsalian pes

QIN Zi-Chuan; ZHAO Qi; XU Xing
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The late-branching alvarezsaurian Xixianykus zhangi is among the smallest known?non-avialan theropods. With great similarity to its close relatives, it is highly cursorial as?indicated by proportionally long lower segments of the hindlimbs and the presence of an?arctometatarsalian pes–a highly modified structure that has been suggested to improve cursorial?capability in theropods. Here we describe the osteohistology of the metatarsal II of the holotype?of X. zhangi (XMDFEC V 0011). Two rarely reported histological features, radial vascular?canals and Sharpey’s fibers, are presented in this study. We suggest that both features are related?to the development of the arctometatarsalian pes; however, further investigations of metatarsal?osteohistology in theropods are required for the validation of our interpretation.

submitted time 2019-06-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2302Downloads305 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201906.00097 [pdf]

Cladistic approach on chronological relationship of the?Pleistocene mammalian faunas from China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; BAI Wei-Peng
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

There are many localities yielding the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China. It?offers excellent material for the study of mammalian evolution, biochronology,paleoecology,paleoenvironment, paleozoogeography, etc. Faunal assemblage characters and taxonomic?extinction rates were widely used for determining the faunal ages in biochronology. Faunal binary?similarity coefficients sequenced according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity coefficients?were further developed methods in biochronology for dating the faunal ages. The faunal binary?similarity coefficients are based on the presence or absence of a taxon in a fauna. It is similar to?the presence or absence of a character of a species in cladistic analyses for phylogeny, and all?faunas have a special ancestor-descendant relationship. The present work is an attempt to find the?relationship of the faunas with cladistic methods by selecting three groups of faunas sequenced?by faunal binary similarity coefficients according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity?coefficients, to compare the results with different methods, and then to estimate the ages of the?faunas not yet dated by physical or chemical methods. The estimations are as follow: Gulongshan?in Dalian, Liaoning Province: 16–20 ka; Shanchengzi at Benxi, Liaoning Province: 20–30 ka;?Hualongdong at Dongzhi Man site, Anhui Province: 150–400 ka; Xinghuashan at Nanzhao Man?site, Henan Province: 150–400 ka; Donghe at Luonan Man site, Shaanxi Province: 500–700 ka; Bailongdong at Yunxi Man site, Hubei Province: 500–850 ka; Meipu at Yunxian, Hubei?Province: 500–850 ka; Mohui at Tiandong Man site, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.8 Ma;?Juyuandong at Liucheng, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.5 Ma; Chutoulang at Chifeng, Nei?Mongol Autonomous Region: 1.6–1.9 Ma; Renzidong at Fanchang, Anhui Province: 1.9–2.4 Ma.

submitted time 2019-06-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits6730Downloads493 Comment 0

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