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Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The shapes of light normal nuclei and Λ hypernuclei are investigated in the (β,γ) deformation plane by using a newly developed constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) model. As examples, the results of some C, Mg, and Si nuclei are presented and discussed in details. We found that for normal nuclei the present RMF calculations and previous Skyrme-Hartree-Fock models predict similar trends of the shape evolution with the neutron number increasing. But some quantitative aspects from these two approaches, such as the depth of the minimum and the softness in the γ direction, differ a lot for several nuclei. For Λ hypernuclei, in most cases, the addition of a Λ hyperon alters slightly the location of the ground state minimum towards the direction of smaller β and softer γ in the potential energy surface E ∼ (β,γ). There are three exceptions, namely, 13C, 23C, and ΛΛ 31Si in which the polarization effect of the additional Λ is so strong that the shapes of these three Λ hypernuclei are drastically different from their corresponding core nuclei. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

For the first time the potential energy surfaces of actinide nuclei in the (β20, β22, β30) deformation space are obtained from a multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theory. With this newly developed theory we are able to explore the importance of the triaxial and octupole shapes simultaneously along the whole fission path. It is found that besides the octupole deformation, the triaxiality also plays an important role upon the second fission barriers. The outer barrier as well as the inner barrier are lowered by the triaxial deformation compared with axially symmetric results. This lowering effect for the reflection asymmetric outer barrier is 0.5 ∼ 1 MeV, accounting for 10 ∼ 20% of the barrier height. With the inclusion of the triaxial deformation, a good agreement with the data for the outer barriers of actinide nuclei is achieved. |

Pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonant states

Bing-Nan Lu; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The pseudospin symmetry is a relativistic dynamical symmetry connected with the small com- ponent of the Dirac spinor. The origin of pseudospin symmetry in single particle bound states in atomic nuclei has been revealed and studied extensively. By examining the zeros of Jost functions corresponding to the small components of Dirac wave functions and phase shifts of continuum states, we show that the pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonant states in nuclei is conserved when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign. The exact conservation and the breaking of pseudospin symmetry are illustrated for single particle resonances in spherical square-well and Woods-Saxon potentials. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The non-axial reflection-asymmetric β32 shape in some transfermium nuclei with N = 150, namely 246Cm, 248Cf, 250Fm, and 252No are investigated with multidimensional constrained covariant den- sity functional theories. By using the density-dependent point coupling covariant density functional theory with the parameter set DD-PC1 in the particle-hole channel, it is found that, for the ground states of 248Cf and 250Fm, the non-axial octupole deformation parameter β32 > 0.03 and the energy gain due to the β32 distortion is larger than 300 keV. In 246Cm and 252No, shallow β32 minima are found. The occurrence of the non-axial octupole β32 correlations is mainly from a pair of neutron orbitals [734]9/2 (νj15/2) and [622]5/2 (νg9/2) which are close to the neutron Fermi surface and a pair of proton orbitals [521]3/2 (πf7/2) and [633]7/2 (πi13/2) which are close to the proton Fermi surface. The dependence of the non-axial octupole effects on the form of energy density functional and on the parameter set is also studied. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories were developed recently. In these theories, all shape degrees of freedom βλμ deformations with even μ are allowed, e.g., β20, β22, β30, β32, β40, β42, β44, and so on and the CDFT functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent couplings. In this contri- bution, some applications of these theories are presented. The potential energy surfaces of actinide nuclei in the (β20 , β22 , β30 ) deformation space are investigated. It is found that besides the octupole deformation, the triaxiality also plays an important role upon the second fission barriers. The non-axial reflection-asymmetric β32 shape in some transfermium nuclei with N = 150, namely 246Cm, 248Cf, 250Fm, and 252No are studied. |

Exact conservation and breaking of pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonant states

Bing-Nan Lu; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

In this contribution we present some results on the study of pseudospin symmetry (PSS) in single particle resonant states. The PSS is a relativistic dynamical symmetry connected with the small component of the nucleon Dirac wave function. Many efforts have been made to study this symmetry in bound states. We recently gave a rigorous justification of the PSS in single particle resonant states by examining the zeros of Jost functions corresponding to the small components of the radial Dirac wave functions and phase shifts of continuum states [1]. We have shown that the PSS in single particle resonant states in nuclei is conserved when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign. Examples of exact conservation and breaking of this symmetry in single particle resonances are given for spherical square-well and Woods-Saxon potentials. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We have developed multi-dimensional constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFT) for finite nuclei in which the shape degrees of freedom βλμ with even μ, e.g., β20, β22, β30, β32, β40, etc., can be described simultaneously. The functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent couplings. For the pp channel, either the BCS approach or the Bogoliubov transformation is implemented. The MDC-CDFTs with the BCS approach for the pairing (in the following labelled as MDC-RMF models with RMF standing for “relativistic mean field”) have been applied to investigate multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces and the non-axial octupole Y32-correlations in N = 150 isotones. In this contribution we present briefly the formalism of MDC-RMF models and some results from these models. The potential energy surfaces with and without triaxial deformations are compared and it is found that the triaxiality plays an important role upon the second fission barriers of actinide nuclei. In the study of Y32-correlations in N = 150 isotones, it is found that, for 248Cf and 250Fm, β32 > 0.03 and the energy is lowered by the β32 distortion by more than 300 keV; while for 246Cm and 252No, the pocket with respect to β32 is quite shallow. |

Pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonances in spherical square wells

Bing-Nan Lu; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Background: The pseudospin symmetry (PSS) has been studied extensively for bound states. Recently we justified rigorously that the PSS in single particle resonant states is exactly conserved when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials of the Dirac Hamiltonian have the same magnitude but opposite sign [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 072501 (2012)]. Purpose: To understand more deeply the PSS in single particle resonant states, we focus on several issues related to the exact conservation and breaking mechanism of the PSS in single particle resonances. In particular, we are interested in how the energy and width splittings of PS partners depend on the depth of the scalar and vector potentials. Methods: We investigate the asymptotic behaviors of radial Dirac wave functions. Spherical square well poten- tials are employed in which the PSS breaking part in the Jost function can be well isolated. By examining the zeros of Jost functions corresponding to small components of the radial Dirac wave functions, general properties of the PSS are analyzed. Results: By examining the Jost function, the occurrence of intruder orbitals is explained and it is possible to trace continuously the PSS partners from the PSS limit to the case with a finite potential depth. The dependence of the PSS in resonances as well as in bound states on the potential depth is investigated systematically. We find a threshold effect in the energy splitting and an anomaly in the width splitting of pseudospin partners when the depth of the single particle potential varies from zero to a finite value. Conclusions: The conservation and the breaking of the PSS in resonant states and bound states share some similar properties. The appearance of intruder states can be explained by examining the zeros of Jost functions. Origins of the threshold effect in the energy splitting and the anomaly in the width splitting of PS partners, together with many other problems, are still open and should be further investigated. |

Recent progresses on the pseudospin symmetry in single particle resonant states

Bing-Nan Lu; En-Guang Zhao; Shan-Gui ZhouSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

The pseudospin symmetry (PSS) is a relativistic dynamical symmetry directly connected with the small component of the nucleon Dirac wave function. Much effort has been made to study this symmetry in bound states. Recently, a rigorous justification of the PSS in single particle resonant states was achieved by examining the asymptotic behaviors of the radial Dirac wave functions: The PSS in single particle resonant states in nuclei is conserved exactly when the attractive scalar and repulsive vector potentials have the same magnitude but opposite sign. Several issues related to the exact conservation and breaking mechanism of the PSS in single particle resonances were investigated by employing spherical square well potentials in which the PSS breaking part can be well isolated in the Jost function. A threshold effect in the energy splitting and an anomaly in the width splitting of pseudospin partners were found when the depth of the square well potential varies from zero to a finite value. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

In this contribution we present some results of potential energy sur- faces of actinide and transfermium nuclei from multi-dimensional constrained relativistic mean field (MDC-RMF) models. Recently we developed multi-dimensional constrained covariant density func- tional theories (MDC-CDFT) in which all shape degrees of freedom βλμ with even μ are allowed and the functional can be one of the following four forms: the meson exchange or point-coupling nucleon interactions combined with the non-linear or density-dependent cou- plings. In MDC-RMF models, the pairing correlations are treated with the BCS method. With MDC-RMF models, the potential energy surfaces of even-even actinide nuclei were investigated and the effect of triaxiality on the fission barriers in these nuclei was discussed. The non-axial reflection-asymmetric β32 shape in some βλμ =0 β22 ̸=0 β20 >0 β30 ̸=0 β20 <0 β32 ̸=0 β40 >0 β20 ≫0 transfermium nuclei with N = 150, namely and 252No were also studied. |