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Insight-HXMT observations of the first binary neutron star merger GW170817

TiPei Li; ShaoLin Xiong; ShuangNan Zhang; FangJun Lu; LiMing Song; XueLei Cao; Zhi Chang; Gang Chen; Li Chen; TianXiang Chen; Yong Chen; YiBao Chen; YuPeng Chen; Wei Cui; WeiWei Cui; JingKang Deng; YongWei Dong; YuanYuan Du; MinXue Fu; GuanHua GaoSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Finding the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart of binary compact star merger, especially the binary neutron star (BNS) merger, is critically important for gravitational wave (GW) astronomy, osmology and fundamental physics. On Aug. 17, 2017, Advanced LIGO and Fermi/GBM independently triggered the first BNS merger, GW170817, and its high energy EM counterpart, GRB 170817A, respectively, resulting in a global observation campaign covering gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, IR, radio as well as neutrinos. The High Energy X-ray telescope (HE) onboard Insight-HXMT (Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope) is the unique high-energy gamma-ray telescope that monitored the entire GW localization area and especially the optical counterpart (SSS17a/AT2017gfo) with very large collection area (~1000 cm2) and microsecond time resolution in 0.2-5 MeV. In addition, Insight-HXMT quickly implemented a Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation to scan the GW localization area for potential X-ray emission from the GW source. Although Insight-HXMT did not detect any significant high energy (0.2-5 MeV) radiation from GW170817, its observation helped to confirm the nexpected weak and soft nature of GRB 170817A. Meanwhile, Insight-HXMT/HE provides one of the most stringent constraints (~10-7 to 10-6 erg/cm2/s) for both GRB170817A and any other possible precursor or extended emissions in 0.2-5 MeV, which help us to better understand the properties of EM radiation from this BNS merger. Therefore the observation of Insight-HXMT constitutes an important chapter in the full context of multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observation of this historical GW event. |

Status of Natural Supersymmetry from the GmSUGRA in Light of the current LHC Run-2 and LUX data

Waqas Ahmed; Xiao-Jun Bi; Tianjun Li; Jia Shu Niu; Shabbar Raza; Qian-Fei Xiang; Peng-Fei YinSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

We study natural supersymmetry in the Generalized Minimal Supergravity (GmSUGRA).For the parameter space with low energy electroweak fine-tuning measures less than 50, we are left with only the Z-pole, Higgs-pole and Higgsino LSP scenarios for dark matter (DM). We perform the focused scans for such parameter space and find that it satisfies various phenomenological constraints and is compatible with the current direct detection bound on neutralino DM reported by the LUX experiment. Such parameter space also has solutions with correct DM relic density besides the solutions with DM relic density smaller or larger than 5 WMAP9 bounds. We present five benchmark points as examples. In these benchmark points, gluino and the first two generations of squarks are heavier than 2 TeV, stop ˜t1,2 are in the mass range [1, 2] TeV, while sleptons are lighter than 1 TeV. Some part of the parameter space can explain the muon anomalous magnetic moment within 3 as well. We also perform the collider study of such solutions by implementing and comparing with relevant studies done by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. We find that the points with Higgsino dominant ˜ 02/ ˜ ±1 mass upto 300 GeV are excluded in Z-pole scenario while for Higgs-pole scenario, the points with ˜ 02 mass up to 460 GeV are excluded. We also notice that the Higgsino LSP points in our present scans are beyond the reach of present LHC searches. Next, we show that for both the Z-pole and Higgs-pole scenarios, the points with electroweak fine-tuning measure around 20 do still survive. |

Perspective on the cosmic-ray electron spectrum above TeV

Kun Fang; Bing-Bing Wang; Xiao-Jun Bi; Su-Jie Lin; Peng-Fei YinSubjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

The AMS-02 has measured the cosmic ray electron (plus positron) spectrum up to ∼TeV with an unprecedent precision. The spectrum can be well described by a power law without any obvious features above 10 GeV. The satellite instrument Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), which was launched a year ago, will measure the electron spectrum up to 10 TeV with a high energy resolution. The cosmic electrons beyond TeV may be attributed to few local cosmic ray sources, such as supernova remnants. Therefore, spectral features, such as cutoﬀ and bumps, can be expected at high energies. In this work we give a careful study on the perspective of the electron spectrum beyond TeV. We ﬁrst examine our astrophysical source models on the latest leptonic data of AMS-02 to give a self-consistent picture. Then we focus on the discussion about the candidate sources which could be electron contributors above TeV. Depending on the properties of the local sources (especially on the nature of Vela), DAMPE may detect interesting features in the electron spectrum above TeV in the future. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We study the dynamic changes of electron energy distribution (EED) through systematically analysing the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 in different states. With Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique we model fourteen SEDs of 3C 279 using a leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED). The 14 SEDs can be satisfactorily fitted with the one-zone leptonic model. The observed γ rays in 13 states are attributed to Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. The curved γ-ray spectrum observed during 2-8 April 2014 is well explained by the external Compton of dust radiation. It is found that there is a clear positive correlation between the curvature parameter b of the EED and the electron peak energy γ′pk. No clear correlation between b and the synchrotron peak frequency νs is found, due to the varied product of Doppler factor and fluid magnetic field from state to state. We interpret the correlation of b−γ′pk in a stochastic acceleration scenario. This positive correlation is in agreement with the prediction in the stage when the balance between acceleration and radiative cooling of the electrons is nearly established in the case of the turbulence spectral index q=2. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We study the possibility that the long term red timing-noise in pulsars originates from the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle χ. The braking torque under consideration is a combination of the dipole radiation and the current loss. We find that the evolution of χ can give rise to extra cubic and fourth-order polynomial terms in the timing residuals. These two terms are determined by the efficiency of the dipole radiation, the relative electric-current density in the pulsar tube and χ. The following observation facts can be explained with this model: a) young pulsars have positive ν¨; b) old pulsars can have both positive and negative ν¨; c) the absolute values of ν¨ are proportional to −ν˙; d) the absolute values of the braking indices are proportional to the characteristic ages of pulsars. If the evolution of χ is purely due to rotation kinematics, then it can not explain the pulsars with braking index less than 3, and thus the intrinsic change of the magnetic field is needed in this case. Comparing the model with observations, we conclude that the drift direction of χ might oscillate many times during the lifetime of a pulsar. The evolution of χ is not sufficient to explain the rotation behavior of the Crab pulsar, because the observed χand χ˙ are inconsistent with the values indicated from the timing residuals using this model. |

Stochastic gravitational wave background from magnetic deformation of newly born magnetars

Quan Cheng; Yun-Wei Yu; Xiao-Ping ZhengSubjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Newly born magnetars are promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) detection due to their ultra-strong magnetic fields and high spin frequencies. Within the scenario of a growing tilt angle between the star's spin and magnetic axis, due to the effect of internal viscosity, we obtain improved estimates of the stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) from magnetic deformation of newly born magnetars. We find that the GW background spectra contributed by the magnetars with ultra-strong toroidal magnetic fields of 10^{17} G could roughly be divided into four segments. Most notably, in contrast to the background spectra calculated by assuming constant tilt angles \chi=\pi/2, the background radiation above 1000 Hz are seriously suppressed. However, the background radiation at the frequency band \sim100-1000 Hz are moderately enhanced, depending on the strengths of the dipole magnetic fields. We suggest that if all newly born magnetars indeed have toroidal magnetic fields of 10^{17} G, the produced SGWBs should show sharp variations with the observed frequency at several tens to about 100 hertz. If these features could be observed through sophisticated detection of the SGWB using the proposed Einstein Telescope, it will provide us a direct evidence of the tilt angle evolutions and further some deep understandings about the properties of newly born magnetars. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We re-estimate the surface magnetic fields of neutron stars (NSs) in Be X-ray binaries (BeXBs) with different models of torque, improved beyond Klus et al. (2014). In particular, a new torque model (Dai \& Li 2006) is applied to three models of magnetosphere radius. Unlike the previous models, the new torque model does not lead to divergent results for any fastness parameter. The inferred surface magnetic fields of these NSs for the two compressed magnetosphere models are much higher than that for the uncompressed magnetosphere model. The new torque model using the compressed-magnetosphere radius (Shi, Zhang \& Li 2014) leads to unique solutions near spin equilibrium in all cases, unlike other models that usually give two branches of solutions. Although our conclusions are still affected by the simplistic assumptions about the magnetosphere radius calculations, we show several groups of possible surface magnetic field values with our new models when the interaction between the magnetosphere and the infalling accretion plasma is considered. The estimated surface magnetic fields for NSs BeXBs in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Milk Way are between the quantum critical field and the maximum "virial" value by the spin equilibrium condition. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Precise spectra of 3C 279 in the 0.5-70 keV range, obtained during two epochs of \emph{Swift} and \emph{NuSTAR} observations, are analyzed using a near-equipartition model. We apply a one-zone leptonic model with a three-parameter log-parabola electron energy distribution (EED) to fit the \emph{Swift} and \emph{NuSTAR} X-ray data, as well as simultaneous optical and \emph{Fermi}-LAT γ-ray data. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is used to search the high-dimensional parameter space and evaluate the uncertainties on model parameters. We show that the two spectra can be successfully fit in near-equipartition conditions, defined by the ratio of the energy density of relativistic electrons to magnetic field ζe being close to unity. In both spectra, the observed X-rays are dominated by synchrotron-self Compton photons, and the observed γ rays are dominated by Compton scattering of external infrared photons from a surrounding dusty torus. Model parameters are well constrained. From the low state to the high state, both the curvature of the log-parabola width parameter and the synchrotron peak frequency significantly increase. The derived magnetic fields in the two states are nearly identical (∼1\ G), but the Doppler factor in the high state is larger than that in the low state (∼28 versus ∼18). We derive that the gamma-ray emission site takes place outside the broad-line region, at ≳ 0.1 pc from the black hole, but within the dusty torus. Implications for 3C 279 as a source of high-energy cosmic-rays are discussed. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution (∼1% for electrons and photons and 20% for nuclei) and a large geometry factor (>3m2sr for electrons and diffuse photons and >2m2sr for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic γ-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic γ-ray searches at energies between ∼10 to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD. |

Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

We model the evolution of the spin frequency's second derivative ν¨ and the braking index n of radio pulsars with simulations within the phenomenological model of their surface magnetic field evolution, which contains a long-term power-law decay modulated by short-term oscillations. For the pulsar PSR B0329+54, a model with three oscillation components can reproduce its ν¨ variation. We show that the "averaged" n is different from the instantaneous n, and its oscillation magnitude decreases abruptly as the time span increases, due to the "averaging" effect. The simulated timing residuals agree with the main features of the reported data. Our model predicts that the averaged ν¨ of PSR B0329+54 will start to decrease rapidly with newer data beyond those used in Hobbs et al.. We further perform Monte Carlo simulations for the distribution of the reported data in |ν¨| and |n| versus characteristic age τc diagrams. It is found that the magnetic field oscillation model with decay index α=0 can reproduce the distributions quite well. Compared with magnetic field decay due to the ambipolar diffusion (α=0.5) and the Hall cascade (α=1.0), the model with no long term decay (α=0) is clearly preferred for old pulsars by the p-values of the two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. |