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1. chinaXiv:202004.00019 [pdf]

The phylogenetic position of Cladiucha within Tenthredinidae based on comprehensive mitochondrial phylogenomics and the evidence from comparative analyses of rRNA secondary structure

Niu, Gengyun; Jiang Sijia; Do?an, ?zgül ; Korkmaz, Ertan Mahir; Budak, Mahir ; Wu, Duo; Wei, Meicai
Subjects: Biology >> Entomology

Two mitogenomes of Cladiucha were newly reported and shown typical pattern of gene arrangement. The phylogenetic position of Cladiucha was obtained from tree reconstruction using various data treatment methods and substitution models. Significant heterogeneity in the nucleotide composition and mutational biases was found in the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, and the third codon position exhibited high levels of saturation. Therefore, 14 datasets were conducted under both site-homogeneous and site-heterogeneous models. The following conclusions were drawn from the phylogenetic analyses: (i) the monophyly of Tenthredinidae was confirmed, (ii) the monophyly of Allantinae + Tenthredininae + Megabelesinae was approved, and (iii) within the family, ((((Tenthredininae + Fenusinae) + Allantinae) + Megabelesinae) + Nematinae) is probably the most acceptable cladogram for the phylogeny of Tenthredinidae, which is also supported by the morphological analysis and a comparative study on the rRNA secondary structure. Divergence time estimation analyses indicated that diversification of the major superfamilies of the suborder Symphyta occurred around 232.9 Ma, and the splits of Tenthredinidae were dated to 146 Ma, which corresponding to the origin of the earliest lineages of flowering plants and major diversifications of core angiosperms, respectively. The Cladiucha arose in the Mid-Miocene; at that time, magnoliids are rapidly undergoing genus-species differentiation. "

submitted time 2020-04-10 Hits139Downloads45 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202004.00012 [pdf]

茄子野生近缘种托鲁巴姆(Solanums torvum)试管微扦插繁殖技术研究

张映卿; ?钟川; ?刘斯晗; ?田茂燕; ?向婷颖; ?阳燕娟; ?于文进
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

嫁接栽培是茄果类蔬菜防治土传病害和提高产量的重要措施之一。茄子野生近缘种托鲁巴姆(Solanums torvum)因综合抗性强,成为了茄子和番茄嫁接的常用优良砧木。但是,由于托鲁巴姆种子的发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数较低,苗龄较长,限制了其在工厂化育苗中的大规模应用,因此迫切需要开发其他方法及相应技术体系提高托鲁巴姆的育苗效率,降低育苗成本。本研究探索并优化了试管内微扦插繁殖托鲁巴姆技术,以无菌播种获得初代无菌苗的茎段为外植体,通过在培养基中添加植物生长调节剂,对比不同浓度植物生长调节剂对托鲁巴姆微扦插繁殖过程中的影响。结果表明托鲁巴姆在不同培养基中,腋芽诱导、继代增殖和生根培养的效果存在显著差异,初代芽诱导的最佳培养基为 MS+KT 0.5 mg·L-1+IBA 0.1 mg·L-1,出芽率达 90%;继代扦插最佳培养基为 MS+IBA 0.4 mg·L-1,培养 30 d 的增殖系数达 6.11,植株长势健壮;最佳生根培养基为 1/2MS+IBA 0.2 mg·L-1,生根培养 30 d,单株一级根数 4.56 条,最长根长 125.80 mm、根粗 0.50 mm,根系发达。采用试管内微扦插技术繁殖托鲁巴姆种苗,操作简单,增殖系数较高,可满足快速繁育种苗的要求,本研究结果为托鲁巴姆的工厂化规模育苗提供了新途径。

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits100Downloads44 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202004.00013 [pdf]

滇龙胆GrHDR 基因的克隆与表达分析

杜波; 蔡传涛; 张霁
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

龙胆苦苷(gentiopicroside)是中药龙胆中的主要药效成分,属于萜类化合物的衍生物。1- 羟基-2- 甲基-2- ( E ) - 丁烯基-4- 二磷酸还原酶( 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase),HDR 是萜类物质合成途径中的关键酶。为探讨不同光照条件下滇龙胆HDR(GrHDR)基因的表达与龙胆苦苷含量之间的关系,以滇龙胆叶片cDNA 为模板,采用PCR 和TA 克隆技术获得GrHDR 基因序列,对该序列进行生物信息学分析和表达分析,并采用高效液相色谱法测定龙胆苦苷含量,对该基因表达与龙胆苦苷含量进行比较。结果表明:GrHDR 基因(GenBank 登录号: KJ917165.1)全长1 398 bp,编码465 个氨基酸,推定GrHDR 蛋白是亲水且稳定的,相对分子质量是52 281.25 Da,理论等电点是5.32;该蛋白属于LYTB 蛋白家族,可能定位于叶绿体上,无信号肽,二级结构主要由α-螺旋(45.16%),β-转角(6.24%)、无规卷曲(33.98%)、延伸链(14.62%)构成;GrHDR 蛋白序列与同属植物秦艽的HDR 蛋白相似性最高(95.71%);实时荧光定量PCR 结果显示GrHDR 基因在滇龙胆中的表达量为:根> 叶> 茎,而在10%、30%、100%全光光照条件下各组织的表达量有很大差异;高效液相色谱法结果显示,不同光照条件下龙胆苦苷含量一致,均为:根> 叶> 茎,其中100%全光光照下,药用部位根中龙胆苦苷含量达到7.141%,约是30%、10%全光光照条件的两倍,但该结果与同一光照条件下GrHDR 基因表达规律不完全一致。本研究为阐述HDR 基因功能及其与龙胆苦苷含量的关系提供参考。

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits114Downloads61 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202004.00014 [pdf]

于西藏东南部发现桐庐铁线莲

王文采
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

毛茛科的桐庐铁线莲 Clematis tongluensis 原知分布于尼泊尔、不丹、印度东北部和孟加拉,今夏在西藏东南部被发现。此种与绣球腾 Clematis montana 在亲缘关系上接近,与后者的区别在于此种的萼片呈长圆形,顶端尾状渐尖和表面被毛,背面无毛。

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits100Downloads53 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202004.00015 [pdf]

22 个木槿品种花粉形态与分类研究

赵艺璇; 冯琪; ?田琳; ?张家培; ?王鑫; ?刘易超; 刘冬云
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

为研究木槿(Hibiscus syriacus)不同品种花粉形态的多样性及其亲缘关系,本研究以22 个木槿品种的花粉为材料,通过扫描电镜进行形态特征及外壁纹饰观测,然后使用R 型聚类分析和主成分分析提取合适的指标进行UPGMA 聚类分析。研究结果如下:(1)木槿的花粉均为单粒近球形,直径为148.98 μm-111.65 μm;表面具有刺状纹饰,长度为27.42 μm-14.79 μm,刺先端较尖,细刺周围均匀分布散孔;花粉表面分布有颗粒状突起,萌发孔性状不规则。(2)对测量指标提取主成分后进行UPGMA 聚类分析,当欧氏平均距离阈值为6 时,22 个木槿品种被分为6 大类,单瓣蓝紫色品种‘蓝鸟’、‘单瓣紫粉’、‘细叶’等亲缘关系较近,半重瓣品种‘薰衣草雪纺’、‘中国雪纺’、‘粉色雪纺’等亲缘关系较近,而‘木桥’、‘汉帛’等粉白色单瓣木槿品种亲缘关系相对较近。本研究认为木槿种内蓝紫色品种相对较为原始,白色半重瓣品种次之,紫色半重瓣品种相对较为进化,白色单瓣品种进化程度更高。本研究结果为木槿种内遗传演化、分类地位以及亲缘关系的鉴定提供了依据。

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits92Downloads49 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202004.00016 [pdf]

黄土高原油松和辽东栎林下植物β多样性差异及影响因素

王世雄; ?夏婷婷; 王孝安
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

β多样性是生态学研究的热点论题,相同的β多样性格局可能由不同的生态过程所决定。该研究通过构建零假说模型和典范变异分解的方法,比较了黄土高原油松人工林(Form.Pinus tabulaeformis)和辽东栎天然林(Form. Quercus wutaishanica)林下植物群落的β多样性,确定了环境过滤和扩散限制在β多样性形成过程中的相对重要性,旨在揭示两种林型林下植物群落β多样性形成过程的差异,为黄土高原区域生态环境建设提供理论依据和实践指导。结果表明:(1)油松人工林和辽东栎天然林的林下群落均具有相似的β多样性大小,也均呈现了明显的种内聚集过程。(2)环境和空间共同解释了两种林型林下物种组成的较大变化(草本层:[E + S] = 33-45%;灌木层:[E + S] = 21-35%),且主要以环境解释量为主(包括纯环境变量[E | S]和空间化的环境变量[E ∩ S])。(3)油松人工林和辽东栎天然林林下群落β多样性形成过程的不同主要体现在生境异质性差异以及特定的环境因子间,海拔梯度、枯落物厚度以及土壤养分(速效氮和速效钾)是引起两种林型林下物种差异的显著环境因子。结果说明,黄土高原的油松人工林和辽东栎天然林的群落构建均由确定性的环境过滤为主导;但是,两种林型的环境过滤过程并不一样,主要表现为生境异质性的差异和不同的环境限制因子。对于黄土高原区域生态环境建设,首先应该保证不同群落的生境异质性,同时,不能忽视扩散限制及其与生境异质性二者交互作用对β多样性的影响

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits87Downloads45 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202004.00017 [pdf]

云锦杜鹃不同花期挥发性成分的 HS-SPME-GC-MS 检测与主成分分析

章辰飞; ?谢晓鸿; ?汪庆昊; ?王文静; ?王锦阳; ?谢宇; ?吴月燕
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

为了探究云锦杜鹃的挥发性成分,该研究采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用技术对云锦杜鹃不同花期中的挥发性成分进行定性定量分析,并通过主成分分析法分析其特征挥发性成分。结果表明:4β -月桂烯、β -罗勒烯、可巴烯、异喇叭烯、桉树脑、 衣兰烯、(+)-表二环倍半水芹烯、(3R-反式)-4-乙烯基-4-甲基

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits104Downloads57 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202004.00018 [pdf]

山东水龙骨科植物孢粉学研究及其在分类上的意义

李晓娟; 李建秀
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

基于?Flora of China 采用国际石松类和蕨类植物新分类系统,其水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)不仅涵盖了秦仁昌分类系统中的水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)20 多属,还包括槲蕨科(Drynariaceae)、鹿角蕨科(Platyceriaceae)等独立的科。水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)新分类系统种类较多,分类复杂,需对其合理性和孢粉学在新分类系统中的意义进行新的探讨。该文首次以新分类系统,采用扫描电镜对山东分布的水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)植物孢子形态及其周壁纹饰亚显微结构进行系统观察。该科孢子形态为圆肾形,左右对称,具周壁,其周壁纹饰在种内稳定,在亚科、属及种间区别显著。孢粉学研究结果,支持槲蕨亚科、鹿角蕨亚科分别列于水龙骨科下的两个亚科;基于山东假瘤蕨孢子周壁纹饰,并结合叶片形态特征,山东假瘤蕨(Phymatopteris shandongensis J. X. Li et C. Y. Wang)应为一个独立的新种,不宜并入金鸡脚假瘤蕨[P. hastata (Thunb.) Pic. Serm.]。依据《国际植物命名法规》和?Flora of China 分类系统,山东假瘤蕨(Phymatopteris shandongensis J. X. Li et C. Y. Wang)新组合为山东假瘤蕨[Selliguea shandongensis (J. X. Li et C. Y. Wang) J. X. Li & X. J. Li, comb. nov.]。不仅首次为水龙骨科植物孢粉学积累了新的资料,而且也为其新分类系统提供了孢粉学依据,与?DNA 分类系统相吻合,证明其新分类系统的合理性和科学性,在构建水龙骨科及其亚科的自然分类系统中具有重要意义。

submitted time 2020-04-03 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits73Downloads35 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202004.00001 [pdf]

Reappraisal of Serridentinus gobiensis Osborn & Granger?and Miomastodon tongxinensis Chen:the validity of Miomastodon

WANG Shi-Qi; ZHANG Xiao-Xiao; LI Chun-Xiao?
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The elephantimorph proboscideans, Serridentinus gobiensis Osborn & Granger, 1932, and Miomastodon tongxinensis Chen, 1978, from the Middle Miocene of northern China, were revised as Zygolophodon gobiensis (Osborn & Granger, 1932). However, their phylogenetic positions are still being debated because of their intermediate morphology between the typical bunodont (Gomphotheriidae) and zygodont (Mammutidae) elephantimorphs. In the present paper, we compare their dental and mandibular morphology with that of the Eurasian Z. turicensis, Gomphotherium subtapiroideum, and G. tassyi, as well as the North American Mio. merriami and G. productum. It appears that S. gobiensis and Mio. tongxinensis share with Mio. merriami the slightly more bunodont molar morphology than that of Z. turicensis, e.g., the thicker enamel, thicker pretrite crescentoids, higher interlophid enamel pillars in buccal view, and the narrower contour majorly caused by the narrower posttrite half loph(id)s. S. gobiensis and Mio. merriami also possess an “erected oval cross-sectioned mandibular tusk”, in which the cross-section is mediolaterally compressed (dorsoventral diameter being larger than the mediolateral one). Whereas, in Z. turicensis and G. productum, the mandibular tusk is “laid oval cross-sectioned”, in which the cross-section is dorsoventrally compressed (dorsoventral diameter is smaller than the mediolateral one). Therefore, it is reasonable to revive the genus Miomastodon Osborn, 1922, which contains the species that were previously attributed to Zygolophodon, but they have relatively bunodont molar morphology (i.e., the robust type of the Z. turicensis group). The mandibular tusk with erected?oval cross-section seems to be a synapomorphy of Miomastodon species. Furthermore, the molar morphology of G. subtapiroideum and G. tassyi also exhibits intermediate status between the typical bunodonts and zygodonts. However, the mandibular symphysis of G. subtapiroideum and G. tassyi is stronger than that of Miomastodon, and the mandibular tusk is pyriform cross-sectioned. The validity of Miomastodon and G. subtapiroideum/tassyi obscures the boundary between the Gomphotheriidae and Mammutidae, and suggests that the evolutions of the Gomphotheriidae and?Mammutidae are deeply involved in with each other, rather than straightforwardly detached. This phenomenon has been revealed by a collagen sequence analysis among Notiomastodon, Mammut, and extant elephants, which should be further studied.

submitted time 2020-03-31 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits252Downloads105 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202004.00002 [pdf]

New material of Cervidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from?Xinyaozi Ravine in Shanxi, North China

DONG Wei; BAI Wei-Peng; PAN Yue; LIU Wen-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Many cervid specimens were uncovered during the field exploration for Nihewan beds?at the beginning of the 1980s from Taijiaping, Shuichongkou and Dazhuangke localities along?Xinyaozi Ravine at Nangaoya Township of Tianzhen County, Shanxi Province in North China.?Recent studies on the cervid material identified seven species of Cervidae in total: Muntiacus?bohlini, Cervavitus cf. C. huadeensis, Axis shansius, Nipponicervus elegans, Elaphurus?davidianus predavidianus, E. bifurcatus from the Early Pleistocene deposits at Taijiaping and?Shuichongkou localities, and Cervus (Elaphus) elaphus from uncertain horizon at Dazhuangke. At?least the previous six species of cervids were from Nihewan Formation (Nihewanian or equivalent?to European middle and late Villafranchian), i.e. the Early Pleistocene, in Sangganhe Basin area.Cervavitus cf. C. huadeensis and A. shansius were survivors from the Late Neogene; M. bohlini,N. elegans, E. davidianus predavidianus and E. bifurcatus are new forms of the Early Pleistocene.If Dazhuangke horizon can be dated as those of Shuichongkou and Taijiaping localities, the appearance of elaphoid cervids could be traced back to the Early Pleistocene, and the evolution of?elaphoid antler would start from absence to presence of bez tine. The presence of Elaphurus and?Nipponicervus in mainland China and Japanese archipelago implies further that the sea level was?dropped down that these cervids could migrate from the mainland to the islands. The abundance?of folivorous cervid specimens in the Xinyaozi Ravine area indicates the existence of a certain?scale of forested environment in Sangganhe Basin area during the Early Pleistocene.

submitted time 2020-03-31 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits213Downloads105 Comment 0

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