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1. chinaXiv:202003.00079 [pdf]

南京人更“仇日”吗:“南京大屠杀”背景下网络评论影响群际宽恕的地区差异

张田; 孙卉
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

为探讨网络评论影响群际宽恕的地区差异,本研究基于“南京大屠杀”历史事件的背景,选取了来自六个城市的152名市民参与此次研究,研究中让被试阅读有关“南京大屠杀”的新闻报道和虚拟的网络评论,并在此基础上填写群际宽恕问卷。结果显示:(1)网络评论的方向性能够显著影响新闻报道读者的群际宽恕水平;(2)网络评论对于群际宽恕的影响存在地区差异,即对于非南京市民而言,当评论的方向为正向时,其群际宽恕水平也相对更高,反之则更低;对于南京市民而言,无论评论的方向性如何,其群际宽恕水平都保持在相对较高的水平;(3)与外国群体相比,中国被试的群际宽恕水平更低。这种地区的差异可能源于对历史事件的认知、文化的差异、政治等因素。在此基础上,群际宽恕的研究还可以进一步关注文化背景、测量工具、干预模式等领域。

submitted time 2020-03-29 Hits231Downloads96 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202003.00078 [pdf]

面孔识别自我群体偏向的认知机制、影响因素和理论模型

温芳芳 Wen, Fangfang; 佐斌 Zuo,Bin; 马书瀚 Ma,Shuhan; 谢志杰 Xie,Zhijie
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

面孔认知研究表明,人们识别和再认自己所属群体(如种族、性别、年龄)面孔的成绩显著好于识别其他群体面孔的成绩。近年来围绕面孔识别的这种自我群体偏向进行了实验研究,研究者提出了知觉经验说和社会认知论两种理论来解释其认知加工机制,而类别化-个性化模型和双路径模型则是将两种理论分别加以整合提出的新解释。研究者还对面孔识别自我群体偏向的神经机制进行了研究,探讨了评价者、评价对象和评价任务等因素对自我群体偏向的影响。提升面孔识别自我群体偏向研究的生态效度,构建整合性理论模型以及加强跨文化和本土研究是未来研究的重要方向。

submitted time 2020-03-28 Hits184Downloads77 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202002.00017 [pdf]

自我肯定缓冲新冠疫情引发的焦虑反应:一项随机对照研究

李世峰; 吴艺玲; 张福民; 许琼英; 周爱保
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

当个体知觉到环境中存在威胁时,就会自动的引发个体的应激反应。而长期的应激会使个体产生一系列严重的心理和身体健康问题。大量的研究发现肯定自我价值可以缓冲由应激引发的负面情绪和身体反应。本研究通过实验的方法考察了肯定自我价值是否可以降低新冠肺炎(COVID-19)疫情引发的焦虑和抑郁情绪反应。220名被试被随机分配到自我价值肯定任务组或控制任务组,被试在干预前(2月2日)和一个星期后(2月9日)完成焦虑和抑郁测量。研究结果发现相对于控制组在一周后比前测时表现出更严重的焦虑情绪,自我价值肯定组在前测和一周后在焦虑情绪上没有显著的变化,这一效应在控制了性别、年龄、受教育水平和家庭年收入后仍然存在。这些结果表明简短的(约10分钟)对自我价值的反思可以帮助个体缓冲疫情引发的焦虑情绪反应。这一发现对于从社会心理的视角进行疫情防护提供了重要的科学证据。

submitted time 2020-03-27 Hits3181Downloads109 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202003.00005 [pdf]

Psychological responses to the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak

Zheng JIN; Kaibin ZHAO; Yanyu XIA; Ruijun CHEN; Huan YU; Timothy TAMUNANG TAMUTANA1; Jeffrey SHERMAN; Christina BERMEITINGER; Pamela BAESS
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has infected more than 90,000 people in at least 69 countries by Feb 29, 2020. Medical interest in COVID-19 has been considerable. Mental health issues that coincide with the epidemics are rarely examined. There is a strong need for public health officials to consider how psychological effects vary at each phase of a crisis and how they relate to people to better support them in these shifting states of mind. The present study examines temporal relationships among behavioral and emotional responses towards COVID-19 and attitudinal responses to crisis management. 846 adults were invited to complete a set of Internet-based questionnaires at two time points with a range of 14 to 18 days’ intervals covered by the ascending phase of the outbreak. At the baseline assessment 788 adults completed the questionnaires. At the Wave 2 survey, 318 adults from Wave 1 were retained. Results from cross-lagged models demonstrated reciprocal negative associations between anxiety and crisis management appraise. In addition, the higher evaluation of crisis management in the initial period of outbreak predicted adoption of preventive behaviors and susceptibility to emotional contagion to a greater extend in a later period. Susceptibility to emotional contagion also positively predicted preventive behaviors taken. Furthermore, multiple group structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation of crisis management is more likely to affect the susceptibility to emotional contagion of people on the frontline of the outbreak (i.e., Wuhan) compared to people living in moderate risk areas (i.e., Outside of Hubei). These data provide experimental evidence regarding mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak, and over the course of a pandemic, which will direct governments and health authorities during disease outbreaks through their attempts to communicate with the public.

submitted time 2020-03-04 Hits8647Downloads1246 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202003.00001 [pdf]

“心理台风眼效应”与“涟漪效应”:不同程度NCP疫情地区民众的风险感知与焦虑特征

温芳芳 Wen, Fangfang; 马书瀚 Ma, Shuhan; 叶含雪 Ye, Hanxue; 齐玥 Qi, Yue; 佐斌 Zuo, Bin
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

自武汉“封城”后的一个月内,本研究对武汉、湖北其他地区、湖北接壤地区和全国其他省市共计3972名民众进行了“民众自身”和“武汉居民”双视角评估的动态追踪调查。结果表明,研究1基于疫情期民众自身的心理状态存在明显的“涟漪效应”。武汉和湖北重灾区居民对疫情的关心度、风险感知和焦虑均显著高于湖北接壤地区和全国其他省市等相对轻度灾区,且关心度和风险感知在不同灾区的焦虑之间起多重中介作用。研究2基于不同程度疫情地区对“武汉居民”心理状况评估发现,民众对武汉居民在疫情关注时间、焦虑和武汉所需心理咨询师及医生的人数评估均符合“心理台风眼效应”。这些发现一方面为以往研究所发现的灾难关联的“心理台风眼效应”产生的边界条件提供了更丰富的证据,另一方面也为突发公共卫生风险事件的应急管理提供了具有针对性的现实心理依据。

submitted time 2020-03-01 Hits7256Downloads267 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202002.00020 [pdf]

网约车场景中声誉和面孔可信度对女性信任判断的影响以及直觉性思维的调节作用

李庆功; 王震炎; 孙捷元; 师妍
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

以58名女性为研究对象,用网约车场景来考察声誉和面孔可信度对其信任判断的影响,并探讨直觉性思维的调节作用。结果表明声誉和面孔可信度会影响女性在选乘网约车时的信任判断,她们更愿意信任声誉良好和面孔可信度高的司机;相比低直觉性思维女性而言,声誉对高直觉性思维女性的信任判断影响较小,而面孔可信度对高直觉女性的信任判断影响较大。

submitted time 2020-02-12 Hits863Downloads146 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201910.00029 [pdf]

Stand up to Action: The Postural Effect on Deontological Responding and the Boundary Condition of Dual Process

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Present research aimed to uncover a postural effect on deontological responding and its boundary condition of dual process. Previous literatures demonstrated a possibility that people have a stronger controlled cognitive process propensity, thus being less deontological in standing than sitting postures, and that this postural effect can be moderated by dual process. We conducted two studies in which participant read dilemma scenarios and rated the morally acceptance and action intention of the utilitarian proposal after each scenario when sitting or standing. The hypothesized postural effect was verified in a field study (Study 1) and also replicated in an experimental study (Study 2). Compared with those in sitting postures, participants in standing postures approved more to the utilitarian proposal and became less deontological. Furthermore, the postural effect was dismissed when participants made moral decisions with a dual task to increase cognitive load and reversed when participants made moral decisions after deliberate consideration of the sacrificial proposal (Study 2). Thus, the postural effect was stable across field and experimental studies and moderated by dual process. The present research supports and extends the dual process morality theory by confirming that body posture can affect moral decision-making, and also offers a novel evidence confirming the moderating role of dual process on embodiment effects. It enriches our knowledge that morality is evolutionarily embodied in postures and dual process can moderate the embodiment effects.

submitted time 2020-01-14 Hits10988Downloads763 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202001.00074 [pdf]

元认知中自信心对联合决策的预测作用

张紫琦; 贺则宇; 罗文波; 伍海燕
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

元认知通常指个体对自身认知活动的主观判断,自信心作为其指标之一,对个体认识和调节自己的行为有重要作用。研究表明自信心指标在联合研究过程中常见的任务类型涉及基础和高级心理加工过程,此外,自信心对联合决策的预测逐渐向基于计算模型的探索性参数变化。最后,自信心的神经生理研究发现了前额叶皮层及其相关脑区和后顶叶皮层的重要性。今后应注重探索可能的预测参数和模型,优化自信心对联合决策的预测作用。

submitted time 2020-01-04 Hits912Downloads203 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201912.00040 [pdf]

最心安处是吾乡:本体安全感威胁对家乡品牌偏好的影响

徐岚; 蒋怡然; 崔楠; 张留霞; 赵帅勤
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

全球化进程的加快和贸易战的发生让人们处于一种本体不安全的状态中,即人们的本体安全感受到了威胁。本文研究了消费者本体安全感威胁对家乡品牌偏好的影响。三项研究的结果表明,相比本体安全感没有受到威胁的个体,本体安全感受到威胁的个体对家乡品牌的偏好度更高,其中家乡依恋起到了中介作用。具体而言,本体安全感受到威胁的个体更倾向于依恋可以提供常规生活和构建个人身份的家乡,以此寻求本体安全感恢复,从而增加了对家乡品牌的偏好。实验结果还发现,自然栖息地情境展露在本体安全感威胁对家乡品牌偏好的作用中起到调节作用。具体而言,当展露于自然栖息地情境时,本体安全感受到威胁的个体能够通过对自然栖息地这一更广泛的地点依恋来对抗本体安全感威胁,不再需要寻求家乡依恋来缓解本体安全感威胁,从而使其在对家乡品牌和非家乡品牌的偏好上不再呈现出差异。本研究的发现丰富了现有本体安全感和品牌偏好的相关研究,为品牌提供了一种新的本土营销策略,具有丰富的理论贡献和管理启示。

submitted time 2019-12-31 Hits1088Downloads296 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201912.00039 [pdf]

西装还是裙子?服装性别刻板印象的情境效应

温芳芳; 马书瀚; 何赛飞; 张丽思; 佐斌
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

本研究通过三个系列研究分别基于行动者和观察者视角考察了服装性别刻板印象的情境效应。结果发现:(1)人们对穿着反服装性别刻板男性的热情和能力评价均显著低于服装性别刻板者;而对反服装性别刻板女性的热情评价不存在明显差异,对其能力评价更高。(2)基于观察者视角:无论热情还是能力需要情境,人们均对符合服装性别刻板男性目标的热情和能力评价更高;而在能力需求情境,对于符合服装性别刻板的女性热情评价更高,而对反服装性别刻板的女性能力评价更高。(3)基于行动者视角:无论在热情需求还是能力需求情境,男性均表现出对符合性别刻板服装的偏好;在能力需求情境下,女性更倾向于选择反性别刻板服装;进一步,在能力需求情境下,选择反性别刻板的女性对自己的能力评价显著高于热情;在交友需求情境选择反性别刻板服装的男性对自己的热情评价显著高于能力。这些结果将传统以“人”为对象的性别刻板印象研究拓展到与人关联的服装领域,一方面丰富了性别刻板印象维护的抵制行为功能模型;另一方面对于人际交往领域中采用服装进行不同场景的印象管理具有重要的实践应用价值。

submitted time 2019-12-30 Hits1060Downloads291 Comment 0

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