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1. chinaXiv:202002.00072 [pdf]

行为贫困陷阱的心理机制与管理对策:基于认知与动机双视角

徐富明; 黄龙; 张慧; 相鹏; 刘腾飞; 李亚红
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

借鉴行为经济学家开创的应用行为决策于贫困研究的新范式, 选取我国“连片特困地区”的贫困者为研究对象。首先建构“认知和动机双视角的行为贫困陷阱”的立论模型; 然后通过“贫困所致认知后果影响后继决策行为的心理机制和神经机制”, 以及“贫困所致认知和动机后果共同影响后继决策行为的作用机制”来探索贫困所致心理后果与后继决策行为间的因果效应; 最后进行“贫困所致认知功能改变影响后继决策行为的随机控制实验”和“贫困所致自我认同改变影响后继决策行为的现场干预研究”, 旨在通过“扶志和扶智”达到“授人以渔”, 并从中提炼出可供扶贫政策参考的管理对策。

submitted time 2020-02-26 Hits3Downloads0 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202002.00065 [pdf]

Potential of Arbidol for Post-exposure Prophylaxis of COVID-19 Transmission

Jinnong,Zhang; Wenjing,Wang; Bo,Peng; Wei,Peng; Yisheng,Zhang; Yaling,Wang; Yan,Wan; Jiang,Chang; Ling,Mao; Xiaoping,Miao; Yifan,Zhou; Yanan,Li; Yu,Hu; Bo,Hu
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Clinical Medicine

Background: The efficient transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from patients to healthcare workers or family members has been a worrisome and prominent feature of the ongoing outbreak. On the basis of clinical practice and in-vitro studies, we postulated that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) using Arbidol is associated with decreased infection among individuals exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control study on family members and health care workers who were exposed to patients confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and Chest CT from January 1 to January 16, 2020. We collected demographic information, work location of exposure, post-exposure prophylaxis information, and symptoms, if any, 24 days after exposure. The relation between post-exposure prophylaxis and infection in household contacts and healthcare workers were respectively analyzed. Results: 27 families and 124 health care workers had evidence of close exposure to patients with confirmed COVID-19. There were no differences in age, profession and sex distribution in the two groups with different post-exposure prophylaxis, table 1. Logistic regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or Oseltamivir prophylaxis showed that Arbidol PEP was a strong protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (Odds ratio 0·011 , 95% CI 0·001-0·125, P=0·0003 for family members and Odds ratio 0·049, 95%CI 0·003-0·717), P= 0·0276 for health care workers). On the contrary, Oseltamivir was associated with an increase in COVID-19 infection (Odds ratio 20·446, 95% CI 1·407-297·143, P= 0·0271). Conclusions: Our findings suggest Arbidol could reduce the infection risk of the novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings. This treatment should be promoted for PEP use and should be the subject of further investigation.

submitted time 2020-02-26 Hits545Downloads224 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202002.00067 [pdf]

全球化语境下的多元文化能力模型及其在跨文化合作中的应用

施媛媛
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

全球化带来了丰富的多元文化经验,开阔了人们视野的同时,也造成了认知负担,进而可能引发对外文化群体的抵触情绪和排斥行为。多元文化经验的普遍性和两面性突显了对其进行合理管理和灵活应用的重要性。然而,现有的文化能力的理论大多在全球化研究早期提出,已经无法应对全球化带来的新变化。在文化会聚主义理论框架下,将文化视为动态发展的系统,建构以元知识为核心的多元文化能力模型将有助于深入理解全球化问题。新模型的效用检验计划从文化知识管理和群际接触应对两方面检验多元文化能力在跨文化合作情境中的效用与机制,以期为全球化环境中个人与组织开展跨文化交流与合作的实践提供理论指导。

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits46Downloads19 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202002.00071 [pdf]

Potential treatment of Chinese and Western Medicine targeting nsp14 of 2019 nCov

Yang Tai; Xiaoxiao Zhu; Yiyao Lu; Xu Jia; Tai Yang
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Pharmacology

2019年12月,自武汉开始我国爆发严重的新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)感染疫情,急需开发2019-nCoV治疗药物。冠状病毒非结构蛋白 (Nonstructural protein, NSP) 在病毒基因组复制以及转录过程中起重要作用,在冠状病毒家族中普遍保守,是冠状病毒重要功能蛋白。其中,NSP14蛋白兼具核酸外切酶和甲基转移酶功能,是抗SARS和其他冠状病毒药物研究的重要靶点。序列分析表明, SARS coronavirus (PDB ID: 5nfy) 与武汉华南海鲜批发市场新型冠状病毒分离毒株 (GenBank: MN985325.1)氨基酸序列同源性为98.7%。本研究通过已发表的SARS-NSP14晶体结构 (PDB ID: 5nfy) 进行同源建模,构建2019-nCoV-NSP14的蛋白三维结构模型,对其N端-甲基转移酶以及C端-甲基转移酶结构功能域分别进行虚拟筛选,筛选出了18个对NSP14有抑制活性的化合物。其中沙奎那韦 (Saquinavir)、溴隐亭 (Bromocriptine)、黄芩苷 (Baicalein) 以及金丝桃素 (Hypericin) 能同时作用于NSP14蛋白上述两个重要功能域。该结果提示已知抗HIV药物-Saquinavir以及中药抗病毒重要活性成分-黄芩苷以及金丝桃素,可能以2019-nCoV-NSP14蛋白为靶标,发挥抗病毒效应,可作为抗2019-nCov候选药物进行下一步研究。

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits182Downloads64 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202002.00066 [pdf]

新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情的动力学分析和预测

诸葛昌靖; 张东艳; 杨武岳; 彭梁榕; 洪柳
Subjects: Mathematics >> Modeling and Simulation

基于经典动力学模型和模型参数自动优化算法, 本文分析了全国当前累计确诊感染病例数大于100(截止到2020年2月16日)的24个省市自治区, 以及湖北省除神农架以外的16个地市从2020年1月20日至2月16日的累计确诊病例数, 并对相应省市地区疫情可能的结束时间和总感染人数的进行了长期预测. 我们的研究表明, 在目前严防严控措施下, 全国大部分省市的疫情将于2月底前基本结束, 而湖北省内疫情也有望于3月中旬结束, 但是武汉市的疫情可能要持续到4月初. 通过对比公开数据与预测值, 我们建议加强对黑龙江、河北、江西、安徽、贵州和四川六省, 以及湖北省内武汉、荆州、鄂州、随州、天门和恩施六个地市的的监控, 以防疫情死灰复燃. 此外, 分析结果提示, 在疫情发展前期, 天津、河北、重庆、四川、海南和广西等省, 以及湖北省下辖多个地市可能存在着聚集性感染, 这有待于疫后进一步的流行病学调查确认.

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits515Downloads239 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202002.00064 [pdf]

有志者,事竟成:内在动机倾向、创意质量与创意实施

董念念; 王雪莉
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

本研究基于自我决定理论和耶鲁态度改变理论,以创意提出者的内在动机倾向为起点,探索其对创意质量的影响,创意质量和创意提出者所获奖励进一步影响了创意实施,纵向追踪创意从提出到实施的创新历程。针对251份多时点、多来源配对数据的分析结果表明:(1)创意提出者的内在动机倾向积极预测创意质量;(2)创意质量对创意实施有显著的正向影响;(3)创意提出者所获奖励积极预测创意实施;(4)创意质量和创意提出者所获奖励交互影响创意实施:对于低奖励的创意提出者而言,创意质量对创意实施的正向影响更加强烈。以上研究发现弥合了创造力领域和创意实施领域的理论分野,对企业创新管理实践有较强的启发。

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits89Downloads27 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202002.00070 [pdf]

Towards an effective mRNA vaccine against 2019-nCoV: demonstration of virus-like particles expressed from a modified mRNA cocktail

Xia, Jia; Lu, Guoliang; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Jiahui; Feng, Lin; Wang, Bing; Yu, Hang; Xu, Yingjie; Lin, Jinzhong
Subjects: Biology >> Virology

Frequent outbreaks of coronavirus make the development of an effective vaccine imperative. Recently, vaccines based on in-vitro transcribed messenger RNA (mRNA) have shown great potential. The streamlined manufacturing of mRNA molecules, combined with the superior flexibility in the antigen screening, greatly accelerates the development process. When using an mRNA platform to develop a vaccine, initial antigen choice plays a crucial role in determining the final efficacy and safety of the vaccine. Furthermore, mRNA sequences that encode antigens require extensive optimization to ensure highly efficient and sustained expression. Our ongoing efforts to develop an effective mRNA vaccine against 2019-nCoV place emphasis on the virus-like particles (VLPs) as the presenting antigen. At the same time, our second fast track uses mRNA to express the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein(S-RBD). After extensive optimization, an mRNA cocktail containing three genes is able to produce 2019-nCoV virus-like particles highly similar to the native 2019-nCoV. Meanwhile, an mRNA vaccine candidate expressing S-RBD is being tested in mice for its immunogenicity. We will next compare both the efficacy and the safety of the two mRNA vaccines based on S-RBD and VLPs, respectively.

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits129Downloads22 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202002.00068 [pdf]

现代精准芳疗在特种医学中的应用前景

李岳秦; 朱月星; 全源; 熊江辉
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Military Medicine and Special Medicine

特种医学是运用医学科学的基本原理和技术方法,解决包括航空与航天医学、航海与潜水医学、高原医学、深井医学、职业病学等领域涉及到的特殊医学问题。它是一个由任务驱动的医学领域,具有条件严苛、时间紧、任务强的特点,特殊环境会引起心理、生理等多种问题,由此衍生出新的医学保障需求。芳香疗法是一种有别于传统药物治疗的自然疗法,具有渗透性好、代谢快、不滞留、毒性小等特点,天然芳香分子能够透过血脑屏障直接刺激嗅觉神经快速调节脑功能以达到释放情绪、改善认知、促进人体健康目的。本文提出的现代精准芳香科技能够继承传统芳香疗法的优势,并弥补其不足,能够为科学化、精准化地解决特种医学领域所面临的多种问题提供创新解决方案,在满足特种医学需求的同时,为芳香疗法、芳香中药的应用提供更多的可能性。

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits118Downloads34 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202002.00069 [pdf]

新冠病毒独立自然连续传播系统的建立及简单模型验证.pdf

王基庆; 李志国
Subjects: Physics >> Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology

由于春运出湖北省高峰和全国各地管控开始之间的时间差,使得在这个时间段内,除湖北外的国内地区是个输入一代到感染二代之间独立自然连续传播体系。基于此,我们使用正态分布的线性叠加来拟合全国除湖北外每日新增的数据,简单模型预测和实际新增结果的高度吻合验证了除湖北外是个近似理想系统。拟合计算得到的新冠病毒可再生系数R0=2.2,一代到二代的峰值传播时间是7天。我们还讨论了偏离理想传播体系的原因并分析了一些省的特殊情况。

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits101Downloads34 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202002.00063 [pdf]

Perspectives on Active Preventive Measures of Wuhan People against COVID-19 Epidemic at Home: A Comparative Study

zhidong,Xue; Lei,Zhao; Tailang,Yin; Yan,Fu; Zehua,Lyu; yiping,Dang; Yujiang,Zeng; Silou,Huang; Bing,Qu; Hongya,Lyu; Chen,Huang; Zhiyou,Kong; Kepei,Xu; Feipeng,Zhou; Hexun,Dong; He,Hu; Jing,Tang; Senyuan,Xue; Zhixiang,Fang; Jinxiang,Lu
Subjects: Computer Science >> Computer Application Technology

Background:The COVID-19 Epidemic emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Ever since Wuhan lockdown on January 23rd, mass quarantines were exercised on Wuhan and other epidemic areas of China. We aimed to clarify how ordinary Wuhan people defend against COVID-19 epidemic at home through the Internet survey. Methods:A questionnaire survey, consisting of 30 questions were posted on the Internet. The following aspects were investigated: household preventive measures, self-monitoring of discomfort symptoms, immunity boosting against the epidemic, frequency and reasons of outgoing and mental status of the isolated people. The questionnaire was circulated on Wechat. We marked the areas based on the surveyed network IP addresses and categorized respondents into group A(Wuhan), B(Hubei Province excluding Wuhan ), C, and D based on the epidemic severity of their areas announced by Baidu.com at 17:00 on February 8, 2020. And a comparative study was conducted to illustrate how Wuhan people took the anti-COVID-19 strategies and how efficient these preventive measures were. Findings:In terms of discomfort symptoms, Wuhan, as Group A, had the lowest asymptomatic percentages (70.2%), compared to the average 78.5% (±7%). Considering the three typical symptoms for the COVID-19, i.e., cough, fever and fatigue, Wuhan (9.67%) greatly deviated from the average (7.68%). The fatigue was the most significant factor in the deviation, exceeding the average by 1.35%. In terms of household protection measures, most people or families were able to take effective protection measures with very low frequency of going out, but the percentage of those who took this practice was obviously smaller in Wuhan and Hubei Province. From the aspect of going out, most of the people in Wuhan only went out for shopping and work, with a small number of people for social gathering. In terms of immunity boosting, compared with Group C and D, it was relatively lower in Wuhan. Overall, most people chose to enhance their immunity through regular schedule, exercise, sufficient nutrition. Only 33.44% of people in Group A did not go out, and 59.97% had to go out for living supplies, which was the highest level among the four groups. However, the percentage of people who went out for work and unnecessary activities remains the lowest while 1% of the population went out for public welfare activities, higher than other groups. Worry about the family health topped all the parameters for all the groups. Among them, Wuhan has reached a maximum of 49.61%, higher than the average level of 36.62% (± 10.69%). Mental status except for feeling bored and lonely were the highest in Wuhan. Suggestions:When the epidemic prevention and control is still in a sticky state, and Wuhan started a stricter control measure, the closed management of communities, on Feb 11, 2020, it is expected that our findings can provide some insights into the current household preventive actions and arouse more attentions of the public to some ignored preventive precautions. Unnecessary outgoing should be strictly abandoned. Regular schedule, exercises and nutrition were the top 3 measures participants would choose to enhance their own immunity system. It seems that people in Wuhan would choose nutrition and regular scheduler rather than exercises as the primary immunity-boosting ways. Exercise should be especially advocated as an effective way to enhance the immunity system. In terms of physical condition, people in Wuhan should take more active measures when symptoms occurred. The mentality is also an important aspect requiring intensive attention with the conduct of stricter control management in Wuhan while the rest groups gradually resume to work and ordinary life.

submitted time 2020-02-24 Hits287Downloads66 Comment 0

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