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1. chinaXiv:201910.00042 [pdf]

急性应激损伤错误监控与错误后调整

胡娜; 陈安涛; 王宴庆; 李晴; 许珍珍; 龙泉杉
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

生活中,个体会时时关注自己的行为结果并及时做出调整以适应环境的变化。但在应激下个体能否有效地监控行为并做出适应性调整依然未知。本研究招募了52名男性大学生被试,将其随机分入应激组与控制组,采用特里尔社会应激测试(Trier Social Stress Test, TSST)诱发个体的应激反应,并结合错误意识任务(error awareness task,EAT)探索个体急性应激下的错误监控与错误后调整过程。应激指标的结果显示应激组个体在应激状态下的皮质醇、心率、应激感知自我报告和负性情绪均显著高于控制组,表明急性应激的诱发是成功的。行为结果显示应激组的错误意识正确率显著低于控制组,错误意识反应时显著短于控制组;进一步地,应激组个体在意识到错误之后的试次上正确率显著低于未意识到错误之后的试次,并且应激组个体在意识到错误之后的试次上正确率低于控制组。结果表明急性应激降低了个体对错误反应的监控水平,即便在辨别出错误反应的情况下,个体的行为监控与调节也更差。本研究说明急性应激会损伤行为监控系统,导致个体的行为适应性下降。

submitted time 2019-10-16 Hits1195Downloads57 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201910.00027 [pdf]

汉语普通话声调感知的老年化效应:来自ERP的证据

肖容; 梁丹丹; 李善鹏
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

研究考察汉语普通话老年人前注意阶段声调感知状况,探究是否存在领域特殊的老年化。运用事件相关电位技术,采用被动oddball范式诱发MMN回应,控制领域一般性因素的影响。结果显示涉及范畴变化的声调和非语音音调诱发MMN强度衰减,不涉及范畴变化的声调诱发MMN强度未衰退。研究结果表明在前注意阶段,在特定汉语普通话声调范畴知识加工能力上存在领域特殊的衰退,而不涉及母语音位知识的声调的感知存在领域特殊的一定程度的保留,这一保留与时间维度上补偿机制的调用有关。受补偿机制调节,语言加工呈现出衰退或保留等不同的老年化进程。

submitted time 2019-10-10 Hits1469Downloads62 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201909.00140 [pdf]

心理宣泄究竟是有益还是有害? ——宣泄的心理干预效果及潜在危害

詹鋆; 徐宏飞; 任俊; 罗劲
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

宣泄经典理论认为,发泄能够有效地缓解愤怒情绪和攻击冲动,然而,直接宣泄、间接宣泄及目标宣泄对攻击性影响的大量实验研究揭示了宣泄的潜在危害性及其作用机制,宣泄不但不能降低愤怒反而会通过认知加工等因素提升攻击性。尽管如此,大众仍青睐于宣泄这种看似便捷的情绪调节方式,如宣泄设备已成为心理咨询机构的标准配置。这不仅反映了人们对心理宣泄的片面认知,更折射出了目前我国社会心理服务体系建设缺乏科学化和规范化。未来研究应重视,普遍使用宣泄设备作为现代心理干预手段可能存在的问题与解决路径。

submitted time 2019-09-14 Hits1988Downloads119 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201903.00189 [pdf]

高善良特质在情绪调节行动控制中的内隐优势

孙俊才; 寻凤娇; 刘萍; 张文海
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

基于善良特质在中国人人格修养中的重要价值,本研究以情绪调节的行动控制理论为模型参照,设计了三项行为实验检验善良特质的导向性与内隐情绪调节的关系。研究1采用Stroop任务,比较高低善良被试判断人际关系词颜色时是否受到色词内容的干扰,结果发现,高(vs.低)善良被试对人际关系积极词更敏感;研究2采用情绪调节内隐联想测验任务比较高低善良被试的情绪调节内隐态度差异,结果发现高(vs.低)善良被试更倾向于采用控制型情绪调节方式调节情绪;研究3在诱发被试负性情绪条件下,采用面孔表情视觉搜索任务间接考察高低善良被试在内隐情绪修复效果上的差异,结果显示高(vs.低)善良被试搜索愤怒背景下高兴面孔的速度更快。三项实验结果一致地表明,高善良特质利他重感情的行动目的性在情绪调节的行动控制中具有内隐优势,对积极的心理健康起促进作用。

submitted time 2019-03-13 Hits2832Downloads368 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201903.00169 [pdf]

视觉工作记忆负载类型对注意选择的影响

李寿欣; 车晓玮; 李彦佼; 王丽; 陈恺盛
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

通过操纵Flanker任务相对于视觉工作记忆任务的呈现位置,探讨在视觉工作记忆编码和保持阶段,精度负载和容量负载对注意选择的影响。行为结果发现,Flanker任务呈现位置和视觉工作记忆负载类型影响注意选择;ERP结果发现,在保持阶段,当搜索目标和干扰项不一致时,负载类型影响N2成分。研究表明,在编码阶段,视觉工作记忆负载主要通过占用更多知觉资源降低干扰效应,支持知觉负载理论;而在保持阶段,当Flanker任务位于记忆项内部时,两类负载在工作记忆表征过程中不同的神经活动导致投入到注意选择的认知控制资源不同,可能是两类负载影响保持阶段注意选择的机制。

submitted time 2019-03-08 Hits2503Downloads390 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201901.00102 [pdf]

第三方惩罚的神经机制:来自经颅直流电刺激的证据

殷西乐; 李建标; 陈思宇; 刘晓丽; 郝洁
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

第三方惩罚既是社会规范在群体得以维系的基石,也是个体维护社会规范的体现。当前关注社会规范的神经研究大多基于第二方惩罚的独裁者或最后通牒实验框架,缺乏对第三方维护社会规范过程中相关脑区活动的探索,对这一过程的内在神经机制也不清楚。本文基于第三方惩罚的独裁者博弈框架,对右侧背外侧前额叶区域(DLPFC)进行不同极性的经颅直流电刺激(tDCS),同时依据第三方是否需要为其惩罚付出成本设计了零成本和有成本两个实验任务。结果发现,第三方在零成本任务的情绪反应和惩罚显著受到tDCS设置的影响,且阴极刺激显著提升了第三方的惩罚值,这表明情绪机制对第三方惩罚有着重要影响。另外,第三方在零成本和有成本任务中的惩罚差异在不同tDCS设置之间也存在显著差异,这与第三方惩罚还受到自利机制影响的观点相符。本文率先为右侧DLPFC活动影响第三方惩罚提供了神经层面的证据,且支持了第三方对社会规范的遵从与其负性情绪反应和自利加工密切相关的机制解释。

submitted time 2019-01-14 Hits2690Downloads397 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201801.00701 [pdf]

唤醒度对自我优势的调节

钱浩悦; 王治国; 李超; 高湘萍
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

最近的研究表明自我偏向被情绪状态所调节。但是,这种调节背后的原因是效价还是唤醒度还不清楚。在实验1中,我们测了四种情绪下的自我偏向效应大小。结果显示,在高唤醒度条件下自我偏向较高,且自我偏向与唤醒度成正比。实验2的结果显示,警觉线索的出现会提高唤醒度,进而提升自我偏向效应。这些结果表明唤醒度能够调节自我偏向性加工。

submitted time 2018-01-12 Hits5208Downloads1164 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201711.00278 [pdf]

PRN: a preprint service for catalyzing R-fMRI and neuroscience related studies

Chao-Ganyan; Qingyang Li; Lei Gao
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

Sharing drafts of scientific manuscripts on preprint hosting services for early exposure and pre-publication feedback is a well-accepted practice in fields such as physics, astronomy, or mathematics. The field of neuroscience, however, has yet to adopt the preprint model. A reason for this reluctance might partly be the lack of central preprint services for the field of neuroscience. To address this issue, we announce the launch of Preprints of the R-fMRI Network (PRN), a community funded preprint hosting service. PRN provides free-submission and free hosting of manuscripts for resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) and neuroscience related studies. Submissions will be peer viewed and receive feedback from readers and a panel of invited consultants of the R-fMRI Network. All manuscripts and feedback will be freely available online with citable permanent URL for open-access. The goal of PRN is to supplement the “peer reviewed” journal publication system – by more rapidly communicating the latest research achievements throughout the world. We hope PRN will help the field to embrace the preprint model and thus further accelerate R-fMRI and neuroscience related studies, eventually enhancing human mental health.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits2930Downloads922 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201711.00274 [pdf]

Concordance Among Indices of Intrinsic Brain Function:Inter-Individual Variation and Temporal Dynamics Perspectives

Chao-Gan Yan; Zhen Yang; Stanley J. Colcombe; Xi-Nian Zuo; Michael P. Milham
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

Various resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures have been developed to characterize intrinsic brain activity. While each of these measures has gained a growing presence in the literature, questions remain regarding the common and unique aspects these indices capture. The present work provided a comprehensive examination of inter-individual variation and intra-individual temporal variation for commonly used measures, including fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, regional homogeneity, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity, network centrality and global signal correlation. Regardless of whether examining intra-individual or inter-individual variation, we found that these definitionally distinct R-fMRI indices tend to exhibit a relatively high degree of covariation. When taken as a measure of intrinsic brain function, inter-individual differences in concordance for R-fMRI indices appeared to be stable, and negatively related to age (i.e., functional concordance among indices decreases with age). To understand the functional significance of concordance, we noted that higher concordance was generally associated with higher strengths of R-fMRI indices, regardless of whether looking through the lens of inter-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance participants) or intra-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance states identified via temporal dynamic analyses) differences. Finally, temporal dynamics analyses also revealed that high concordance states are characterized by increased within- and between-network functional connectivity, suggesting more general variations in network integration and segregation. The current study draws attention to questions regarding how to select an R-fMRI index for usage in a given study, as well as how to compare findings across studies that examine inter-individual or group differences using different indices. Additionally, our work suggests global neural signals exist in the brain, and their spontaneous variations over time result in fluctuations in the connectedness of brain regions.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits3254Downloads974 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201710.00010 [pdf]

Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP)i: Growing Up in China

Ning Yang; Ye He; Zhe Zhang; Hao-Ming Dong; Lei Zhang; Xing-Ting Zhu; Xiao-Hui Hou; Yin-Shan Wang; Quan Zhou; Zhu-QingGong; Li-Zhi Cao; Ping Wang; Yi-Wen Zhang; Dan-Yang Sui; TingXu1; Gao-Xia Wei; Zhi Yang; Lili Jiang; Hui-Jie Li; Ting-YongFeng
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

Abstract: To face the challenges of keeping healthy in increasing population sizes of both ageing and developing people in China, a fundamental request from the public health is the development of lifespan normative trajectories of brain and behavior. This paper introduces the Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP 2013–2022), a large-scale tenyear program of modeling brain and behavioral trajectories for human lifespan (6–85 years old). We plan to gradually collect the behavioral and brain imaging data at ages across the lifespan on nationwide and depict the normal trajectory of Chinese brain development across the lifespan, based on the accelerated longitudinal design in the coming next 10 years starting at 2013. Various psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated highly relevant to abnormal events during the neurodevelopment regarding their onset ages of first episodes. Therefore, delineation of normative growth curves of brain and cognition in typically developing children is extremely useful for monitoring, early detecting and intervention of various neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we detailed the developing part of CCNP, devCCNP. It tracked 192 healthy children and adolescents (6–18 years old) in Beibei district of Chongqing for the first 5 years of the full CCNP cohort (2013–2017). To demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the longterm follow-up of CCNP, we here comprehensively document devCCNP in terms of its experimental design, sample strategies, data acquisition and storage as well as some preliminary results and data sharing roadmap for future. Specifically, we first describe the accelerated longitudinal sampling design as well as its exact ratio of sample dropping off during the data collection. Second, we present several initial findings such as canonical growth curves of cortical surface areas of a set of well-established large-scale functional networks of the human brain. Finally, together with records generated by many psychological and behavioral tests, we will provide an individual growing-up report for each family participating the program, initiating the potential guidance on the individual academic and social development. The resources introduced in the current work can provide first-hand data for a series of coming Chinese brain development studies, such as Chinese Standard MRI Brain Templates, Normative Growth Curves of Chinese Brain and Cognition as well as Mapping of Language Areas in Chinese Developing Brain. These would not only offer normative references of the atypical brain and cognition development for Chinese population but also serve as a strong force on accelerating the pace of integrating Chinese brain development into the national brain program or Chinese Brain Project.

submitted time 2017-10-13 Hits3842Downloads1103 Comment 0

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