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1. chinaXiv:201908.00119 [pdf]

New gobiconodontid (Eutriconodonta, Mammalia) from the Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations, Liaoning, China

KUSUHASHI Nao; WANG Yuan-Qing;  LI Chuan-Kui; JIN Xun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Eutriconodontans are one of the key members of mammals to our understanding of the evolution and transition of mammalian fauna in Asia during the Cretaceous. Two gobiconodontid and two triconodontid species have previously been reported from the upper Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations. Here we describe two additional eutriconodontans from the formations, Fuxinoconodon changi gen. et sp. nov. and ?Gobiconodontidae gen. et sp. indet. This new species is attributed to the Gobiconodontidae, characterized by having an enlarged first lower incisor, reduction in the number of incisors and premolariforms, proportionally large cusps b and c being well distant from cusp a on the molariforms, presence of a labial cingulid, and a unique mixed combination of molariform characters seen on either the first or the second, but not both, generations of molariforms in Gobiconodon. Together with the four known species, eutriconodontans remained diverse to some extent in the late Early Cretaceous in Asia, although their family-level and generic level diversity appears to have been already reduced at that time.

submitted time 2019-08-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits23Downloads10 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201908.00120 [pdf]

New gobiconodontid (Eutriconodonta, Mammalia) from the Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations, Liaoning, China

KUSUHASHI Nao; WANG Yuan-Qing;  LI Chuan-Kui; JIN Xun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Eutriconodontans are one of the key members of mammals to our understanding of the evolution and transition of mammalian fauna in Asia during the Cretaceous. Two gobiconodontid and two triconodontid species have previously been reported from the upper Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations. Here we describe two additional eutriconodontans from the formations, Fuxinoconodon changi gen. et sp. nov. and ?Gobiconodontidae gen. et sp. indet. This new species is attributed to the Gobiconodontidae, characterized by having an enlarged first lower incisor, reduction in the number of incisors and premolariforms, proportionally large cusps b and c being well distant from cusp a on the molariforms, presence of a labial cingulid, and a unique mixed combination of molariform characters seen on either the first or the second, but not both, generations of molariforms in Gobiconodon. Together with the four known species, eutriconodontans remained diverse to some extent in the late Early Cretaceous in Asia, although their family-level and generic level diversity appears to have been already reduced at that time.

submitted time 2019-08-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits24Downloads9 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201802.00746 [pdf]

Reappraisal of Endotherium niinomii Shikama, 1947, a eutherian mammal from the Lower Cretaceous Fuxin Formation, Fuxin-Jinzhou Basin, Liaoning, China

WANG Yuan-Qing; KUSUHASHI Nao; JIN Xun; LI Chuan-Kui; SETOGUCHI Takeshi; GAO Chun-Ling; LIU Jin-Yuan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Reinvestigation of the Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal Endotherium niinomii Shikama, 1947, based on the impressions of the type specimen, casts made from the impressions, and the original description, indicates that E. niinomii is characterized by the following characters: decrease in size from the m1 to the m3; a moderate height difference between the trigonid and talonid of lower molars; blunt lower molar cusps; the protoconid being the largest among the trigonid cusps; the paraconid being as tall as the metaconid; the p3 not being obviously reduced; and possible possession of five lower premolars. These characteristics clearly distinguish E. niinomii from other known Cretaceous eutherians, and support its taxonomic identity as a valid taxon.

submitted time 2018-02-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3959Downloads720 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201801.00584 [pdf]

Postcranial morphology of Middle Eocene deperetellid Teleolophus (Perissodactyla, Tapiroidea) from Shara Murun region of the Erlian Basin, Nei Mongol, China

BAI Bin; WANG Yuan-Qing; MENG Jin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Deperetellidae are a group of common, endemic Asian Middle Eocene tapiroids. Although five genera within the family have been named, most of them were represented by fragmentary maxillae and mandibles except for some skeletal material of Deperetella. Based exclusively on dental characters, different authors have proposed affinities of deperetellids with, for instance, helaletid Colodon, lophialetids, or rhodopagids. Here we described the partial postcranial skeleton of Teleolophus medius? recently discovered at Wulanhuxiu (=Ulan Shireh) of the Erlian Basin, China, and compared the postcranial skeletons of Teleolophus with those of Lophialetes, Deperetella, Heptodon, Helaletes, and Colodon. The postcranial skeleton of Teleolophus shares many similarities with that of Deperetella especially in having elongated and slender limbs, a relatively long, narrow lunar with a slightly concave medial border of the radial facet, a magnum with an anteriorly situated hump and a deeply excavated Mc IV facet, Mc II not elevated above Mc III, a slightly asymmetric trochlea of the femur, a fibula highly reduced or even fused with a tibia, Mt III contacting the cuboid, Mt II in contact with ectocuneiform only on the posterior end, and the manus and pes with functional tridactyls. These similarities support the close relationship between Teleolophus and Deperetella. We interpreted some similarities of postcrania between Teleolophus and Lophialetes as a result of parallel evolution, due to their cursorial adaptations. Colodon is more similar to Heptodon than to Teleolophus in the postcranial features, suggesting a close relationship between Colodon and Heptodon. Whether or not Helaletidae and Deperetellidae are closely related await further investigation. Both morphological characters and ternary diagram indicate that Teleolophus adapted to fast running, as its contemporary Lophialetes.

submitted time 2018-01-25 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3769Downloads860 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201711.01893 [pdf]

Dentition of Subengius mengi (Mammalia: Plesiadapoidea) and a reassessment of the phylogenetic relationships of Asian Carpolestidae

K. Christopher BEARD; NI Xi-Jun; WANG Yuan-Qing; MENG Jin; Daniel L. GEBO
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

New fossils pertaining to the oldest known Asian plesiadapiform, the Gashatan carpolestid Subengius mengi, clarify aspects of the dental anatomy of this taxon. The dentition of S. mengi is substantially more primitive than previously recognized in retaining a lower dental formula of 2.1.3.3, a low-crowned p4 with three main cusps that are less fully connate than their counterparts in species of Elphidotarsius, P3 with a narrower and structurally simpler lingual margin, and in lacking widely splayed paraconid and metaconid on m1. The unique structure of P3 in S. mengi and a reassessment of P3 anatomy in Elphidotarsius sp., cf. E. florencae, suggest that certain cusp homologies on P3 in Carpolestidae have been misinterpreted in the past. Following a detailed character analysis, the phylogenetic relationships of carpolestids and their close relatives are reconstructed. The Bumbanian taxon Chronolestes simul is recovered as the most basal member of Carpolestidae. S. mengi and a second Bumbanian taxon, Carpocristes oriens, also appear to be relatively basal members of the carpolestid radiation, although none of these Asian carpolestid taxa seems to be specially related to each other. Dispersal of carpolestids between Asia and North America appears to have been restricted to earlier parts of the Paleocene, although carpolestids survived on both continents until sometime near the Paleocene–Eocene boundary.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1065Downloads266 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201711.01894 [pdf]

The incisor enamel microstructure of Mina hui (Mammalia, Glires) and its implication for the taxonomy of basal Glires

MAO Fang-Yuan; LI Chuan-Kui; WANG Yuan-Qing; LI Qian; MENG Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The incisor enamel microstructure of Mina hui Li et al., 2016 from the upper Wanghudun Formation, Middle Paleogene of Qianshan, Anhui is described following the hierarchical system ranging from crystallites to Schmelzmuster. The enamel sample was taken from the upper incisor of the holotype. The enamel consists of a very thin prismless external layer, a relatively thick outer layer (PE) with radial enamel and an inner layer (PI) with multilayered Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB). The thickness of HSB is irregular and the inclination has a small angle; no transition zones between the HSB; prism cross sections are irregularly round; interprismatic matrix is very thick with crystallites in the PE running parallel to the prism long axes. These characters resemble pauciserial HSB in rodents. Ribbon-like prism seams and convergent crystallite discontinuities are consistent in different portions of the enamel, which are interpreted as a primitive feature for Glires, or even placental mammals. Compared with known enamel structure of basal Glires, the enamel of Mina stands for the earliest known evidence of double-layered enamel of the group. It indicates that the early evolution of Glires and placental mammals is complex and adds more details to the enamel microstructure of the earliest Glires.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits996Downloads294 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201711.01898 [pdf]

A new mimotonidan Mina hui (Mammalia, Glires) from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui, China

LI Chuan-Kui; WANG Yuan-Qing; ZHANG Zhao-Qun; MAO Fang-Yuan1MENG Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Here we report a new genus and species, Mina hui gen. et sp. nov., of basal Glires from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui, China. The new taxon is characterized by combination of the following characters: medium-sized mimotonidan; upper dental formula 2.0.3.3; d I2 transversely narrow and having smooth labial surface without longitudinal groove; M1 the largest cheek tooth and other cheek teeth decreasing in size considerably away from M1 so that the external margin of the upper cheek tooth row is distinctly arched labially; lingual side of upper molars unilaterally hypsodont and bearing no hypostria; hypocone being slightly distolingual to protocone; presence of a mesostyle; upper incisor with double-layered enamel structure; posterior border of anterior root of zygoma situated lateral to M1–2 and infraorbital foramen positioned low. M. hui is one of the earliest known Glires, co-existing with Heomys and Mimotona in Qianshan geographically and Middle Paleocene (ca. 61 Ma) chronologically. We consider that the Mimotonida would include two families: the monotypic Mimotonidae that contains Mimotona and Mimolagidae that includes Mimolagus, Gomphos, Anatolimys, Mina and possibly Amar aleator. Among known mimotonidans, Mimotona probably represents a primitive “morphotype” as the ancestor of lagomorphs, whereas Mimolagidae includes a side branch diverged from the clade evolved toward lagomorphs. Future research may show that Mimolagidae is not a natural group, and may possibly submerge into Mimotonida, or involve more than one family-level clade. The occurrence of Heomys, Mimotona and Mina from Qianshan show that Glires had already diversified by the Middle Paleocene.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits942Downloads274 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201711.01899 [pdf]

A synopsis of Paleocene stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology in the Qianshan Basin, Anhui, China

WANG Yuan-Qing; LI Chuan-Kui; LI Qian; LI Ding-Sheng
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The Mesozoic and Cenozoic redbeds in the Qianshan Basin comprise a set of monocline clastic rocks and are subdivided into the Late Cretaceous Gaohebu Formation, the Paleocene Wanghudun Formation (including the Lower, Middle, and Upper members) and Doumu Formation (including the Lower and Upper members). Continuous investigations in the Qianshan Basin since 1970 have resulted in discovery of a lot of vertebrate specimens. Up to date, 61 species (including 9 unnamed ones) in 45 genera of vertebrates, representing reptiles, birds and mammals, have been reported from the Paleocene of the Qianshan Basin. Among them, mammals are most diverse and have been classified into 46 species (7 unnamed) of 33 genera, representing 16 families in 10 orders. According to their stratigraphic occurrence, seven fossiliferous horizons can be recognized in the Qianshan Paleocene. Based on the evidence of mammalian biostratigraphy, the strata from the Lower Member through the lower part of the Upper Member of Wanghudun Formation could be roughly correlated to the Shanghu Formation of the Nanxiong Basin (Guangdong Province) and the Shizikou Formation of the Chijiang Basin (Jiangxi Province), corresponding to the Shanghuan Asian Land Mammal Age (ALMA). Both the upper part of the Upper Member of Wanghudun Formation and the Doumu Formation could be correlated to the Nongshan Formation of the Nanxiong Basin and the Chijiang Formation of the Chijiang Basin, corresponding to the Nongshanian ALMA. Paleomagnetic results from several Chinese Paleocene basins suggest that the Shanghuan is roughly correlative to the Puercan and Torrejonian North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA), while the Nongshanian correlative to the early to middle Tiffanian (Ti1–4a). The Shanghuan and the Nongshanian are probably correlated to the Danian and the Selandian of the Global Geologic Time Scale. Therefore, all the fossil vertebrates collected in the Qianshan Basin are the Early and Middle Paleocene in age.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits912Downloads300 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201711.01906 [pdf]

Presence of the calcaneal canal in basal Glires

ZHANG Zhao-Qun; LI Chuan-Kui; WANG Jian; WANG Yuan-Qing; MENG Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

A unique canal (calcaneal canal) running diagonally through the calcaneus was commonly considered as characteristic for lagomorphs, both extant and fossil, but absent in rodents and other pertinent lagomorph relatives. However, our investigation of a calcaneus from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui Province and specimens previously grouped in Mimotonidae also shows presence of canals on calcaneus bones. To further explore the unique character, we scanned calcanei of Ordolagus, Mimolagus, Gomphos, Rhombomylus, and Oryctolagus using micro CT and investigated the calcanei of some other related taxa under microscope. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the calcanei based on CT data of these taxa confirmed the presence of apertures traversing the large medullary cavity. The diagonally oriented calcaneal canal is present not only in lagomorphs, but also in non-lagomorph duplicidentates, such as Mimotona, Gomophos, and simplicidentates, such as Rhombomylus, though smaller in size. Hence, the presence of calcaneal canal may be one of the synapomophic characters for Glires, not only for the order Lagomorpha. The shared calcaneus character confirms the close relationship between Simplicidentata and Duplicidentata.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits608Downloads230 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201709.00122 [pdf]

Introduction to terminologies of tooth enamel microstructures and a proposal for their standard Chinese translations

MAO Fang-Yuan; LI Chuan-Kui; MENG Jin; LI Qian; BAI Bin; WANG Yuan-Qing; ZHANG Zhao-Qun; ZHAO Ling-Xia; WANG Ban-Yue
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Tooth enamel is composed of elongated, hexagonal crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Some crystallites are arranged into various regual structures and futher formed a composite structure in a hierarchical manner. The hierarchical system can provide a basis for analysis different levels of structural complexity from varitaiton of particular crystallite strucutes to variation of structural types throughout a individual’s dentition. The size, orientation, distribution and the packing patterns of crystallites are gene-comtrolled and have limited range of intraspecific variability. Thus, these microstructures provide considerable and reliable morphological characters that help understanding of external dental morphology in context of both phylogeny and function in vertebrates. Because teeth are highly resistant to weathering, mainly owing to their enamel covering, so that they were commonly preserved as fossils. This organic system, particularly their microstructures, has attracted more and more attention from vertebrate paleontologists and other morphologists. However, as already recognized by many previous studies, some terminologies of the enamel microstructures have been complex and used inconsistently. Although considerable effort has been made to study enamel microstructures in China during the last few decades, a standard terminology of enamel microstructures in Chinese has not be formally brought into line with that in English literatures. Here we intend to introduce and systematize the relevant terminology used in the study of enamel microstructures and translate them into Chinese, in hoping that this systematic effort will enhance researches of enamel microstructures in China. 脊椎动物牙齿釉质显微结构具丰富的形态学特征,承载着系统发育和生物力学等方面的信息。本文在前人的研究基础上,试图系统地介绍牙釉质显微结构的基本内容,提出牙釉质研究中相关术语的中文译名建议,并对一些重要术语做了简要解释,供相关研究者参考,以期促进牙釉质显微结构研究的进一步发展。

submitted time 2017-09-28 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3352Downloads924 Comment 0

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